Grand Duchy of Moscow
The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow was a Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered around Moscow, the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow in 1283, eclipsing and absorbing its parent duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal by the 1320s, it annexed the Novgorod Republic in 1478 and the Grand Duchy of Tver in 1485. After the Mongol invasion of Rus', Muscovy was a tributary vassal to the Mongol-ruled Golden Horde until 1480. Muscovites and other inhabitants of the Rus' principality were able to maintain their Slavic and Orthodox traditions for the most part under the Tatar Yoke. There was strong contact and cultural exchange with the Byzantine Empire. Ivan III further consolidated the state during his 43-year reign, campaigning against his major remaining rival power, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, by 1503 he had tripled the territory of his realm, adopting the title of tsar and claiming the title of "Ruler of all Rus'".
By his marriage to the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, he claimed Muscovy to be the successor state of the Roman Empire, the "Third Rome". The emigration of the Byzantine people influenced and strengthened Moscow's identity as the heir of the Orthodox traditions. Ivan's successor Vasili III enjoyed military success, gaining Smolensk from Lithuania in 1512, pushing Muscovy's borders to the Dniepr River. Vasili's son Ivan IV was an infant at his father's death in 1533, he was crowned in 1547, assuming the title of tsar together with the proclamation of Tsardom of Russia. As with many medieval states the country had no particular "official" name, but rather official titles of the ruler. "The Duke of Moscow" or "the Sovereign of Moscow" were common short titles. After the unification with the Duchy of Vladimir in the mid-14th century, the dukes of Moscow might call themselves "the Duke of Vladimir and Moscow", as Vladimir was much older than Moscow and much more "prestigious" in the hierarchy of possessions, although the principal residence of the dukes had been always in Moscow.
In rivalry with other duchies Moscow dukes designated themselves as the "Grand Dukes", claiming a higher position in the hierarchy of Russian dukes. During the territorial growth and acquisitions, the full title became rather lengthy. In routine documents and on seals, various short names were applied: "the Duke of Moscow", "the Sovereign of Moscow", "the Grand Duke of all Rus'", "the Sovereign of all Rus'", or ""the Grand Duke" or "the Great Sovereign". In spite of feudalism the collective name of the Eastern Slavic land, Rus', was not forgotten, though it became a cultural and geographical rather than political term, as there was no single political entity on the territory. Since the 14th century various Moscow dukes added "of all Rus'" to their titles, after the title of Russian metropolitans, "the Metropolitan of all Rus'". Dmitry Shemyaka was the first Moscow duke who minted coins with the title "the Sovereign of all Rus'". Although both "Sovereign" and "all Rus'" were supposed to be rather honorific epithets, since Ivan III it transformed into the political claim over the territory of all the former Kievan Rus', a goal that the Moscow duke came closer to by the end of that century, uniting eastern Rus'.
Such claims raised much opposition and hostility from its main rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which controlled a large portion of the land of ancient Rus' and hence denied any claims and the self-name of the eastern neighbour. Under the Polish-Lithuanian influence the country began to be called Muscovy in Western Europe; the first appearances of the term were in an Italian document of 1500. Moscovia was the Latinized name of the city of Moscow itself, not of the state; the term Muscovy persisted in the West until the beginning of the 18th century and is still used in historical contexts. When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, Moscow was an insignificant trading outpost in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. Although the Mongols burnt down Moscow in the winter of 1238 and pillaged it in 1293, the outpost's remote, forested location offered some security from Mongol attacks and occupation, while a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region.
