Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by many types of people and organized groups, including individuals in the private sector, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district. Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential; the ethics and morals involved with lobbying are complicated. Lobbying can, at times, be spoken of with contempt, when the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests.
When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the public good, can benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, a conflict of interest exists. Many critiques of lobbying point to the potential for conflicts of interest to lead to agent misdirection or the intentional failure of an agent with a duty to serve an employer, client, or constituent to perform those duties; the failure of government officials to serve the public interest as a consequence of lobbying by special interests who provide benefits to the official is an example of agent misdirection. In a report carried by the BBC, an OED lexicographer has shown that "lobbying" finds its roots in the gathering of Members of Parliament and peers in the hallways of the UK Houses of Parliament before and after parliamentary debates where members of the public can meet their representatives. One story held that the term originated at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC, where it was used by President Ulysses S. Grant to describe the political advocates who frequented the hotel's lobby to access Grant—who was there in the evenings to enjoy a cigar and brandy—and would try to buy the president drinks in an attempt to influence his political decisions.
Although the term may have gained more widespread currency in Washington, D. C. by virtue of this practice during the Grant Administration, the OED cites numerous documented uses of the word well before Grant's presidency, including use in Pennsylvania as early as 1808. The term "lobbying" appeared in print as early as 1820: Other letters from Washington affirm, that members of the Senate, when the compromise question was to be taken in the House, were not only "lobbying about the Representatives' Chamber" but active in endeavoring to intimidate certain weak representatives by insulting threats to dissolve the Union. Dictionary definitions:'Lobbying' is a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by the government by individuals or more by lobby groups. A'lobbyist' is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying as part of laws to prevent political corruption and by establishing transparency about possible influences by public lobby registers.
Lobby groups may concentrate their efforts on the legislatures, where laws are created, but may use the judicial branch to advance their causes. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for example, filed suits in state and federal courts in the 1950s to challenge segregation laws, their efforts resulted in the Supreme Court declaring such laws unconstitutional. Lobbyists may use a legal device known as amicus curiae briefs to try to influence court cases. Briefs are written documents filed with a court by parties to a lawsuit. Amici curiae briefs are briefs filed by groups who are not parties to a suit; these briefs are entered into the court records, give additional background on the matter being decided upon. Advocacy groups use these briefs both to promote their positions; the lobbying industry is affected by the revolving door concept, a movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and roles in the industries affected by legislation and regulation, as the main asset for a lobbyist is contacts with and influence on government officials.
This climate is attractive for ex-government officials. It can mean substantial monetary rewards for lobbying firms, government projects and contracts worth in the hundreds of millions for those they represent; the international standards for the regulation of lobbying were introduced at four international organizations and supranational associations: 1) the European Union. In pre-modern political systems, royal courts provided incidental opportunities for gaining the ear of monarchs and their councillors. Nowadays, lobying has taken a more drastic position as big corporations pressure politicians to help them gain more benefit. Lobying has become a big part of the world economy as big companies corrupt regulations. Kellogg School of Manag
Infanticide is the intentional killing of infants. Parental infanticide researchers have found that mothers are far more than fathers to be the perpetrators of neonaticide and more to commit infanticide in general. Anthropologist Laila Williamson notes that "Infanticide has been practiced on every continent and by people on every level of cultural complexity, from hunter gatherers to high civilizations, including our own ancestors. Rather than being an exception it has been the rule."In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible. The practice of infanticide has taken many forms over time. Child sacrifice to supernatural figures or forces, such as that believed to have been practiced in ancient Carthage, may be only the most notorious example in the ancient world. A frequent method of infanticide in ancient Europe and Asia was to abandon the infant, leaving it to die by exposure. On at least one island in Oceania, infanticide was carried out until the 20th century by suffocating the infant, while in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and in the Inca Empire it was carried out by sacrifice.
