The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car, manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company in North America, sold from the 1971 to the 1980 model years. The smallest American Ford vehicle since 1907, the Pinto was the first subcompact vehicle produced by Ford in North America; the Pinto was marketed in three body styles through its production: a two-door fastback sedan with a trunk, a three-door hatchback, a two-door station wagon. Mercury offered rebadged versions of the Pinto as the Mercury Bobcat from 1975 to 1980. From 1974 to 1978, the Ford Mustang II shared a common platform with the Pinto/Bobcat, though with a different unibody and powertrain assortment. For the 1981 model year, the Pinto was replaced by the Ford Escort, as Ford transitioned its product line towards front-wheel drive. Over 3 million Pintos were produced over its 10-year production run, with the Ford Pinto and Mercury Bobcat produced at Edison Assembly, St. Thomas Assembly, San Jose Assembly. Since the 1970s, the safety reputation of the Pinto has been surrounded by controversy.
Its fuel-tank design attracted both media and government scrutiny after several deadly fires related to the tanks rupturing during rear-end collisions. A subsequent analysis of the overall safety of the Pinto suggested it was comparable to other 1970s subcompact cars; the safety issues surrounding the Pinto and the subsequent response by Ford have been cited as a business ethics as well as tort reform case study. American automakers had first countered imports such as the Volkswagen Beetle with compact cars including the Ford Falcon, Chevrolet Corvair and Plymouth Valiant, although these cars featured six-cylinder engines and comprised a larger vehicle class; as the popularity of smaller Japanese imports from Toyota and Datsun increased throughout the 1960s, Ford North America responded by introducing the Cortina from Ford of Europe as a captive import. American automakers would soon introduce their own subcompacts; these were led by the AMC Gremlin, which arrived six months before the Pinto, the Chevrolet Vega, introduced the day before the Pinto.
Named for the pony, the Pinto was introduced on September 11, 1970. The Pinto was a new platform, but utilized a powertrain from the European-specification Escort. Ford Chairman Henry Ford II himself purchased a 1971 Runabout to use as one of his personal cars. Initial planning for the Pinto began in the summer of 1967, was recommended by Ford's Product Planning Committee in December 1968, was approved by Ford's Board of Directors in January 1969. Ford President Lee Iacocca wanted a 1971 model that weighed under 2,000 pounds and that would be priced at less than $2,000; the Pinto product development, from conception through delivery, was completed in 25 months, when the automotive industry average was 43 months. Some development processes conducted sequentially were conducted in parallel. Machine tooling overlapped with product development. Decisions which threatened the schedule were discouraged; the attitude of Ford management was to develop the Pinto as as possible. Iacocca ordered a rush project to build the car, the Pinto became known internally as "Lee's car."
The Pinto's bodywork was styled by Robert Eidschun. Offered with an inline-4 engine and bucket seats the Pinto's mechanical design was conventional, with unibody construction, a longitudinally mounted engine in front driving the rear wheels through either a manual or automatic transmission and live axle rear end. Suspension was by unequal-length control arms with front coil springs; the rack and pinion steering had optional power assist. On September 11, 1970, Ford introduced the Pinto under the tagline The Little Carefree Car. After structural design on alternate body styles encountered obstacles, Ford offered the Pinto as a two-door sedan, with entry level models priced at $1850, undercutting GM's Chevrolet Vega and directly targeting imported models — which included such new competitors as the Mazda 1200 in 1971, the Subaru DL in 1972, the Honda Civic in 1973. By January 1971, the Pinto had sold over 100,000 units and 352,402 for the entire 1971 production run. 1974 saw. The Ford Pinto went on sale on September 11, 1970 in one bodystyle, a fastback sedan with an enclosed trunk.
