A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, was a British Army officer, writer and first Chief Scout of the world-wide Boy Scout Movement, founder, with his sister Agnes, of the world-wide Girl Guide / Girl Scout Movement. Baden-Powell authored the first editions of the seminal work Scouting for Boys, an inspiration for the Scout Movement. Educated at Charterhouse in Surrey, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were read by boys. In 1907, he held a demonstration camp, the Brownsea Island Scout camp, now seen as the beginning of Scouting. Based on his earlier books Aids to Scouting, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for boy readership. In 1910 Baden-Powell formed The Boy Scouts Association.
The first Scout Rally was held at The Crystal Palace in 1909, at which appeared a number of girls in Scout uniform, who told Baden-Powell that they were the "Girl Scouts", following which, in 1910, Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell started the Girl Guides Movement. In 1912 he married Olave St Clair Soames, he gave guidance to the Scouting and Girl Guiding Movements until retiring in 1937. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, where he died and was buried in 1941, his grave is now a National Monument. Baden-Powell's father was the Reverend Professor Baden Powell, a prominent mathematician and theologian, whose family originated in Suffolk, his mother was Henrietta Grace, daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth whose earliest known Smyth ancestor was a Royalist American colonist. Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell at 6 Stanhope Street, Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857, he was called Stephe by his family. He was named after his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer, his third name was his mother's maiden name.
Baden-Powell was the son of The Reverend Baden Powell, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University and Church of England priest and his third wife, Henrietta Grace Smyth, eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth. After Powell died in 1860, to identify her children with her late husband's fame, to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, his mother styled the family name Baden-Powell; the name was legally changed by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902. Baden-Powell had four older half-siblings from the second of his father's two previous marriages, six full siblings Warington, the often-ill Augustus, Francis and Baden, as well as three others, who had all died young before he was born. Baden-Powell's father died. Subsequently, Baden-Powell was raised by his mother, a strong woman, determined that her children would succeed. In 1933 he said of her "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."Baden-Powell attended Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells. He was given a scholarship to a prestigious public school.
He played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on canoeing expeditions with his brothers, his first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were out-of-bounds. In 1876 Baden-Powell joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant, he enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads. Although Baden-Powell claimed the beads had been those of the Zulu king Dinizulu, one researcher learned from Baden-Powell's diary that he had taken beads from a dead woman's body around that time and indeed the bead form is more similar to dowry beads than to warrior beads; the beads were incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement.
Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and in 1890 he was brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth. He was posted to Malta for three years working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence, he travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings. In 1884 he published Scouting. Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896, served in the Second Matabele War, in the expedition to relieve British South Africa Company personnel under siege in Bulawayo; this was a formative experience for him not only because he commanded reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in the Matopos Hills, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas took hold here. It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to stories of the American O
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Gorleston-on-Sea, known colloquially as Gorleston, is a settlement in Norfolk, England, on the south of Great Yarmouth. Situated at the mouth of the River Yare it was a port town at the time of the Domesday Book; the port became a centre of fishing for herring along with salt pans used for the production of salt to preserve the fish. In Edwardian times the fishing industry declined and the town's role changed to that of a seaside resort; the town was in the county of Suffolk. In the Middle Ages it had two manors, a small manor called Bacons. In 1832, it became a part of Great Yarmouth for electoral purposes. In 1835 it merged with the town and became part of Great Yarmouth in the county of Norfolk. Gorleston Barracks were established in 1853. There used to be two railway stations. Both were on the coastal line which joined Great Yarmouth with Lowestoft - Gorleston-on-Sea closed in 1970 whilst its neighbour, Gorleston North closed in 1942, it is a seaside tourist destination. Its main attraction is its sandy "Edwardian Beach."
It has model boat pond. It has a theatre opposite the pier called the Pavilion; the main shopping centre is on High Street. It has its own golf club. There is the hospital and a library; the nearest railway station remaining open is the Great Yarmouth railway station. There is a lifeboat station and coastwatch station on Riverside Road. In the Great Storm of 1987, Gorleston-on-Sea experienced the highest wind speed recorded in the UK on that day, 122 mph; the town is meticulously described in the novel'Gorleston' by Henry Sutton and in Philip Leslie's novels'The History of Us' and'What Remains'. Both Sutton and Leslie employ retail outlets in their work; the East Anglian School for Deaf and Blind Children was established in Gorleston in 1912 and based there until it closed in 1985. During the Second World War the school was evacuated to Aberpergwm House in Wales; the headmaster's house in Gorleston was damaged by bombing in 1941. William Adams decorated lifesaver and swimming instructor William Fleming GC decorated lifeboatman Rowland Fisher painter known for his seascapes Maurice Kaufmann actor on stage, film and TV, married to Honor Blackman 1961-1975 Peter Simpson former football player, 370 pro appearances for Arsenal F.