More important to the development of the state of Moscow, was its rule by a series of princes who expanded its borders and turned a small principality in the Moscow River Basin into the largest state in Europe of the 16th century. The first ruler of the principality of Moscow, Daniel I, was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal, he started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family. Daniel's son Yuriy controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by conquering Mozhaisk, he forged an alliance with the overlord of the Rus' principalities, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde, married the khan's sister. The Khan allowed Yuriy to claim the title of Gran
Don Cossacks or Donians, are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don. They have been located within what was the Don Cossack Host, either an independent or an autonomous democratic republic in the present-day Southern Russia and the Donbass region of Ukraine, from the end of the 16th century until 1918; as of 1992, by the presidential decree of the Russian Federation, Cossacks can be enrolled on a special register. A number of Cossack communities have been reconstituted to further the Cossack cultural traditions, including those of the Don Cossack Host. Don Cossacks have had a rich military tradition, playing an important part in the historical development of the Russian Empire and participating in most of its major wars; the name Cossack was used to describe "free people" as opposed to others with different standing in a feudal society. The word'cossack' was applied to migrants, free-booters and bandits; the exact origins of Cossacks are unknown. In the modern view, Don Cossacks are descendants of Slavic people, who came from the Dnieper, Novgorod Republic, Principality of Ryazan, of Goths-Alans people originating from the Western part of North Caucasus.
More than two thousand years ago the Scythians lived on the banks of the river Don. Many Scythian tombs have been found in this area. Subsequently, the area was inhabited by the Khazars and the Polovtsians; the steppes of the Don River were called "The Wild Field". The area was under the general control of the Golden Horde, numerous Tatar armed groups roamed there, attacking Russian and foreign merchants; the first Christians to settle on the territories around the Don were the Kosogi tribes. After the fall of the Golden Horde in 1480, more Russian colonists started to expand onto this land from the Novgorod Republic after the Battle of Shelon and from neighboring Principality of Ryazan; until the end of the 16th century, the Don Cossacks inhabited independent free territories. Cossacks of Ryazan are mentioned in 1444 as defenders of Pereslavl-Zalessky against the units of Golden Horde and in a letter of Ivan III of Russia since 1502. After the Golden Horde fell in 1480, the area around the Don River was divided between the Crimean west side and the Nogai east side.
On their border since the 14th century the vast steppe of the Don region was populated by those people who were not satisfied with the existing social order, by those who did not recognize the power of the land-owners, by runaway serfs, by those who longed for freedom. In the course of time they turned into a united community and were called "the Cossacks". At first the main occupation of these small armed detachments was hunting and fishing—as well as the constant struggle against the Turks and the Tatars who attacked them. Only they began to settle and work on the land; the first records relating to the Cossack villages: the "stanitsa", date back to 1549. In the year 1552 Don Cossacks under the command of Ataman Susar Fedorov joined the Army of Ivan the Terrible during the Siege of Kazan in 1552. On 2 June 1556 the Cossack regiment of Ataman Lyapun Filimonov, together with the Army of Moscovits comprising strelets and annexed the Astrakhan Khanate. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the ataman Yermak Timofeyevich went on an expedition to conquer Siberia.
After defeating Khan Kuchum in the fall of 1582 and occupying Isker: the capital of the Siberian Khanate, Yermak sent a force of cossacks down the Irtysh in the winter of 1583. The detachment led by Bogdan Bryazga. Taken by surprise by the cossack attack, the Ostyaks surrendered. In fall 1585, shortly after Yermak's death, Cossacks led by voevoda Ivan Mansurov founded the first Russian fortified town in Siberia, Obskoy, at the mouth of the Irtysh river on the right bank of the Ob river; the Mansi and Khanty lands thus became part of the Russian state secured by the founding of the cities of Pelym and Berezov in 1592 and Surgut in 1594. As a result of Yermak's expedition, Russia was able to annex Siberia. During the Polish–Muscovite War, the Polish–Lithuanian noble Aleksander Józef Lisowski founded a cavalry mercenary group from various outlaws Don Cossacks; this group served under the Polish Crown. This phase culminated in the Battle of White Mountain in November 8, 1620, where the Lisowczycy were sent by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly against Hungarian cavalry.