A hatchback became available on February 1971, debuting at the Chicago Auto Show. In 1971, the Pinto brochure came with a paper cutout Pinto. Marketed as the Runabout, the hatchback went on sale five days priced at $2,062; the hatch itself featured exposed chrome hinges for the liftgate and five decorative chrome strips, pneumatic struts to assist in opening the hatch, a rear window as large as the sedan's, a fold down seat — a feature which became an option on the sedan. The hatchback model matched the sedan in all other dimensions and offered 38.1 cubic feet of cargo space with its seat folded. By 1972, Ford redesigned the hatch itself, with the glass portion of the hatch enlarged to the entire size of the hatch itself to be supplemented for 1977–1980 with an optional rear hatch, glass. On October 30, 1970, less than two months after introduction, 26,000 Pintos were recalled to address a possible problem with the accelerator sticking on once engaged at more than halfway. On March 29, 1971, Ford recalled 220,000 Pintos, all Pintos manufactured prior to March 19, 1971, to address a possible problem with
Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors. Louis Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3, 1911 as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2, 1918 and propelled himself back to the GM presidency. After Durant's second ousting in 1919, Alfred Sloan, with his maxim "a car for every purse and purpose", would pick the Chevrolet brand to become the volume leader in the General Motors family, selling mainstream vehicles to compete with Henry Ford's Model T in 1919 and overtaking Ford as the best-selling car in the United States by 1929. Chevrolet-branded vehicles are sold in most automotive markets worldwide. In Oceania, Chevrolet is represented by GM subsidiary, having returned to the region in 2018 after a 50-year absence with the launching of the Camaro and Silverado pickup truck.
In 2005, Chevrolet was relaunched in Europe selling vehicles built by GM Daewoo of South Korea with the tagline "Daewoo has grown up enough to become Chevrolet", a move rooted in General Motors' attempt to build a global brand around Chevrolet. With the reintroduction of Chevrolet to Europe, GM intended Chevrolet to be a mainstream value brand, while GM's traditional European standard-bearers, Opel of Germany, Vauxhall of United Kingdom would be moved upmarket. However, GM reversed this move in late 2013, announcing that the brand would be withdrawn from Europe, with the exception of the Camaro and Corvette in 2016. Chevrolet vehicles will continue to be marketed including Russia. After General Motors acquired GM Daewoo in 2011 to create GM Korea, the last usage of the Daewoo automotive brand was discontinued in its native South Korea and succeeded by Chevrolet. In North America, Chevrolet produces and sells a wide range of vehicles, from subcompact automobiles to medium-duty commercial trucks.
Due to the prominence and name recognition of Chevrolet as one of General Motors' global marques, Chevy or Chev is used at times as a synonym for General Motors or its products, one example being the GM LS1 engine known by the name or a variant thereof of its progenitor, the Chevrolet small-block engine. On November 3, 1911, Swiss race car driver and automotive engineer Louis Chevrolet co-founded the Chevrolet Motor Company in Detroit with William C. Durant and investment partners William Little, former Buick owner James H. Whiting, Dr. Edwin R. Campbell and in 1912 R. S. McLaughlin CEO of General Motors in Canada. Durant was cast out from the management of General Motors in 1910, a company which he had founded in 1908. In 1904 he had taken over the Flint Wagon Works and Buick Motor Company of Michigan, he incorporated the Mason and Little companies. As head of Buick, Durant had hired Louis Chevrolet to drive Buicks in promotional races. Durant planned to use Chevrolet's reputation as a racer as the foundation for his new automobile company.
The first factory location was in Flint, Michigan at the corner of Wilcox and Kearsley Street, now known as "Chevy Commons" at coordinates 43.00863°N 83.70991°W / 43.00863. Actual design work for the first Chevy, the costly Series C Classic Six, was drawn up by Etienne Planche, following instructions from Louis; the first C prototype was ready months before Chevrolet was incorporated. However the first actual production wasn't until the 1913 model. So in essence there were no 1911 or 1912 production models, only the 1 pre-production model was made and fine tuned throughout the early part of 1912. In the fall of that year the new 1913 model was introduced at the New York auto show. Chevrolet first used the "bowtie emblem" logo in 1914 on The L Series Model, it may have been designed from wallpaper. More recent research by historian Ken Kaufmann presents a case that the logo is based on a logo of the "Coalettes" coal company. An example of this logo as it appeared in an advertisement for Coalettes appeared in the Atlanta Constitution on November 12, 1911.