Many Neolithic groups resorted to infanticide in order to control their numbers so that their lands could support them. Joseph Birdsell believed that infanticide rates in prehistoric times were between 15% and 50% of the total number of births, while Laila Williamson estimated a lower rate ranging from 15% to 20%. Both anthropologists believed that these high rates of infanticide persisted until the development of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution. Comparative anthropologists have calculated that 50% of female newborn babies were killed by their parents during the Paleolithic era. From the infants hominid skulls, traumatized, has been proposed cannibalism by Raymond A. Dart; the children were not actively killed, but neglect and intentional malnourishment may have occurred, as proposed by Vicente Lull as an explanation for an apparent surplus of men and the below average height of women in prehistoric Menorca. Archaeologists have uncovered physical evidence of child sacrifice at several locations.
Some of the best attested examples are the diverse rites which were part of the religious practices in Mesoamerica and the Inca Empire. Three thousand bones of young children, with evidence of sacrificial rituals, have been found in Sardinia. Pelasgians offered a sacrifice of every tenth child during difficult times. Syrians sacrificed children to Juno. Many remains of children have been found in Gezer excavations with signs of sacrifice. Child skeletons with the marks of sacrifice have been found in Egypt dating 950–720 BCE. In Carthage " sacrifice in the ancient world reached its infamous zenith". Besides the Carthaginians, other Phoenicians, the Canaanites and Sepharvites offered their first-born as a sacrifice to their gods. In Egyptian households, at all social levels, children of both sexes were valued and there is no evidence of infanticide; the religion of the Ancient Egyptians forbade infanticide and during the Greco-Roman period they rescued abandoned babies from manure heaps, a common method of infanticide by Greeks or Romans, were allowed to either adopt them as foundling or raise them as slaves giving them names such as "copro -" to memorialise their rescue.
Strabo considered it a peculiarity of the Egyptians. Diodorus indicates. Egypt was dependent on the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate the land and in years of low inundation severe famine could occur with breakdowns in social order resulting, notably between 930–1070 AD and 1180–1350 AD. Instances of cannibalism are recorded during these periods but it is unknown if this happened during the pharaonic era of Ancient Egypt. Beatrix Midant-Reynes describes human sacrifice as having occurred at Abydos in the early dynastic period, while Jan Assmann asserts there is no clear evidence of human sacrifice happening in Ancient Egypt. According to Shelby Brown, descendants of the Phoenicians, sacrificed infants to their gods. Charred bones of hundreds of infants have been found in Carthaginian archaeological sites. One such area harbored as many as 20,000 burial urns. Skeptics suggest that the bodies of children found in Carthaginian and Phoenician cemeteries were the cremated remains of children that died naturally.
Plutarch mentions the practice, as do Tertullian, Diodorus Siculus and Philo. The Hebrew Bible mentions what appears to be child sacrifice practiced at a place called the Tophet by the Canaanites. Writing in the 3rd century BCE, one of the historians of Alexander the Great, described that the infants rolled into the flaming pit. Diodorus Siculus wrote that babies were roasted to death inside the burning pit of the god Baal Hamon, a bronze statue; the historical Greeks considered the practice of adult and child sacrifice barbarous, the exposure of newborns was practiced in ancient Greece, it was advocated by Aristotle in the case of congenital deformity — "As to the exposure of children, let there be a law that no deformed child shall live.” In Greece, the decision to expose a child was the father's, although in Sparta the decision was made by a group of elders. Exposure was the preferred method of disposal, as that act in itself was not considered to be murder; this situation was a recurring motif in Greek mythology.
To notify the n
Port of Long Beach
The Port of Long Beach known as the Harbor Department of the City of Long Beach, is the second-busiest container port in the United States, after the Port of Los Angeles, which it adjoins. Acting as a major gateway for US–Asian trade, the port occupies 3,200 acres of land with 25 miles of waterfront in the city of Long Beach, California; the Port of Long Beach is located less than two miles southwest of downtown Long Beach and 25 miles south of downtown Los Angeles. The seaport generates US$100 billion in trade and employs more than 316,000 people in Southern California; the San Pedro Breakwater was started in 1899 and over time was expanded to protect the current site of the Port of Long Beach. The Port of Long Beach was founded on 800 acres of mudflats on June 24, 1911, at the mouth of the Los Angeles River. In 1917, the first Board of Harbor Commissioners was formed to supervise harbor operations. Due to the booming economy, Long Beach voters approved a $5 million bond to improve the inner and outer harbor in 1924.
