Ruth Alston Brown was an American singer-songwriter and actress, sometimes known as the "Queen of R&B". She was noted for bringing a pop music style to R&B music in a series of hit songs for Atlantic Records in the 1950s, such as "So Long", "Teardrops from My Eyes" and " He Treats Your Daughter Mean". For these contributions, Atlantic became known as "the house that Ruth built". Following a resurgence that began in the mid-1970s and peaked in the 1980s, Brown used her influence to press for musicians' rights regarding royalties and contracts, her performances in the Broadway musical Black and Blue earned Brown a Tony Award, the original cast recording won a Grammy Award. In 2017, Brown was inducted into National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in Michigan. Born in Portsmouth, Brown was the eldest of seven siblings, she attended I. C. Norcom High School, legally segregated. Brown's father was a dockhand, he directed the local church choir at Emmanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, but the young Ruth showed more interest in singing at USO shows and nightclubs, rebelling against her father.
She was inspired by Sarah Vaughan, Billie Holiday, Dinah Washington. In 1945, aged 17, Brown ran away from her home in Portsmouth along with the trumpeter Jimmy Brown, whom she soon married, to sing in bars and clubs, she spent a month with Lucky Millinder's orchestra. Blanche Calloway, Cab Calloway's sister a bandleader, arranged a gig for Brown at the Crystal Caverns, a nightclub in Washington, D. C. and soon became her manager. Willis Conover, the future Voice of America disc jockey, caught her act with Duke Ellington and recommended her to Atlantic Records bosses Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Brown was unable to audition as planned because of a car crash, which resulted in a nine-month stay in the hospital, she signed with Atlantic Records from her hospital bed. In 1948, Ertegün and Abramson drove from New York City to Washington, D. C. to hear Brown sing. Her repertoire was popular ballads, but Ertegün convinced her to switch to rhythm and blues. In her first audition, in 1949, she sang "So Long", which became a hit.
This was followed by "Teardrops from My Eyes" in 1950. Written by Rudy Toombs, it was the first upbeat major hit for Brown. Recorded for Atlantic Records in New York City in September 1950 and released in October, it was Billboard's R&B number one for 11 weeks; the hit earned her the nickname "Miss Rhythm", within a few months, she became the acknowledged queen of R&B. She followed up this hit with "I'll Wait for You", "I Know", "5-10-15 Hours", " He Treats Your Daughter Mean", "Oh What a Dream", "Mambo Baby", "Don't Deceive Me", some of which were credited to Ruth Brown and the Rhythm Makers. Between 1949 and 1955, her records stayed on the R&B chart for a total of 149 weeks. Brown played many racially segregated dances in the southern states, where she toured extensively and was immensely popular, she claimed that a writer had once summed up her popularity by saying, "In the South Ruth Brown is better known than Coca-Cola."Her first pop hit came with "Lucky Lips", a song written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and recorded in 1957.
The single reached number 6 on the R&B chart and number 25 on the U. S. pop chart. The 1958 follow-up was "This Little Girl's Gone Rockin'", written by Bobby Darin and Mann Curtis, it reached number 24 on the pop chart. She had further hits with "I Don't Know" in 1959 and "Don't Deceive Me" in 1960, which were more successful on the R&B chart than on the pop chart. During the 1960s, Brown lived as a housewife and mother, she returned to music in 1975 at the urging of the comedian Redd Foxx, followed by a series of comedic acting jobs. These included roles in the sitcom Hello, the John Waters film Hairspray, the Broadway productions of Amen Corner and Black and Blue; the latter earned her a Tony Award as Best Actress in a Musical.. She is the aunt to legendary Hip-Hop MC Rakim. Brown's fight for musicians' rights and royalties in 1987 led to the founding of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation, she was inducted as a recipient of the Pioneer Award in its first year, 1989. She was inducted into the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame in 1992 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993.
Brown sang with the rhythm-and-blues singer Charles Brown. She toured with Bonnie Raitt in the late 1990s, her 1995 autobiography, Miss Rhythm, won the Gleason Award for music journalism. She appeared on Bonnie Raitt's 1995 live DVD Road Tested, singing "Never Make Your Move Too Soon", she was nominated for another Grammy in the Traditional Blues category for her 1997 album, R + B = Ruth Brown. In the 2000 television miniseries Little Richard, she was portrayed by singer Tressa Thomas, she hosted the radio program Blues Stage, carried by more than 200 NPR affiliates, for six years, starting in 1989. Brown was still touring at the age of 78, she had completed preproduction work on the Danny Glover film, which she did not live to finish, but her recording of "Things About Comin' My Way" was released posthumously on the soundtrack CD. Her last interview was in August 2006. Brown died in a Las Vegas–area hospital on November 17, 2006, from complications following a heart attack and stroke she suffered after surgery in the previous month.