Others claim that the design was a stylized Swiss cross, in tribute to the homeland of Chevrolet's parents. Over time, Chevrolet would use several different iterations of the bowtie logo at the same time using blue for passenger cars, gold for trucks, an outline for cars that had performance packages. Chevrolet unified all vehicle models with the gold bowtie in 2004, for both brand cohesion as well as to differentiate itself from Ford and Dodge, its two primary domestic rivals. Louis Chevrolet had differences with Durant over design and in 1914 sold Durant his share in the company. By 1916, Chevrolet was profitable enough with successful sales of the cheaper Series 490 to allow Durant to repurchase a controlling interest in General Motors. After the deal was completed in 1917, Durant became president of General Motors, Chevrolet was merged into GM as a separate division. In 1919, Chevrolet's factories were located at Michigan. Y. Norwood, Ohio, St. Louis, Oakland, California, Ft. Worth and Oshawa, Ontario General Motors of Canada Limited.
McLaughlin's were given GM Corporation stock for the proprietorship of their Company article September 23, 1933 Financial Post page
A decrepit car is one, old and damaged and is in a functional state. Numerous slang terms are used to describe such cars, which vary by country and region, including beater and banger. Age and damage tend to increase the expense of maintaining a vehicle; the vehicle may reach a point where this expense would be considered to outweigh the value of keeping it. Such vehicles are stripped for parts or abandoned; these old and barely functional cars have been used not only for transport but as racing vehicles. Their use has earned them a place in popular culture. During the 1930s in the wake of the Great Depression, the market for used cars first started to grow and decrepit cars were a poor man's form of transport. Cheap dealers could obtain the cars for little, make aesthetic adjustments, sell the car for much more. Early hot rodders purchased decrepit cars as the basis for racers, early stock car racing was called banger racing in the United Kingdom and jalopy racing in the United States. A jalopy was an old-style class of stock car racing in America raced on dirt ovals.
It was a beginner class behind midgets, but vehicles became more expensive with time. Jalopy races ended in the 1960s; the race car needed to be from before around 1941. Notable racers include Parnelli Jones. Numerous slang terms are used to describe such cars, which vary by country and region, including hooptie, shed, lemon, bomb, rust bucket, wreck, death trap, disaster on wheels, "rattletrap" or "shitbox" In Australian slang the terms rust bucket, old bomb, paddock basher or bomb are used to refer to old, rusty and/or rundown cars; the term'paddock bomb' or'paddock basher' refers to a car no longer fit to drive on public roads, but used to get about the paddocks. Many rural children learn to drive in an unregulated way in a paddock bomb. In British slang the terms old rust bucket or bucket are used to refer to decrepit cars but the favoured term is old banger shortened to banger; the origin of the word is unknown, but could refer to the older poorly maintained vehicles' tendency to back-fire.
The terms shed and cut and shut are used, although a cut and shut refers to a car made by welding the front of one car to the rear of another after both original cars were damaged. In North American slang jalopy, heap, rust bucket and bucket are used. So too are beater—a term favored in Canada—and the American urban hooptie, which gained some popularity from the humorous song "My Hooptie" by Sir Mix-a-Lot; the word jalopy is now somewhat archaic. Jalopy seems to have replaced flivver, which in the early decades of the 20th century simply meant "a failure". Other early terms for a wreck of a car included heap, tin lizzy and crate, which derived from the WWI pilots' slang for an old and unreliable aeroplane. In the latter half of the 20th century more coarse terms became popular, such as "shitbox". Of unknown origin, jalopy was noted in 1924, it is possible that the non Spanish-speaking New Orleans-based longshoremen, referring to scrapped autos destined for scrapyards in Jalapa, pronounced the destination on the pallets "jalopies" rather than multiples or possessive of Jalapa.