The old Municipal Pier was rebuilt into the Municipal Wharf in 1925. In 1925 construction started on Pier A and Pier B, with opening of Pier A in 1930. By 1926 more than one million tons of cargo were handled, additional piers were constructed to accommodate the growing business. In 1921, oil was discovered at the Long Beach Oil Field around Signal Hill. In 1932, the fourth-largest oil field in the United States, Wilmington Oil Field, was discovered; the hundreds of oil wells from Wilmington Oil Field provided oil revenues to the City and Port of Long Beach. The first offshore oil well in the harbor was brought online in 1937, shortly after the discovery that the oil field far extended into the harbor. In the mid-1930s, the port was expanded due to the need to transport oil to foreign markets, as the immense output of oil from the Los Angeles Basin caused a glut in US markets; the extraction of hundreds of millions of barrels of oil caused concern for subsidence, as the overlying land collapsed into the empty space over time.
Engineers and geologists were promptly assigned to the problem, building dikes for flood control at high tide. On July 3, 1930 the Federal River and Harbor Act authorizes expanding the San Pedro Bay breakwater by 3.5-mile completed in 1949. Long Beach became a home port for the United States Navy's Pacific Fleet in 1932. In 1940 the navy purchased 105 acres on Terminal Island built the Long Beach Naval Shipyard there. In 1946, after World War II, the Port of Long Beach was established as "America’s most modern port" with the completion of the first of nine clear-span transit sheds. Pier E was completed and Pier B was expanded to two times its size in 1949. Pierpoint Landing completed on Pier F in 1948. Concerns regarding subsidence increased until Operation "Big Squirt," a water injection program, halted any progression of sinking land in 1960. In 1971 Pier J expansion is complete with a 55-acre container and car import terminal, becoming Toyota's Western distribution center. In 1972 International Transportation Service completes a 52-acre container terminal on Pier J with a 1,200-foot wharf and two gantry cranes.
Maersk Line Pacific completes on Pier G a 29-acre container terminal. Port of Long Beach is the largest container terminal in America. With the rapid expansion of the port pollution increased; the Port of Long Beach instituted programs to prevent and control oil spills, contain debris, manage vessel traffic. Due to its efforts, the port was awarded the American Association of Port Authorities Environmental "E" Award. Long Beach is the first harbor in the Western Hemisphere to receive such an award. In 1980, with improved relations between the United States and China, the port sent officials to the People’s Republic of China for the first time. Less than a year the China Ocean Shipping Co. inaugurated international shipping and designated Long Beach as its first US port of call. Relationships were forged with other international powers, South Korea's Hanjin Shipping opened a 57-acre container terminal on Pier C of the port in 1991. Following this, COSCO, a Chinese international shipping carrier, secured business with the Port of Long Beach in 1997.
From the late 1990s through 2011, the Port of Long Beach saw increased traffic and growth with the leasing of terminals. In 1997 one million containers were inbound to the port. By 2005, this number had tripled to nearly 3.3 million containers. If outbound containers are included the number increased from 3 million containers in 1997 to nearly 6.7 million containers in 2005. In 2001 U. S. Navy closed its footprint at Port of Long Beach, the Navy transfers it last lot of land on Terminal Island to the Port of Long Beach; the shipyard was closed in 1997. The surge in vessel traffic and cargo prompted increased environmental efforts by the port. In 2004, the Port of Long Beach reached compliance with an air pollution mandate by handling petroleum coke, one of the port's largest exports, in improved ways. By using enclosed conveyors and covered storage areas, the port reduced the amount of dust emitted by the petroleum coke by 5%, down 21% in 1997. In 2007, the seaport launched banned older diesel trucks from serving the port.