She was 78 years old. A memorial concert for her was held on January 22, 2007, at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York. Brown is buried a
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that operates late into the night. A nightclub is distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music; the upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry; some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as hip hop. Many clubs have recurring club nights on different days of the week. Most club nights focus on a particular sound for branding effects. From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox.
Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a "social hall" functioning as a home for dance and political activism events. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capone's involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York's 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, the Stork Club; these nightclubs featured big bands. In Germany, the first discothèque on record that involved a disc jockey was Scotch-Club, which opened in 1959. In Occupied France and bebop music, the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as "decadent American influences", so as an act of resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques where they danced to jazz and swing music, played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available; these discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous.
There were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables that she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music; the Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St; these original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a young public—mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe.
While the discothèque swept Europe throughout the 1960s, it did not reach the United States until the 1970s, where the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs until the disco era. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel's, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. Sybil Burton opened the "Arthur" discothèque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first and hottest disco in New York City through 1969; the first large-scale discothèque in Germany opened in 1967 as the club Blow Up in Munich, which because of its extravagance and excesses gained international reputation. Disco has its roots in the underground club scene. During the early 1970s in New York City, disco clubs were places where oppressed or marginalized groups such as homosexuals, Latinos, Italian-Americans, Jews could party without following male to female dance protocol or exclusive club policies.
Discoteques had a law. This shifted the idea of this post-heterosexist community, as women could be seen as a kind of gateway for men to advance their own experience without fear of being arrested under the male-to-male dancing law; the women sought these experiences to seek safety in a venue that embraced the independent woman — with an eye to one or more of the same or opposite sex or none. Although the culture that surrounded disco was progressive in dance couples, cross-genre music, a push to put the physical over the rational, the role of female bodies looked to be placed in the role of safety net, it brought together people from different backgrounds. These clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. By the late 1970s many major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes centered on discothèques and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "... a smooth mix of long single records to keep people'dancing all night long'".
Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music. The genre of disco has changed through the years, it is classified both as a nightclub. This club culture that originated in downtown New York, was attended by a variety of different ethnicities and economic backgrounds, it was an inex
Galveston is a coastal resort city and port off the southeast coast on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the American State of Texas. The community of 209.3 square miles, with an estimated population of 50,180 in 2015, is the county seat of surrounding Galveston County and second-largest municipality in the county. It is within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area at its southern end on the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Galveston, or Galvez' town, was named after the Spanish military and political leader in the 18th century: Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez, born in Macharaviaya, Málaga, in the Kingdom of Spain. Galveston's first European settlements on the Galveston Island were built around 1816 by French pirate Louis-Michel Aury to help the fledgling Republic of Mexico fight for independence from Spain, along with other colonies in the Western Hemisphere of the Americas in Central and South America in the 1810s and 1820s; the Port of Galveston was established in 1825 by the Congress of Mexico following its independence from Spain.
The city was the main port for the fledgling Texas Navy during the Texas Revolution of 1836, served temporarily as the new national capital of the now independent Republic of Texas. During the 19th century, Galveston became a major U. S. commercial center and one of the largest ports in the United States. It was for a time, Texas' largest city, known as the "Queen City of the Gulf", it was devastated by the unexpected Galveston Hurricane of 1900, whose effects included massive flooding and a storm surge which nearly wiped out the town. The natural disaster on the exposed barrier island is still ranked today as the deadliest in United States history, with an estimated death toll of 6,000 to 12,000 people; the city subsequently reemerged during the Prohibition era of 1919-1933 as a leading tourist hub and a center of illegal gambling nicknamed the Free State of Galveston until this era ended in the 1950s with subsequent other economic and social development. Much of Galveston's economy is centered in the tourism, health care and financial industries.