They were victorious. After the battle, they terrorised village people around Prague and other cities, so they were expeditiously paid and released from service in May 7, 1621; some returned to Poland, others served under Elector of Bavaria. Under Peter the Great and subsequent rulers, the Don Cossacks participated in numerous military campaigns, which resulted in the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. For years, the Cossacks waged war against the Crimean Khanate. In 1637 the Don Cossacks, joined by the Zaporozhian Cossacks, captured the strategic Ottoman fortress of Azov, which guarded
Rostov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has an area of 100,800 square kilometers and a population of 4,277,976, making it the sixth most populous federal subject in Russia, its administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don, which became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District in 2002. Rostov Oblast borders Ukraine and Volgograd and Voronezh Oblasts in the north and Stavropol Krais in the south, the Republic of Kalmykia in the east, it is within the Russian Southern Federal District. The Don River, one of Europe's largest rivers, flows through the oblast for part of its course. Lakes cover only 0.4% of the oblast's area. It was formed in 1937 out of the Azov-Black Sea Krai. Population: 4,277,976 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 49 715 Deaths: 59 376 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.38 | 2010 - 1.38 | 2011 - 1.39 | 2012 - 1.51 | 2013 - 1.52 | 2014 - 1.61 | 2015 - 1.63 | 2016 - 1.60 Ethnic groups: Residents identified themselves as belonging to 157 different ethnic groups, including twenty-seven of more than two thousand persons each.
The most important ethnicities are the 3,795,607 ethnic Russians. Other important groups are the 35,902 Turks. There were 76,498 people belonging to other ethno-cultural groupings. 76,735 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 49.5% of the population of Rostov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are either Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other Orthodox bodies, 1% are Muslims, 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith movement. In addition, 26% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, 3.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The Ascension Cathedral is the largest Russian Orthodox church in Novocherkassk, Rostov Oblast, Russia, it used to be one of the largest churches of the Russian Empire and the main church of the Don Host Province.
The five-domed building, which stands 75 meters tall, is a notable example of the Russian Neo-Byzantine architecture. It was erected between 1904 on the site of an earlier church; the first church on the site was built to Luigi Rusca's designs. It collapsed in 1846. A replacement church collapsed 17 years later. Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin ― one of the oldest churches in Rostov-on-Don. For a considerable period of time Intercession Church served as the principal church not only for the fortress of St. Dimitry of Rostov, but for people of local settlements. Since the end of the 18th century Church of Intercession had been considered to be a cathedral; the status changed in 1822, when Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the decree of the Holy Synod was declared cathedral. The region is 8057 of objects of archaeological heritage of Federal importance; these include lower-Gnilovskaya a settlement and a necropolis, fragments of the walls of the Genoese fortress of the 14th century, the archaeological Museum-reserve "Tanais", many burial Mounds and necropolises.
Since 2002, in the Rostov region are the country's only racing on tractors "bison-Track-Show". In a unique competition brings together machine operators of agricultural enterprises of Russia and abroad. In the past the race on tractors have become a real sports holiday of workers of agriculture. Rostov academic drama theatre named after Maxim Gorky. Rostov State Musical Theater; the theater opened in September 1999, is the successor to the 1919 Rostov Musical Comedy Theater, one of the best operetta theaters in the Soviet Union. The theater has two stages as well as a music and entertainment center, hosts about 300 performances and concerts annually, as well as various forums and festivals, its repertoire encompasses both musical traditions, as well as experiments in the field of contemporary art. Rostov state puppet theatre. Rostov regional academic youth theatre. Taganrog Theatre; the Taganrog Theater was established in 1827 by governor Alexander Dunaev. The theater was subsidized by the Taganrog's City Council since 1828, its first director was Alexander Gor.
The first group of Russian drama artists was directed by Perovsky and toured around the region, giving performances in Rostov on Don, Bahmut. The repertoire consisted of dramas and vaudevilles. In 1874, the Taganrog Municipality acquired the theater building by the purchase of its stocks. Don theatre of drama and Comedy V. F. Komissarzhevskaya Novocherkassk. Shakhty drama theatre, Shakhty. Novoshakhtinskiy drama theatre, Novoshakhtinsk. Rostov Regional Museum of Local History. Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts. Museum of Contemporary Art at Dmitrovskaya. Museum of Russian-Armenian Friendship. Museum of North Caucasus Railway; the first museum of history of North Caucasus Railway opened on 4 November 1960 in a Community Center of railwaymen at Rostov-Glavny station. Permanent exposition includes: information boards about famous North Caucasus railwaymen, model
In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians. Apollonius Rhodius, at Argonautica, mentions that Amazons were the daughters of Harmonia, they were brutal and aggressive, their main concern in life was war. Lysias, Philostratus the Elder say that their father was Ares. Herodotus and Strabo place them on the banks of the Thermodon River. According to Diodorus, giving the account of Dionysius of Mitylene, the Amazons inhabited Ancient Libya long before they settled along the Thermodon. Migrating from Libya, these Amazons passed through Egypt and Syria, stopped at the Caïcus in Aeolis, near which they founded several cities. Diodorus maintains, they established Mytilene a little way beyond the Caïcus. Aeschylus, in Prometheus Bound, places the original home of the Amazons in the country about Lake Maeotis, from which they moved to Themiscyra on the Thermodon. Homer tells that the Amazons were found somewhere near Lycia. Notable queens of the Amazons are Penthesilea, who participated in the Trojan War, her sister Hippolyta, whose magical girdle, given to her by her father Ares, was the object of one of the labours of Heracles.