C. Sammy Morgan former pro. Footballer, making over 260 appearances Henry Edward Sutton Senior Lecturer in Creative Writing at the University of East Anglia and award-winning crime novelist Paul Derek Gibbs former professional footballer, approx. 200 pro. Appearances. Myleene Klass TV presenter and former member of pop group Hear'say Hannah Spearritt actress and former member of pop group S Club 7, grew up in Gorleston Gregg Lowe actor Cliff Park Ormiston Academy, a secondary school in Gorleston Gorleston F. C. a Non-League football club who play at Emerald Park in Gorleston Norfolk Record Office Information Leaflet 33: Great Yarmouth, Great Yarmouth - The Golden Mile
Sittingbourne is an industrial town situated in the Swale district of Kent in south east England, 17 miles from Canterbury and 45 miles from London. The town sits beside the Roman Watling Street, an ancient British trackway used by the Romans and the Anglo-Saxons and next to the Swale, a strip of sea separating mainland Kent from the Isle of Sheppey; the town became prominent after the death of Thomas Becket in 1170, since it provided a convenient resting point on the road from London to Canterbury and Dover. Sittingbourne is growing due to a number of large residential developments, its railway line links to London Victoria and HS1 to St Pancras International, the journey taking about an hour from Sittingbourne railway station. Sittingbourne owes its name to a modernised version of an observation on its location; the town's name came from the fact that there is a small stream or "bourne" running underground in part of the town. Hasted writing in the 1790s in his History of Kent states that: The Kent Hundred Rolls of 1274-5, preserved in the National Archives, record Sittingbourne as Sydingeburn in the following entries " Item dicunt quod Johannes Maresescall de Synele tenet unam parvam purpresturam in villa de Sydingeburn et solvit domino regi per annum 1d et dominus rex nichil perdit et quod Petrus de London tenet unam parvam purpresturam in villa de Sydingeburn et solvit inde per annum domino regi 1d et rex nichil perdit."
Translated as, "Then they say John Marshall de Synele holds one small encroachment in the vill of Sittingbourne and he pays the lord king 1d. Each year and the lord king loses nothing and that Peter of London holds one small encroachment in the vill of Sittingbourne and he pays 1d; each year to the lord king and the king loses nothing." There is evidence of settlement in the area before 2000 BC, with farming and trading tribes living inland to avoid attack, yet close enough to access the sea at Milton Creek. In AD 43 the Romans invaded Kent, to make access quicker between London and Dover, built Watling Street, which passed straight through Sittingbourne; as a point where sea access met road access, the port of Milton Regis became the Roman administrative centre for the area, with some 20 villas so far discovered, but Sittingbourne remained a minor hamlet throughout Roman times. Most Roman finds in this area were due to the efforts of 19th century brick makers who used topsoil to make bricks, uncovered the finds.
There was no entry for Sittingbourne in the Domesday book of 1086 a note attached to Milton Regis showing a population of 393 households. However, after the murder of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket in 1170, pilgrims began to travel to Canterbury Cathedral and Sittingbourne became a useful hostelry for travellers. Sittingbourne is mentioned as a stopping point in The Canterbury Tales, with the Summoner in the Wife of Bath's Prologue says: The parish church of St Michael was built in the 13th century. At that time the High Street hostels; the Lyon – now the Red Lion – hosted King Henry V of England on his way back from the Battle of Agincourt, Henry VIII visited Sittingbourne in 1522 and 1532. In 1708 the Rose Inn was built called Rose Place and used as a private house. According to Edward Hasted "the principal inn now in it, called the Rose, is the most superb of any throughout the kingdom." In 1825 the future Queen Victoria and her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld stayed overnight at the Rose Inn.
After the railway came in 1858, Sittingbourne became less a market trading and hostelry stop-off, more a 19th-century centre of production to fuel the expansion of London, by producing bricks and paper from its clay substrata. The area around Sittingbourne was subject to constant air raids by Zeppelins and aeroplanes during the First World War; the Germans used the town as a reference point for bearings on the way to London. The first visit by a German aeroplane happened on Christmas Day 1914. Guns at Sheerness fired at the lone invader but still one shell dropped into a field at Iwade; the next event was to occur on 16 January 1915 when another solitary pilot from a German aerodrome in Belgium bombed Sittingbourne. This aircraft, a Taube, was pursued by two local airmen, but managed to escape after dropping a couple of bombs. About 100 air raid warnings were sounded in Sittingbourne during the First World War and anti-aircraft batteries were strengthened in 1917; the last big raid to pass over the town on Whit Sunday, carried out by a number of Gothas, eliciting the most ferocious barrage from the ground defences the town had seen.