On October 1, 2011, the Clean Trucks Program was launched by the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles. The program set a goal to reduce air pollution from its truck fleet by 80% by 2012. Trucks built prior to 1987 that fail to meet the 2007 clean truck standards set forth by the United States Environmental Protection Agency are denied access to port terminals. In compliance with the clean truck initiative on October 1, all trucking
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them. The phrase is used to describe the physical abandoning of a child, but it can include severe cases of neglect and emotional abandonment, such as in the case of a parent who fails to offer financial and emotional support for his or her child over a long period of time. An abandoned child is referred to as a foundling. Baby dumping refers to parents leaving a child younger than 12 months in a public or private place with the intent of terminating their care for the child, it is known as rehoming, in cases where adoptive parents use illegal means, such as the internet, to find a new home for their child. In most cases, child abandonment is classified under a subsection of child abuse statutes and is punishable with a felony. Following felonious charges, one or both guardians give up their parental rights over the child thus severing their relationship with the child.
Some states allow for a reinstatement of parental rights, in which case the parent or parents can have a relationship with the child again. However, it is unlikely that the parents can regain custody; the perpetrator can additionally be charged with reckless abandonment if the victim dies as a result of his or her actions or neglect. Poverty and homelessness are causes of child abandonment. People living in countries with poor social welfare systems and who are not financially capable of taking care of a child are more to abandon their children because of a lack of resources. In some cases the parents have a child or children, but are unable to take care of another child at that time. In societies where women are looked down upon for being teenage or single mothers, child abandonment is more common. Children born out of the confines of marriage may be abandoned in a family's attempt to prevent being shamed by their community. Physical disability, mental illness, substance abuse problems that parents are facing can cause them to abandon their children.
Children who are born with congenital disorders or other health complications may be abandoned if their parents feel unequipped to provide them with the level of care that their condition requires. In cultures where the sex of the child is of utmost importance, parents are more to abandon a baby of the undesired sex. People may choose to pursue the controversial, option of sex-selective abortion. Political conditions, such as war and displacement of a family, are cause for parents to abandon their children. Additionally, a parent being incarcerated or deported can result in the involuntary abandonment of a child if the parent did not voluntarily relinquish their parental role. Disownment of a child is a form of abandonment which entails ending contact with, support for, one's dependent. Disownment tends to occur in a child's life due to a conflict between the parent and the child, but can occur when children are still young. Reasons include: divorce of parents, discovering the true paternity of a child, a child's actions bringing shame to a family.
Possibility of experiencing abuse and neglect in institutionalized care Low self-esteem stemming from feelings of guilt about being at fault for being abandoned Separation anxiety: feelings of anxiety about being separated from parents or caregivers Attachment issues: difficulty becoming attached to and trusting other people caregivers Abandonment issues, characteristic of abandoned child syndrome, including: social alienation, anxiety, clinginess and nightmares, eating disorders, anger issues, substance abuse, traumatic reenactment through romantic relationships Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, referred to as posttraumatic stress disorder of abandonment. Depending upon the severity of their symptoms, children who have developed certain maladjusted tendencies in social interaction may be diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder or disinhibited social engagement disorder. For children who are abandoned in dangerous places, such as dumpsters and other public areas, exposure to the elements and physical injury are distinct possibilities.
In 2015, it cost the United States' government over $9 billion to support 427,910 children who were in foster care. Child abandonment is illegal in the United States, but some states consider it to be a felony offense, while others categorize it as a misdemeanor, so punishments range from a $2,000 fine to up to five years in prison and a $125,000 penalty. Providing access to sex education and to family planning resources, like contraception, abortion can help prevent people who cannot take care of, or do not want to raise, children from becoming pregnant in the first place. Evidence has shown that, when bans on abortion are lifted, the number of abandoned and neglected children goes down in response. However, access is an issue. In the United States, 87% of all counties, 97% of all rural counties, do not have any access to abortion services. Governmental assistance can be provided in the form of parental counseling, post-natal services, mental health services, other community support services for parents who are at a higher risk of abandoning their children because of age, physical ability, mental illness, or poverty.