Diodorus mentions. Amazon warriors were depicted in battle with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art. Archaeological discoveries of burial sites with female warriors on the Eurasian steppes suggest that the Scythian women may have inspired the Amazon myth. From the early modern period, their name has become a term for female warriors in general. Amazons were said to have founded the cities and temples of Smyrna, Cyme, Ephesus, Magnesia, Pygela and Amastris. Palaephatus, trying to rationalize the Greek myths in his On Unbelievable Tales, wrote that the Amazons were men, but their enemies mistook for women by because they wore clothing which reached their feet, tied up their hair in headbands and shaved their beards, in addition, because they did not exist during his time, most they did nοt exist in the past either; the origin of the word is uncertain. It may be derived from an Iranian ethnonym *ha-mazan- "warriors", a word attested indirectly through a derivation, a denominal verb in Hesychius of Alexandria's gloss "ἁμαζακάραν· πολεμεῖν.
Πέρσαι", where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make". It may be derived from *ṇ-mṇ-gw-jon-es "manless, without husbands" has been proposed, an explanation deemed "unlikely" by Hjalmar Frisk. 19th-century scholarship connected the term to the ethnonym Amazigh. A further explanation proposes Iranian *ama-janah "virility-killing" as source; the Hittite researcher Friedrich Cornelius assumes that there had been the land Azzi with the capital Chajasa in the area of the Thermodon-Iris Delta on the coast of the Black Sea. He brings its residents in direct relation to the Amazons, namely based on its customs; the location of that land as well as his conclusions are controversial. Among Classical Greeks, amazon was given a folk etymology as originating from a- and mazos, "without breast", connected with an etiological tradition once claimed by Marcus Justinus who alleged that Amazons had their right breast cut off or burnt out. There is no indication of such a practice in ancient works of art, in which the Amazons are always represented with both breasts, although one is covered.
Adrienne Mayor suggests. Greeks used some descriptive phrases for them. Herodotus used the Androktones and Androleteirai, in the Iliad they are called Antianeirai and Aeschylus, in his work Prometheus Bound, used styganor. Herodotus and Strabo placed them on the banks of the Themiscyra. Herodotus mentions that some Amazons lived at Scythia because after the Greeks defeated the Amazons in battle, they sailed away carrying in three ships as many Amazons as they had been able to take alive, but out at sea the Amazons attacked the crews and killed them these Amazons landed at Scythian lands. Strabo writes that the original home of the Amazons was in Themiscyra and the plains about Thermodon and the mountains that lie above them, but were driven out of these places, during his time they were said to live in the mountains above Caucasian Albania, but he states that some others, among them Metrodorus of Scepsis and Hypsicrates, say that after Themiscyra, the Amazons traveled and lived on the borders of the Gargarians, in the northerly foothills of those parts of the Caucasian Mountains which are called Ceraunian.