The local newspaper, the East Kent Gazette, reported: "The first of these duels occurred about an hour after the raid had been in progress, this machine was caught while on its way to London. It was engaged by a daring aviation officer while at a great height; the British airman attacked his opponent so fiercely that the German was forced down to a lower height, to the joy of the onlookers, the Gotha burst into flames, seemed to break in two and came down piecemeal, all aflame. The wrecked machine and the three occupants fell by a farm. Two of the Germans fell into marshy ground and their bodies were embedded in the mud; the third man's head was shattered like an eggshell. All three bodies were removed to a local aviation establishment; the fall of the burning Gotha was seen for miles around."The second Gotha was surrounded by British fighters shortly after, returning from a successful raid on London. Donald John Dean VC OBE of Sittingbourne was awarded the Victoria Cross for deeds carried out in
A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus; the crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. It is important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, but is used in the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as by the Lutheran and Anglican Churches; the symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus. The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice — his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross. Western crucifixes have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is painted on the cross, or in low relief. Speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed.
An entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either. Large crucifixes high across the central axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood. By the late Middle Ages these were a near-universal feature of Western churches, but are now rare. Modern Roman Catholic churches have a crucifix above the altar on the wall; the standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes and a single crosspiece to which the sufferer's arms were nailed. There may be a short projecting nameplate, showing the letters INRI; the Russian Orthodox crucifix has an additional third crossbar, to which the feet are nailed, and, angled upward toward the penitent thief Saint Dismas and downward toward the impenitent thief Gestas. The corpus of Eastern crucifixes is a two-dimensional or low relief icon that shows Jesus as dead, his face peaceful and somber, they are three-dimensional figures as in the Western tradition, although these may be found where Western influences are strong, but are more icons painted on a piece of wood shaped to include the double-barred cross and the edge of Christ's hips and halo, no background.
More sculptural small crucifixes in metal relief are used in Orthodoxy, including as pectoral crosses and blessing crosses. Western crucifixes may show Christ dead or alive, the presence of the spear wound in his ribs traditionally indicating that he is dead. In either case his face often shows his suffering. In Orthodoxy he has been shown as dead since around the end of the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Eastern crucifixes have Jesus' two feet nailed side by side, rather than crossed one above the other, as Western crucifixes have shown them since around the 13th century; the crown of thorns is generally absent in Eastern crucifixes, since the emphasis is not on Christ's suffering, but on his triumph over sin and death. The "S"-shaped position of Jesus' body on the cross is a Byzantine innovation of the late 10th century, though found in the German Gero Cross of the same date. More from Byzantine influence, it spread elsewhere in the West to Italy, by the Romanesque period, though it was more usual in painting than sculpted crucifixes.
It's in Italy that the emphasis was put on Jesus' suffering and realistic details, during a process of general humanization of Christ favored by the Franciscan order. During the 13th century the suffering Italian model triumphed over the traditional Byzantine one anywhere in Europe due to the works of artists such as Giunta Pisano and Cimabue. Since the Renaissance the "S"-shape is much less pronounced. Eastern Christian blessing crosses will have the Crucifixion depicted on one side, the Resurrection on the other, illustrating the understanding of Orthodox theology that the Crucifixion and Resurrection are two intimately related aspects of the same act of salvation. Another, depiction shows a triumphant Christ, clothed in robes, rather than stripped as for His execution, with arms raised, appearing to rise up from the cross, sometimes accompanied by "rays of light", or an aureole encircling His Body, he may be robed as a prophet, crowned as a king, vested in a stole as Great High Priest. On some crucifixes a skull and crossbones are shown below the corpus, referring to Golgotha, the site at which Jesus was crucified, which the Gospels say means in Hebrew "the place of the skull."