Many cultures practiced abandonment of infants called "infant exposure." Children were left on hillsides, in the wilderness, near churches, in other public places. If taken
Enterprise Rent-A-Car is an American car rental company headquartered in Clayton, United States in Greater St. Louis. In addition to car rental, Enterprise oversees commercial fleet management, used car sales, commercial truck rental operations Enterprise Rent-A-Car was established in St. Louis, Missouri in 1957 by Jack C. Taylor. Known as "Executive Leasing Company," in 1969, Taylor renamed the company "Enterprise" after the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise, on which he served during World War II. In 2009, Enterprise became a subsidiary of Enterprise Holdings, Inc. following the company's 2007 acquisition of Vanguard Automotive Group, the parent company of National Car Rental and Alamo Rent a Car. The resulting company was 21st on the 2008 Forbes list of "Largest Private Companies in America." Enterprise Rent-A-Car is the largest rental car company in the United States, has more than 9,000 “home city” locations, 419 airport locations. Enterprise Rent-A-Car’s primary focus is the local rental car market, specializing in car rentals to consumers who need a replacement car as the result of an accident, mechanical repair, theft, or who require a vehicle for a special occasion such as a short business or leisure trip.
In the late 1990s, Enterprise Rent-A-Car began expanding its operations to include the airport market, now serves airports in the United States, the UK, Spain and Ireland. The company's initial entry into Europe came in 1994. By 2005, Enterprise Rent-A-Car's customer service has been recognized seven times by J. D. Power and Associates as highest in customer satisfaction for rental car companies at or near airports; the company was named ninth on Business Week's top 25 companies customer service list in 2007. In 2006, Business Week listed Enterprise among the top 10 places to begin a career. Although the company's pay for management trainees was among the lowest on the list, "those who catch on" get a chance to run a branch office with the responsibility to generate a profit. Certain requirements and qualifications must be met to get promoted to an assistant manager, many of these qualifications may depend on the employees' sales and their success in the company's management training program.
According to BusinessWeek's list of "Best Places to Launch a Career", Enterprise was in the top 15. Within five years, a successful manager may take positions at headquarters or become an area manager responsible for multiple branches; the ERAC system earns revenue through the "average car rate". The vehicles range from small vehicles reserved for insurance replacement, paid for at negotiated insured rates, to high end luxury vehicles that rent in upwards of 3 figures; the goal is to up-sell the customer into vehicles of higher perceived value though the investment in the vehicle inventory is spread across all vehicles. During model years 2006-2008, 66,000 of the Chevrolet Impalas the company ordered were purchased without side-curtain airbags, saving the company $11.5 million, though the airbags were standard in retail models. The practice, which the company notes does not "violate any federal mandate", came to national attention when cars being retired from their rental fleet were sold with claims that side-curtain air bags were included.
About 5,000 Chevrolet Cobalts and Buick LaCrosses were purchased with the side air bags omitted. Enterprise admitted that it inaccurately advertised and sold 745 Chevrolet Impalas—model years 2006 through 2008—that were identified online as having side air bags, when in fact they did not. A company spokesman said that it would inform customers who had bought the cars, offer to buy them back from the customers. According to Safety Research and Strategies, a safety research firm that works with the automotive industry, deleting safety features is a unusual practice. "I’ve never seen a standard safety feature removed from a vehicle. I’ve been doing this work for 17 years and, until now, had yet to see this happen,” said Sean Kane of Safety Research and Strategies. In August 1998, Enterprise took legal action against car rental competitors Hertz and Advantage in regards to similarities between the companies' slogans. In 1994, Enterprise adopted the slogan "We'll pick you up." Four years the company felt that Hertz and Advantage were using slogans at the time that imitated its own too closely.
Hertz rejected the claim, with the company's assistant general counsel David Parkoff saying Hertz, "believes that it can use the English language words'we'll pick you up' and their variants in a descriptive/informational sense as it presently does and that Enterprise's claim of trademark rights in those words is misplaced and does not prevent such use."Months before, in May, a judge ruling ordered the Rent-a-Wreck of America rental agency to stop using slogans containing the phrase "pick you up." In 2008, Enterprise piloted its first on-campus carsharing program at Washington University in St. Louis; the program, called WeCar, was introduced at the University of South Florida in July 2009. As of September 2012, WeCar has 100 carsharing programs in more than 30 American states and Canada, the service offers 100 electric cars and plug-in hybrids, including the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt. By September 2013, WeCar was rebranded as Enterprise CarShare. In April 2015 Enterprise acquired City Car Club in the United Kingdom, renaming it Enterprise Car Club.
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