Diodorus giving the account of Dionysius of Mitylene, who, on his part, drew on Thymoetas states that before the Amazons of the Thermodon there were, much earlier in time, the Amazons of Libya. These Amazons started from Libya passed through Egypt and Syria, stopped at the Caïcus in Aeolis, near which they founded several cities, he says, they es
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points. Opened in 1952, the length of the waterway is 45 km through rivers and reservoirs; the canal forms a part of the Unified Deep Water System of European Russia. Together with the lower Volga and the lower Don, the Volga–Don Canal provides the most direct navigable connection between the Caspian Sea and the world's oceans via the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea; as the lower course of the Don approaches the lower course of the Volga near today's Volgograd, the idea of connecting the two rivers by an artificial waterway has a long history. After capturing Azov in 1696, Peter the Great decided to build the canal, because of a lack of resources and other problems, this attempt was abandoned in 1701 without success. In 1701, he initiated a second attempt under the administration of Knyaz Matvey Gagarin. Instead of connecting the lower course of the Don with the lower course of the Volga near the present canal, the Ivanovsky Canal connected the upper course of the Don in what is now Tula Oblast.
Between 1702 and 1707, twenty-four locks were constructed, and, in 1707, about 300 ships passed the canal under remarkably difficult navigation conditions. In 1709 due to financial difficulties caused by the Great Northern War, the project was halted. In 1711, under terms of the Treaty of the Pruth, Russia left Azov and Peter the Great lost all interest in the canal, abandoned and fell into ruin. Over time, other projects for connecting the two rivers were proposed; the actual construction of today's Volga–Don Canal, designed by Sergey Zhuk's Hydroproject Institute, began prior to the Second World War, which would interrupt the process. Construction works continued from 1948 to 1952; the canal and its facilities were built by about 900,000 workers including some 100,000 German POWs and 100,000 gulag prisoners. A day spent at the construction yard was counted as three days in prison, which spurred prisoners to work. Several convicts were awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour upon their release.
Upon completion, the Volga–Don Canal became an important link of the Unified Deep Water Transportation System of the European part of the USSR. The canal starts at the Sarepta backwater on the Volga River and ends in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir of the Don River at the town of Kalach-na-Donu; the canal has nine one-chamber canal locks on the Volga slope, which can raise ships 88 m, four canal locks of the same kind on the Don slope, which can lower ships 44 m. The overall dimensions of the canal locks are smaller than those on the Volga River, however they can pass ships of up to 5,000 tonnes cargo capacity; the smallest locks are 145 m long, 17 m wide, 3.6 m deep. Maximum allowed vessel size is 16.6 m wide and 3.5 m deep. The Volga–Don Canal is filled from the Don river. Water is taken from the canal and used for irrigation. Types of cargo transported from the Don region to the Volga region include coal from Donetsk, minerals, building materials, grain. Cargoes from the Volga to the Don include lumber and petroleum products.
Tourist ships travel in both directions. The Volga–Don Canal, together with the Tsimlyansky water-engineering system, form part of an architectural ensemble dedicated to the battles for Tsaritsyn during the Russian Civil War and for Stalingrad during the German-Soviet War; the Russian classical composer Sergei Prokofiev wrote the tone poem The Meeting of the Volga and the Don to celebrate its completion. According to the Maritime Board of the Russian Government, 10.9 million tonnes of cargo were carried over the Volga–Don Canal in 2004. An alternate source claims 8.05 million tonnes of cargo was transported through the canal in total in 2006. Most of the cargo was moved from the east to the west: namely, 7.20 million tonnes were transported through the canal from the Volga/Caspian basin to the Don/Sea of Azov/Black Sea basin, only 0.85 million tonnes in the opposite direction. Just over half of all cargo was oil products, predominantly shipped from the Caspian region, it was reported in 2007 that in the first 55 years of the canal's operations 450,000 vessels had passed through carrying 336 million tonnes of cargo.