Medieval tradition held that it was the burial-place of Adam and Eve, that the cross of Christ was raised directly over Adam's skull, so many crucifixes manufactured in Catholic countries still show the skull and crossbones below the corpus. Large crucifixes have been built, the largest being the Cross in the Woods in Michigan, with a 31 feet high statue. Prayer in front of a crucifix, seen as a sacramental, is part of devotion for Christians those worshipping in a church privately; the person may sit, stand, or kneel in front of the crucifix, sometimes looking at it in contemplation, or in front of it with head bowed or eyes closed. During the Middle Ages small crucifixes hung on a wall, beca
Westminster Cathedral, or the Metropolitan Cathedral of the Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in London is the mother church of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. The site on which the cathedral stands in the City of Westminster was purchased by the Diocese of Westminster in 1885, construction was completed in 1903. Westminster Cathedral is the largest Catholic church building in England and Wales and the seat of the Archbishop of Westminster, it was designed by John Francis Bentley in a neo-Byzantine style, is accordingly made entirely of brick, without steel reinforcements. John Betjeman has called it "a masterpiece in striped brick and stone" and said that it shows that "the good craftsman has no need of steel or concrete." In the late 19th century, the Catholic Church's hierarchy had only been restored in England and Wales, it was in memory of Cardinal Wiseman that the first substantial sum of money was raised for the new cathedral. The land was acquired in 1884 by Wiseman's successor, Cardinal Manning, having been occupied by the second Tothill Fields Bridewell prison.
After two false starts in 1867 and 1892, construction started in 1895 under Manning's successor, the third archbishop, Cardinal Vaughan, with John Francis Bentley as architect, built in a style influenced by Byzantine architecture. The cathedral opened in 1903, a year after Bentley's death. One of the first public services in the cathedral was Cardinal Vaughan's requiem. For reasons of economy, the decoration of the interior had hardly been started and still much remained to be completed. Under the laws of the Catholic Church at the time, no place of worship could be consecrated unless free from debt and having its fabric completed; the consecration ceremony took place on 28 June 1910. In 1895, the Cathedral was dedicated to The Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ; this is indicated by the Latin dedication above the portal arch: "Domine Jesus Rex et Redemptor per Sanguinem tuum salva nos". The additional patrons are St Mary, the mother of Jesus, St Joseph, his Foster Father, St Peter, his Vicar.
The Cathedral has numerous secondary patrons: St Augustine and all British saints, St Patrick and all saints of Ireland. The Feast of the Dedication of the Cathedral is celebrated each year on 1 July, which from 1849 until 1969 was the feast of the Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ. In 1977, as part of her Silver Jubilee celebrations, Queen Elizabeth II visited the cathedral to view a flower show. On 28 May 1982, the first day of his six-day pastoral visit to the United Kingdom, Pope John Paul II celebrated Mass in the cathedral. On St Andrew's Day 1995, at the invitation of Cardinal Basil Hume, Queen Elizabeth again visited the cathedral but this time she attended Choral Vespers, the first participation of the Queen in a Catholic church liturgy in Great Britain. On 18 September 2010, on the third day of his four-day state visit to the United Kingdom, Pope Benedict XVI celebrated Mass in the cathedral. In January 2011 the cathedral was the venue for the reception and ordination of three former Anglican bishops into the newly formed Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham.
The whole building, in the neo-Byzantine style, covers a floor area of about 5,017 square metres. In planning the nave, a system of supports was adopted not unlike that to be seen in most Gothic cathedrals, where huge, yet narrow, buttresses are projected at intervals, stiffened by transverse walls and vaulting. Unlike in a Gothic cathedral, at Westminster they are limited to the interior; the main piers and transverse arches that support the domes divide the nave into three bays, each about 395 square metres. The domes rest on the arches at a height of 27 metres from the floor, the total internal height being 34 metres. In selecting the pendentive type of dome, of shallow concavity, for the main roofing and pressure have been reduced to a minimum; the domes and pendentures are formed of concrete, as extraneous roofs of timber were dispensed with, it was necessary to provide a thin independent outer shell of impervious stone. The concrete flat roofing around the domes is covered with asphalt.
The sanctuary is Byzantine in its system of construction. The extensions that open out on all sides make; the eastern termination of the cathedral suggests the Romanesque, or Lombardic style of Northern Italy. The crypt with openings into the sanctuary, thus following the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, the open colonnade under the eaves, the timber roof following the curve of the apex, are all familiar features; the large buttresses resist the pressure of a vault 14.5-metre in span. Although the cruciform plan is not noticeable inside the building, it is emphasised outside by the boldly projecting transepts; these with their twin gables, slated roofs, square turrets with pyramidal stone cappings suggest a Norman prototype in striking contrast to the rest of the design. The main structural parts of the building are of brick and concrete, the latter material being used for the vaulting and domes of graduated thickness and complicated curve. Following B