The 84-acre University of Texas Medical Branch campus with an enrollment of more than 2,500 students is a major economic force of the city. Galveston is home to six historic districts containing one of the largest and significant collections of 19th-century buildings in the U. S. with over 60 structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places, maintained by the National Park Service in the United States Department of the Interior. Galveston Island was inhabited by members of the Karankawa and Akokisa tribes who called the island Auia; the Spanish explorer Cabeza de Vaca and his crew were shipwrecked on the island or nearby in November 1528, calling it "Isla de Malhado". They began their years-long trek to a Spanish settlement in Mexico City. During his charting of the Gulf Coast in 1785, the Spanish explorer José de Evia named the island Villa Gálvez or Gálveztown in honor of Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez; the island's first permanent European settlements were constructed around 1816 by the pirate Louis-Michel Aury to support Mexico's rebellion against Spain.
In 1817, Aury returned from an unsuccessful raid against Spain to find Galveston occupied by the pirate Jean Lafitte. Lafitte organized Galveston into a pirate "kingdom" he called "Campeche", anointing himself the island's "head of government." Lafitte remained in Galveston until 1821, when the United States Navy forced him and his raiders off the island. In 1825 the Congress of Mexico established the Port of Galveston and in 1830 erected a customs house. Galveston served as the capital of the Republic of Texas when in 1836 the interim president David G. Burnet relocated his government there. In 1836, the French-Canadian Michel Branamour Menard and several associates purchased 4,605 acres of land for $50,000 to found the town that would become the modern city of Galveston; as Anglo-Americans migrated to the city, they brought along or purchased enslaved African-Americans, some of whom worked domestically or on the waterfront, including on riverboats. In 1839, the City of Galveston adopted a charter and was incorporated by the Congress of the Republic of Texas.
The city was by a burgeoning port of entry and attracted many new residents in the 1840s and among the flood of German immigrants to Texas, including Jewish merchants. Together with ethnic Mexican residents, these groups tended to oppose slavery, support the Union during the Civil War, join the Republican Party after the war. During this expansion, the city had many "firsts" in the state, with the founding of institutions and adoption of inventions: post office, naval base, Texas chapter of a Masonic order. During the American Civil War, Confederate forces under Major General John B. Magruder attacked and expelled occupying Union troops from the city in January 1863 in the Battle of Galveston. In 1867 Galveston suffered a yellow fever epidemic; these occurred in river cities throughout the 19th century, as did cholera epidemics. The city's progress continued through the Reconstruction era with numerous "firsts": construction of the opera house, orphanage, installation of telephone lines and electric lights.
Having attracted freedmen from rural areas, in 1870 the city had a black population that totaled 3,000, made up of former slaves but by persons who were free men of color and educated before the war. The "blacks" comprised nearly 25% of
Eric Patrick Clapton, is an English rock and blues guitarist and songwriter. He is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist and separately as a member of the Yardbirds and of Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most influential guitarists of all time. Clapton ranked second in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" and fourth in Gibson's "Top 50 Guitarists of All Time", he was named number five in Time magazine's list of "The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players" in 2009. In the mid-1960s Clapton left the Yardbirds to play with the Bluesbreakers. After leaving Mayall, Clapton formed the power trio Cream with drummer Ginger Baker and bassist Jack Bruce, in which Clapton played sustained blues improvisations and "arty, blues-based psychedelic pop". After Cream broke up, he formed blues rock band Blind Faith with Baker, Steve Winwood, Ric Grech. Clapton's solo career began in the 1970s, where his work bore the influence of the mellow style of J. J. Cale and the reggae of Bob Marley.
His version of Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff" helped. Two of his most popular recordings were "Layla", recorded with the Dominos. Following the death of his son Conor in 1991, Clapton's grief was expressed in the song "Tears in Heaven", which appeared on his Unplugged album. Clapton has been the recipient of 18 Grammy Awards, the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. In 2004 he was awarded a CBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music, he has received four Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors, including the Lifetime Achievement Award. In his solo career, Clapton has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling musicians of all time. In 1998, Clapton, a recovering alcoholic and drug addict, founded the Crossroads Centre on Antigua, a medical facility for recovering substance abusers. Clapton was born on 30 March 1945 in Ripley, England, to 16-year-old Patricia Molly Clapton and Edward Walter Fryer, a 25-year-old soldier from Montreal, Quebec.
Fryer shipped off to war prior to Clapton's birth and returned to Canada. Clapton grew up believing that his grandmother and her second husband, Jack Clapp, Patricia's stepfather, were his parents, that his mother was his older sister; the similarity in surnames gave rise to the erroneous belief. Years his mother married another Canadian soldier and moved to Germany, leaving young Eric with his grandparents in Surrey. Clapton received an acoustic Hoyer guitar, made in Germany, for his thirteenth birthday, but the inexpensive steel-stringed instrument was difficult to play and he lost interest. Two years Clapton picked it up again and started playing consistently. Clapton was influenced by the blues from an early age, practised long hours to learn the chords of blues music by playing along to the records, he preserved his practice sessions using his portable Grundig reel-to-reel tape recorder, listening to them over and over until he felt he'd got it right. In 1961, after leaving Hollyfield School in Surbiton, Clapton studied at the Kingston College of Art but was dismissed at the end of the academic year because his focus remained on music rather than art.