Recent cargo volume stood at 12 million tonnes a year. In the 1980s, construction started on a second canal between the Don; the new canal, dubbed Volga–Don 2 would start from the township of Yerzovka on the Volgograd Reservoir, north of the Volga Dam, as opposed to the existing Volga–Don Canal, which starts south of the dam. This canal would reduce the number of locks that ships coming from the Volgograd Reservoir – or from any other Volga or Kama port farther north – would have to traverse on their way to the Don; the project was abruptly canceled on 1 August 1990 due to financial considerations, although by that time more than 40 percent of allocated funds had been spent. Since most of the stone and metal in the abandoned canal and its locks has been looted; as of 2007–2008, Russian authorities are considering two options for increasing the throughput of naviga
Lipetsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Lipetsk; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,173,513. Lipetsk Oblast borders with Ryazan Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, Kursk Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Tula Oblast. According to archaeologists and historians, the territory in which for the time being is the Lipetsk Oblast was inhabited since ancient times. Before the arrival of the Mongol-Tatar troops here were of Elec, Dobrinskaya Oaklet, Old fort Vorgol, Voronozh and others. During the Mongol invasion of Rus', many fortified cities had been destroyed. Earth Lipetsk Oblast at the beginning of the period belonged to the disintegration of the Chernigov principality. After 1202, after the death of Chernigov Prince Igor Svyatoslavich Yelets arose and Vorgolskoe fiefdoms. Taking advantage of the weakness of the principality of Chernigov, Ryazan princes seized all the lands of the upper Don, Voronezh River and annexed them to his possessions. For the newly acquired territories in the south of the Ryazan principality subsequently established name "Ryazan Ukraine."
The revival of the territory began after the expulsion of the nomads. In a short period of time were built fortified city: Duncan Talitskii jail, Eletskaya fortress Lebedian. In 1635, construction began on a strong fortified line - Belgorod defense line, which in the Lipetsk region within a modern fortress stood out: Good and Usman. Near the plants have populations of workers. One of these settlements was working Lipetsk settlement. At this time, because of the creation of the Navy and the regular army increased the need for flax and wool. So begins to develop agriculture. In the 18th century the continued growth of large landed estates. Lipetsk region, rich black earth, was the breadbasket of the state. Subsequently, he became known as a resort and mineral waters. During the February Revolution, the October Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War, the lives of many cultural values, private collections of art and literature, but because of the ensuing repression against the church and the "bourgeois past" affected the architectural ensembles of the estates of the nobility and churches.
The modern oblast was formed by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on January 6, 1954 from parts of Voronezh, Tambov and Oryol Oblasts. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Lipetsk CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Lipetsk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Lipetsk Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province.
The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official, who acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Since 1998, the Governor is Oleg Korolyov; the most important industrial branches are the mechanical engineering. The most industrialized cities are Lipetsk, the administrative center, Yelets; the region's fuel and energy complex is represented by petroleum product marketing companies, a network of consumer gas pipelines, a power grid. The largest companies in the region include NLMK, Cherkizovo Pig Farming, JSC Progress, the local branch of Indesit Company. Crop cultivation and horticulture form the basis of the region's agriculture. Livestock farming specializes in cattle, goats and poultry; the processing industry is well developed. Population: 1,173,513 . Ethnic composition: Russians: 96.3% Ukrainians: 0.9% Armenians: 0.6% Azerbaijanis: 0.3% Others: 1.9% 45,268 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. Total fertility rate: 2003 - 1,24 | 2004 - 1,28 | 2005 - 1,27 | 2006 - 1,28 | 2007 - 1,36 | 2008 - 1,43 | 2009 - 1,44 | 2010 - 1,47 | 2011 - 1,47 | 2012 - 1.63 | 2013 - 1.60 | 2014 - 1.66 | 2015 - 1.70 | 2016 - 1.70 According to a 2012 survey 71.3% of the population of Lipetsk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims, 1% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith movement. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 6% is atheist, 2.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The world's f
Generations of Noah
The Generations of Noah or Table of Nations is a genealogy of the sons of Noah and their dispersion into many lands after the Flood, focusing on the major known societies. The term nations to describe the descendants is a standard English translation of the Hebrew word "goy", following the c. 400 CE Latin Vulgate's "nationes", does not have the same political connotations that the word entails today. The list of 70 names introduces for the first time a number of well known ethnonyms and toponyms important to biblical geography such as Noah's three sons Shem and Japheth, from which were derived Semites and Japhetites, certain of Noah's grandsons including Elam, Aram and Canaan, from which the Elamites, Arameans and Canaanites, as well as further descendants including Eber, the hunter-king Nimrod, the Philistines and the sons of Canaan including Heth and Amorus, from which Hittites and Amorites; as Christianity took over the Roman world, it adopted the idea that all the world's peoples were descended from Noah.