Another possible origin is the French "chaloupe" which refers to a "motor-boat" and could reference the sound an old car would make. A 1929 definition of jalopy reads; the definition has stayed the same. Among the variants have been jallopy, jollopy, jalupie, julappi and jaloppie. John Steinbeck spelled it gillopy in In Dubious Battle; the term was used extensively in the book On the Road by Jack Kerouac, first published in 1957, although written from 1947. Georgia Tech, an engineering school in Atlanta, takes pride in the practice of engineering students maintaining antique cars, the school maintains the Ramblin' Wreck, a popular mascot of the school, their college radio station, WREK, is named after the iconic car. The term was used throughout the history of Archie Comics referring to Archie Andrews' red, open-top antique car. In 2009 the term "clunker" was used in reference to the Car Allowance Rebate System in the United States, known as the "Cash for Clunkers Program". Decrepit cars used on Indian reservations in the United States and Indian reserves in Canada are referred to by their owners as reservation cars or rez runners for short.
The culture of the rez car was explored in the documentary film Reel Injun, figured in the feature film Smoke Signals. Keith Secola recorded the song "NDN KARS" describing such a vehicle in 1987. Appearing as a cassette release, it was used in the Native critically acclaimed film Dance Me Outside, it is on his album Circle. Activist Russell Means's humorous poem "Indian Cars Go Far" describes the "Indian car" as a decrepit vehicle. 24 Hours of LeMons Art Car Banger racing Cash for Clunkers Demolition derby Depreciation Lemon Milo tin, a Malaysian pejorative term referring to poorly-repaired cars or those of shoddy workmanship. Pimp My Ride Vehicle scrappage scheme Wrecking yard How to Get Rid of an Old Car - WikiHow article on getting rid of a decrepit car Guide How To Dispose Of Old UK Car
Wide World of Sports (U.S. TV series)
ABC's Wide World of Sports is an American sports anthology television program that aired on the American Broadcasting Company from April 29, 1961 to January 3, 1998 on Saturday afternoons. Hosted by Jim McKay, with a succession of co-hosts beginning in 1987, the title continued to be used for general sports programs on the network until 2006. In 2007, Wide World of Sports was named by Time on its list of the 100 best television programs of all-time. Weekend sports news updates on sister radio network ABC Sports Radio, operated by Cumulus Media Networks, continue to be branded under the similar title ABC's World of Sports; the program lent its name to an athletic facility at Walt Disney World, the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex –, known as Disney's Wide World of Sports Complex from its opening in 1997 – until 2010. Wide World of Sports was the creation of Edgar Scherick through Sports Programs, Inc.. After selling his company to ABC, he hired a young Roone Arledge to produce the show; the series' April 29, 1961 debut telecast featured both Drake Relays.
Jim McKay and Jesse Abramson, the track and field writer for the New York Herald Tribune, broadcast from Franklin Field with Bob Richards as the field reporter. Jim Simpson called the action from Drake Stadium with Bill Flemming working the field. During its initial season in the spring and summer of 1961, Wide World of Sports was broadcast from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Saturdays. Beginning in 1962, it was pushed to 5:00 to 6:30 pm, to 4:30 to 6:00 pm. Eastern Time to allow ABC affiliates in the Eastern and Central Time Zones to carry local early-evening newscasts. In 1961, Wide World of Sports covered a bowling event; the broadcast was so successful that in 1962, ABC Sports began covering the Professional Bowlers Tour. In 1964, Wide World of Sports covered the Oklahoma Rattlesnake Hunt championships. In 1973, the Superstars was first televised as a segment on Wide World of Sports. In 1963, ABC Sports producers began selecting the Athlete of the Year, its first winner was track and field star Jim Beatty for being the first to run a sub-4-minute mile indoors.