His guitar playing was so advanced. Around this time, Clapton began busking around Kingston and the West End. In 1962, Clapton started performing as a duo with fellow blues enthusiast David Brock in pubs around Surrey; when he was seventeen years old, Clapton joined his first band, an early British R&B group, the Roosters, whose other guitarist was Tom McGuinness. He stayed with this band from January until August 1963. In October of that year, Clapton did a seven-gig stint with the Engineers. In October 1963, Clapton joined the Yardbirds, a blues-influenced rock and roll band, stayed with them until March 1965. Synthesising influences from Chicago blues and leading blues guitarists such as Buddy Guy, Freddie King, B. B. King, Clapton forged a distinctive style and became one of the most talked-about guitarists in the British music scene; the band played Chess/Checker/Vee-Jay blues numbers and began to attract a large cult following when they took over the Rolling Stones' residency at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond.
They toured England with American bluesman Sonny Boy Williamson II. Yardbirds' rhythm guitarist, Chris Dreja, recalled that whenever Clapton broke a guitar string during a concert, he would stay on stage and replace it; the English audiences would wait out the delay by doing what is called a "slow handclap". Clapton's nickname of "Slowhand" came from Giorgio Gomelsky, a pun on the slow handclapping that ensued when Clapton stopped playing while he replaced a string. In December 1964, Clapton made his first appearance at the Royal Albert Hall, with the Yardbirds. Since Clapton has performed at the Hall over 200 times, has stated that performing at the venue is like "playing in my front room". In March 1965, Clapton and the Yardbirds had their first major hit, "For Your Love", written by songwriter Graham Gouldman, who wrote hit songs for Herman's Hermits and the Hollies. In part because of its success, the Yardbirds elected to move toward a pop-oriented sound, much
For the architect, see Don Albert & Partners. Albert Anité Dominique, better known by his stage name Don Albert was an American jazz trumpeter and bandleader. Albert's uncle was Natty Dominique, he was a relative of Barney Bigard, he got his start playing in parade brass bands in New Orleans at the beginning of the 1920s. He toured with the territory band of Alphonse Trent through the Southwest United States in 1925 played with Troy Floyd at the Shadowland Ballroom in San Antonio from 1926 to 1929. Albert led his own territory bands out of Texas in the 1930s and 1940s, with sidemen that included Alvin Alcorn, Louis Cottrell, Jr. and Herb Hall. After 1932 he acted more in a manager's capacity than as a performer, his bands played in Mexico and New York City in 1937 and won rave reviews from newspapers, but the band only recorded eight sides for Vocalion Records. He disbanded this group around 1939 due to economic conditions, found work in civil service and managing a nightclub in San Antonio in the early and mid-1940s.
He led a group at the Palace Theater in New York in 1949. In the 1950s he returned to active performance, playing in small groups in the 1950s through the 1970s, he played with Buddy Tate in New York in 1966 and at the New Orleans Jazz Festival in 1969. Don Albert at Allmusic Leonard Feather and Ira Gitler, The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. Oxford, 1999, p. 9. Interviews with Don Albert, January 15-18, 1980, February 1-8, 1980, University of Texas at San Antonio: Institute of Texan Cultures: Oral History Collection, UA 15.01, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections
Louis Thomas Jordan was an American musician and bandleader, popular from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. Known as "The King of the Jukebox", his highest profile came towards the end of the swing era. Jordan was a talented singer with great comedic flair, he fronted his own band for more than twenty years, he duetted with some of the biggest solo singing stars of his time, including Bing Crosby, Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong. Jordan was an actor and a film personality—he appeared in dozens of "soundies", made numerous cameos in mainstream features and short films, starred in two musical feature films made for him, he was an instrumentalist who specialized in the alto. He played the piano and clarinet. A productive songwriter, he wrote or co-wrote many songs that were influential classics of 20th-century popular music. Jordan began his career in big-band swing jazz in the 1930s, but he became known as one of the leading practitioners and popularizers of jump blues, a swinging, up-tempo, dance-oriented hybrid of jazz and boogie-woogie.