But the tradition of Hellenistic Jewish identifications of the ancestry of various peoples, which concentrates much on the East Mediterranean and the Near East and is described below, became stretched and its historicity questioned. Not all Near Eastern people were covered, northern peoples important to the Late Roman and medieval world, such as the Celtic, Slavic and Nordic peoples were not covered, nor were others of the world's peoples, such as sub-Saharan Africans, Native Americans and peoples of Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Far East and Australasia. A variety of arrangements were devised by scholars in order to make the table fit, with for example the Scythians, who do feature in the tradition, being claimed as the ancestors of much of northern Europe. According to Joseph Blenkinsopp, the 70 names in the list express symbolically the unity of humanity, corresponding to the 70 descendants of Israel who go down into Egypt with Jacob at Genesis 46:27 and the 70 elders of Israel who visit God with Moses at the covenant ceremony in Exodus 24:1–9.
Chapters 1–11 of the Book of Genesis are structured around five toledot statements, of which the "generations of the sons of Noah, Shem and Japheth" is the fourth. Events before the Genesis flood narrative, the central toledot, correspond to those after: the post-Flood world is a new creation corresponding to the Genesis creation narrative, like Adam, Noah has three sons who will populate the world; the correspondences extend forward as well: there are 70 names in the Table, corresponding to the 70 Israelites who go down into Egypt at the end of Genesis and to the 70 elders of Israel who go up the mountain with Sinai to meet with God in Exodus. The symbolic force of these numbers is underscored by the way the names are arranged in groups of seven, suggesting that the Table is a symbolic means of implying universal moral obligation; the number 70 parallels a corruption of the account in the Hebrew religion, the Canaanite mythology, where 70 represents the amount of gods in the divine clan who are each assigned a subject people, where the supreme god El and his consort, has the title "Mother/Father of 70 gods," which, due to the coming of monotheism, had to be changed, but its symbolism lived on in the new religion.
The overall structure of the Table is: 1. Introductory formula, v.1 2. Japheth, vv.2–5 3. Ham, vv.6–20 4. Shem, 21–31 5. Concluding formula, v.32. The overall principle governing the assignment of various peoples within the Table is difficult to discern: it purports to describe all humankind, but in reality restricts itself to the Egyptian lands of the south, the Mesopotamian lands, Anatolia/Asia Minor and the Ionian Greeks, in addition, the "sons of Noah" are not organised by geography, language family or ethnic groups within these regions; the Table contains several difficulties: for example, the names Sheba and Havilah are listed twice, first as descendants of Cush the son of Ham, as sons of Joktan, the great-grandsons of Shem, while the Cushites are North African in verses 6–7 they are unrelated Mesopotamians in verses 10–14. The date of composition of Genesis 1–11 cannot be fixed with any precision, although it seems that an early brief nucleus was expanded with extra data. Portions of the Table itself'may' derive from the 10th century BCE, while others reflect the 7th century BCE and priestly revisions in the 5th century BCE.
Its combination of world review and genealogy corresponds to the work of the Greek historian Hecataeus of Miletus, active c.520 BCE. I Chronicles 1 includes a version of the Table of Nations from Genesis, but edited to make clearer that the intention is to establish the background for Israel; this is done by condensing various branches to focus on the story of his offspring. Most notably, it omits Genesis 10:9–14, in which Nimrod, a son of Cush, is linked to various cities in Mesopotamia, thus removing from Cush any Mesopotamian connection. In addition, Nimrod does not appear in any of the numerous Mesopotamian King Lists; the Table of Nations is expanded upon in detail in chapters 8–9 of the Book of Jubilees, sometimes known as the "Lesser Genesis," a work from the early Second Temple period. Jubilees is considered pseudepigraphical by most Christian and Jewish sects but thought to have been held in regard by many of the Church Fathers, its division of the descendants throughout the world are thought to have been influenced by the "Ionian world map" described in the Histories, the anomalous treatment of Canaan and Madai are thought to have been "propaganda for the territorial expansion of t