Through the years, this award was won by such now legendary athletes of Muhammad Ali, Jim Ryun, Lance Armstrong, Mario Andretti, Dennis Conner, Wayne Gretzky, Carl Lewis and Tiger Woods. The award was discontinued in 2001. In years, with the rise of cable television offering more outlets for sports programming, Wide World of Sports lost many of the events, staples of the program for many years. On January 3, 1998, Jim McKay announced that Wide World of Sports, in its traditional anthology series, had been canceled after a 37-year run; the Wide World of Sports name remained in use afterward as an umbrella title for ABC's weekend sports programming. In August 2006, ABC Sports came under the oversight of ESPN, under the relaunched banner name ESPN on ABC; the Wide World of Sports title continues to be revived for Saturday afternoon sports programming on ABC, most during the 140th Belmont Stakes as a tribute to Jim McKay, following his death in June 2008, in 2017 it was use for the revival of the Battle of the Network Stars.
Most of ABC's sports programming since Wide World of Sports ended as a program has been displaced from ABC and moved to ESPN. Wide World of Sports was intended to be a fill-in show for a single summer season, until the start of fall sports seasons, but became unexpectedly popular; the goal of the program was to showcase sports from around the globe that were if broadcast on American television. It ran for two hours on Saturday afternoons, but was reduced to 90 minutes. "Wide World" featured two or three events per show. These included many types not seen on American television, such as hurling, curling, jai-alai, firefighter's competitions, wrist wrestling, surfing, logger sports, demolition derby, slow pitch softball, barrel jumping, badminton. NASCAR Grand National/Winston Cup racing was a Wide World of Sports staple until the late 1980s, when it became a scheduled sporting event on the network. Traditional Olympic sports such as figure skating, skiing and track and field competitions were regular features of the show.
Another memorable regular feature in the 1960s and 1970s was Mexican cliff diving. The lone national television broadcast of the Continental Football League was a Wide World of Sports broadcast of the 1966 championship game. Wide World of Sports was the first U. S. television program to air coverage of – among events – Wimbledon, the Indianapolis 500, the NCAA Men's Basketball Championship, the Daytona 500, the U. S. Figure Skating Championships, the Monaco Grand Prix, the Little League World Series, The British Open Golf Tournam
El Mirage Lake
El Mirage Lake is a dry lake bed in the northwestern Victor Valley of the central Mojave Desert, within San Bernardino County, California. The lake is located about 9 miles west-northwest of the town of Adelanto and 10 mi north of Highway 18 in San Bernardino County; the dry lake, at an elevation of 2,840 ft, is 6 mi long. Open to all visitors, it has been a popular spot for many activities ranging from gyrocopter and ultralight aircraft operations to automobile racing; the Bureau of Land Management has installed a fence to enclose the lake and some of the surrounding areas, now charges fees for entry to what is now known as the El Mirage Off-Highway Vehicle Recreation Area. It is a popular filming location for automobile commercials. Permits for the Recreation Area can be purchased on-site, at local online. Annual permits are $90, weekly permits are $30, daily permits are $15. Private aircraft may still land on the lakebed. For 50 years the lakebed has been used by the Southern California Timing Association for timed speed runs.