Performed by smaller bands consisting of five or six players, jump music featured shouted syncopated vocals and earthy, comedic lyrics on contemporary urban themes. It emphasized the rhythm section of piano and drums. Jordan's band pioneered the use of the electronic organ. With his dynamic Tympany Five bands, Jordan mapped out the main parameters of the classic R&B, urban blues and early rock-and-roll genres with a series of influential 78-rpm discs released by Decca Records; these recordings presaged many of the styles of black popular music of the late 1940s, 1950s and 1960s and exerted a strong influence on many leading performers in these genres. Many of his records were produced by Milt Gabler, who went on to refine and develop the qualities of Jordan's recordings in his production work with Bill Haley, including "Rock Around the Clock". Jordan ranks fifth in the list of the most successful African-American recording artists according to Joel Whitburn's analysis of Billboard magazine's R&B chart.
Though comprehensive sales figures are not available, he had at least four million-selling hits during his career. Jordan topped the R&B "race" charts and was one of the first black recording artists to achieve significant crossover in popularity with the mainstream American audience, having simultaneous Top Ten hits on the pop charts on several occasions. Jordan was born on July 8, 1908, in Brinkley, where his father, James Aaron Jordan, was a music teacher and bandleader for the Brinkley Brass Band and for the Rabbit Foot Minstrels, his mother, died when Louis was young. Jordan studied music under his father. In his youth he played in his father's bands instead of doing farm work, he played the piano professionally early in his career, but alto saxophone became his main instrument. However, he became better known as a songwriter and vocalist. Jordan attended Arkansas Baptist College, in Little Rock, majored in music. After a period with the Rabbit Foot Minstrels and with local bands, including Bob Alexander's Harmony Kings, he went to Philadelphia and New York.
In 1932, Jordan began performing with the Clarence Williams band, when he was in Philadelphia he played clarinet in the Charlie Gaines band. In late 1936 he was invited to join the influential Savoy Ballroom orchestra, led by the drummer Chick Webb. Based at New York's Savoy Ballroom, Webb's orchestra was renowned as one of the best big bands of its day and beat all comers at the Savoy's legendary cutting contests. Jordan worked with Webb until 1938, it proved a vital stepping-stone in his career—Webb was a fine musician but not a great showman; the ebullient Jordan introduced songs as he began singing lead. This was the same period when the young Ella Fitzgerald was coming to prominence as the Webb band's lead female vocalist. In 1938, Webb fired Jordan for trying to persuade Fitzgerald and others to join his new band. By this time Webb was seriously ill with tuberculosis of the spine, he died at the age of 34, after spinal surgery on June 16, 1939. Following his death, Fitzgerald took over the band.
Jordan's first band, drawn from members of the Jesse Stone band, was a nine-piece group, but he soon scaled it down to a sextet after landing a residency at the Elks Rendezvous club, at 464 Lenox Avenue, in Harlem. The original lineup of the sextet was Jordan, Courtney Williams, Lem Johnson, Clarence Johnson, Charlie Drayton and Walter Martin. In his first billing, as Louie Jordan's Elks Rendez-vous Band, his name was spelled Louie so people would know not to pronounce it Lewis; the new band's first recording date, for Decca Records on December 20, 1938, produced three sides on which they backed an obscure vocalist, Rodney Sturgess, two novelty sides of their own, "Honey in the Bee Ball" and "Barnacle Bill the Sailor". These recordings were credited to the Elks Rendezvous Band, but Jordan subsequently changed the name to the Tympany Five, since Martin used tympani in performance. (The word tympany is an
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Ranging from quintet to septet, the band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, country, blues, modal jazz, experimental music and space rock, for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams, for their devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". "Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't know exists". These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world"; the band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977, performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012; the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s.
The founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Phil Lesh, Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks. Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history; the other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, Vince Welnick. Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, 2002, the Dead in 2003, 2004, 2009. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together.
There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, Billy & the Kids. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions; the band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. They continued playing bar shows as the Warlocks, but changed its name after finding out that the Velvet Underground had put out a record under the same name; the first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966; that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, an early psychedelic rock concert.
The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, "... picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...... In that silvery elf-voice he said to me,'Hey, how about the Grateful Dead?'" The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. In the Garcia biography, Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time; the term "grateful dead" appears in folktales of a variety of cultures. Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test. "We were living off of Owsley's good graces at that time....
Trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple; the Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played r