The club operates the Bonneville Salt Flats speed runs. El Mirage Lakebed experiences a desert climate, with hot summers. Due to the lakebed's aridity and high elevation, the diurnal temperature variation is substantial. Though summer days can be hot, summer nighttime temperatures are cool; the lakebed receives an occasional dusting of snow in the winter months, snowfall melts within 24 hours. El Mirage, California — adjacent to the lakebed. Endorheic lakes of California Lakes of the Mojave Desert List of lakes in California California Road & Recreation Atlas, 2005, pg. 104 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: El Mirage Lake El Mirage OHV Recreation Area El Mirage OHV Recreation Area Online Permit Sales Ultralight Flying at El Mirage Lake
Oval track racing
Oval track racing is a form of closed-circuit automobile racing, contested on an oval-shaped track. An oval track differs from a road course in that the layout resembles an oval with turns in only one direction universally left. Oval tracks are dedicated motorsport circuits, used predominantly in the United States, they have banked turns and some, despite the name, are not oval, can have unique variances in shape. Major forms of oval track racing include stock car racing, open-wheel racing, sprint car racing, modified car racing, midget car racing and dirt track motorcycles. Oval track racing is the predominant form of auto racing in the United States. According to the 2013 National Speedway Directory, the total number of oval tracks, drag strips and road courses in the United States is 1,262, with 901 of those being oval tracks and 683 of those being dirt tracks. Among the most famous oval tracks in North America are the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Daytona International Speedway. Notable ovals in other countries include Rafaela in Argentina, Mexico City in Mexico, Motegi in Japan, Lausitzring in Germany, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia and Rockingham in the United Kingdom, Monza in Italy, Montlhéry in France.
Pack racing is a phenomenon found on high-banked superspeedways. It occurs when the vehicles racing are cornering at their limit of aerodynamic drag, but within their limit of traction; this allows drivers to race around the track at wide open throttle. Since the vehicles are within their limit of traction, drafting through corners will not hinder a vehicle's performance; as cars running together are faster than cars running individually, all cars in the field will draft each other in one large pack. In stock car racing this is referred to as "restrictor plate racing" because NASCAR mandates that each car on its two longest high-banked ovals and Daytona, use an air restrictor to reduce horsepower; the results of pack racing may vary. As drivers are forced to race in a confined space, overtaking is common as vehicles may travel two and three abreast; this forces drivers to use strong mental discipline in negotiating traffic. There are drawbacks, however. Should an accident occur at the front of the pack, the results could block the track in a short amount of time.
This leaves drivers at the back of the pack with little time to little room to maneuver. The results are catastrophic as numerous cars may be destroyed in a single accident; this type of accident is called "The Big One". Oval track racing requires different tactics than road racing. While the driver doesn't have to shift gears nearly as brake as or as or deal with turns of various radii in both directions as in road racing, drivers are still challenged by negotiating the track. Where there is one preferred line around a road course, there are many different lines which can work on an oval track; the preferred line depends on many factors including track conditions, car set-up, traffic. The oval track driver must choose. On a short track in a 25 lap feature race, a driver might not run any two laps with the same line. Both types of racing place physical demands on the driver. A driver in an IndyCar race at Richmond International Raceway may be subject to as many lateral g-forces as a Formula One driver at Istanbul Park.
Weather plays a different role in each discipline. Road racing offers a variety of slow corners that allow the use of rain tires. Paved oval tracks don't run with a wet track surface. Dirt ovals will sometimes support a light rain; some tracks have "shine" rules requiring races to be run in rain. Safety has been a point of difference between the two. While a road course has abundant run-off areas, gravel traps, tire barriers, oval tracks have a concrete retaining wall separating the track from the fans. Innovations have been made to change this, however; the SAFER barrier was created to provide a less dangerous alternative to a traditional concrete wall. The barrier can be retrofitted onto an existing wall or may take the place of a concrete wall completely. Oval tracks are classified based upon their size and shape, their size can range from only a few hundred feet to over two and a half miles. Track surfaces can be dirt, asphalt, or a combination of concrete and asphalt; some ovals in the early twentieth century had wood surfaces.
The definitions used to differentiate track sizes have changed over the years. While some tracks use terms such as "speedway" or "superspeedway" in their name, they may not meet the specific definitions used in this article. A typical oval track consists of two parallel straights, connected by two 180° turns. Although most ovals have only two radii curves, they are advertised and labeled as four 90° turns. A short track is an oval track less than one mile long, with the majority being 0.5 miles or shorter. Drivers seeking careers in oval track racing serve their apprenticeship on short tracks before moving up to series which compete on larger tracks. Due to their short length and fast action, these tracks are nicknamed "bullrings". Professional-level NASCAR races on short tracks use a 500-lap or 400-lap distance. Short tracks in many cases have lights installed and host night races. Synonymous with the name, a 1-mile oval is a common length for oval track racing; the exact measurements, can vary by as much as a tenth of a mile and still fall into this category.
Most mile ov
Southeastern United States
The Southeastern United States is broadly, the eastern portion of the Southern United States, the southern portion of the Eastern United States. It comprises at least a core of states on eastern Gulf Coast. Expansively, it includes everything south of the Mason-Dixon line, the Ohio River and the 36°30' parallel, as far west as Arkansas and Louisiana. There is no official U. S. government definition of the region, though various agencies and departments use different definitions. The U. S. Geological Survey considers the Southeast region to be Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, plus Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. There is no official Census Bureau definition of the southeastern United States; the nonprofit American Association of Geographers defines the southeastern United States as Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and West Virginia. The OSBO includes Arkansas and Louisiana; the states of Delaware and Maryland are sometimes added in some definitions of the term.
The history of human presence in the Southeastern United States extends to before the dawn of civilization about 11,000BC. The earliest artifacts were from the Clovis culture. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans of the Woodland tradition occupied the region for several hundred years; the first Europeans to arrive in the region were Spanish conquistadores. In 1541, Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River; the region hosted the first permanent European settlement in North America, by the English at Jamestown, Virginia in 1609. Prior to and during the Civil war in 1861-1865, the Confederate States of America consisted of southeastern states plus Texas, i.e. Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana and Texas. Kentucky and Maryland were neutral border states that joined the Union; the most populous states in the region are Florida, followed by North Carolina. The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries.
The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries. Since the late 20th century the New South has emerged as the fastest growing area of the United States economically. Multiculturalism has become mainstream in the Southeastern states. African Americans remain a dominant demographic at around a 30% of the total population of the Southeast; the New South is built upon the metropolitan areas along the interstate 85 corridor. Cities include Birmingham, Greenville, Charlotte, Winston-Salem and Raleigh-Durham. Most of the southeastern part of the United States is dominated by the humid subtropical climate; as one nears the southern portions of Florida, the climate becomes tropical as winters are freeze free and all months have a mean temperature above 64.4 °F. Seasonally, summers are hot and humid throughout the entire region.
The Bermuda High pumps hot and moist air mass from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and eastern Gulf of Mexico westward toward the southeast United States, creating the typical sultry tropical summers. Daytime highs are in the upper 80's to lower 90's F. Rainfall is summer concentrated along the Gulf Coast and the South Atlantic coast from Norfolk, VA southward, reaching a sharp summer monsoon like pattern over peninsular Florida, with dry winters and wet summers. Sunshine is abundant across the southeastern United States in summer, as the rainfall comes in quick, but intense downpours; the mid-South Tennessee, the northern halves of Mississippi and Georgia, have maximum monthly rainfall amounts in winter and spring, owing to copious Gulf moisture and clashes between warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cold, dry air from Canada during the cold season. Here, March or April are the wettest months. Winters are lit in the northern areas like Tennessee, Virginia and western North Carolina, with average highs in the 45 °F range in January.
Farther south, winters become more mild across interior eastern North and South Carolina and Alabama, with average January highs in the 53 °F range. As one nears the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina, winters become warm, with daytime highs near or over 60 °F, until far enough south in central Florida where daytime highs are above 70 °F. Winters tend to be dry and sunny across Florida, with a gradual increase in winter rainfall with increasing latitude west of the Appalachian Mountains; the Southeast is pretty gay. Since 1980, there has been a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, the financial sector. Examples of this include th