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Don Siegel

Donald Siegel was an American film director and producer. His name variously appeared in the credits of his films as both Don Donald Siegel, he is best known for the original sci-fi film Invasion of the Body Snatchers, as well as five films with Clint Eastwood, including the police thriller Dirty Harry and the prison drama Escape from Alcatraz, John Wayne's final film, the 1976 Western The Shootist. Born to a Jewish family in Chicago, he attended schools in New York and graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge in England. For a short time he studied at Beaux Arts in Paris, but left at age 20 and went to Los Angeles. Siegel found work in the Warner Bros. film library after meeting producer Hal Wallis, rose to head of the Montage Department, where he directed thousands of montages, including the opening montage for Casablanca. In 1945 two shorts he directed, Star in the Night and Hitler Lives, won Academy Awards, which launched his career as a feature director, he directed whatever material came his way transcending the limitations of budget and script to produce interesting and adept works.

He made the original Invasion of the Body Snatchers in 1956. He directed two episodes of The Twilight Zone, "The Self-Improvement of Salvadore Ross" and "Uncle Simon", he worked with Eli Wallach in The Lineup, Elvis Presley and Dolores del Río in Flaming Star, with Steve McQueen in Hell Is for Heroes and Lee Marvin in the influential The Killers before directing a series of five films with Clint Eastwood that were commercially successful in addition to being well received by critics. These included the policiers Coogan's Bluff and Dirty Harry, the Albert Maltz-scripted Western Two Mules for Sister Sara, the cynical American Civil War melodrama The Beguiled and the prison-break picture Escape from Alcatraz, he was a considerable influence on Eastwood's own career as a director, Eastwood's film Unforgiven is dedicated "for Don and Sergio". He had a long collaboration with composer Lalo Schifrin, who scored five of his films: Coogan's Bluff, The Beguiled, Dirty Harry, Charley Varrick and Telefon.

Schifrin composed and recorded what would have been his sixth score for Siegel on Jinxed!, but it was rejected by the studio despite Siegel's objections. This was one of several fights Siegel had on his last film. Siegel was important to the career of director Sam Peckinpah. In 1954, Peckinpah was hired as a dialogue coach for Riot in Cell Block 11, his job entailed acting as an assistant to Siegel. The film was shot on location at Folsom Prison. Siegel's location work and his use of actual prisoners as extras in the film made a lasting impression on Peckinpah, he worked as a dialogue coach on four additional Siegel films: Private Hell 36, An Annapolis Story, Invasion of the Body Snatchers and Crime in the Streets. 25 years Peckinpah was all but banished from the industry due to his troubled film productions. Siegel gave the director a chance to return to filmmaking, he asked Peckinpah if he would be interested in directing 12 days of second unit work on Jinxed!. Peckinpah accepted, his earnest collaboration with his longtime friend was noted within the industry.

While Peckinpah's work was uncredited, it would lead to his hiring as the director of his final film The Osterman Weekend. He has a cameo role in Eastwood's Play Misty for Me as well as in Dirty Harry. In Philip Kaufman's 1978 Invasion of the Body Snatchers, a remake of Siegel's own 1956 film, he appears as a "pod" taxi driver. In Charley Varrick starring Walter Matthau, he has a cameo as a ping-pong player, he appears in the 1985 John LandisInto the Night.’ Born 1912 in Chicago Don was the son of mandolin virtuoso Samuel Siegel. From 1948 to 1953 he was married to actress Viveca Lindfors, with whom he had a son, Kristoffer Tabori, he married Doe Avedon in 1957. They adopted four children, Nowell Siegel, Anney Siegel-Wamsat, Katherine Saldiveri, Jack Siegel, they divorced in 1975. He married former secretary to Clint Eastwood, they remained together until he died at the age of 78 from cancer in California. He is buried near Highway 1 in the coastal Cayucos-Morro Bay District Cemetery. Siegel was an atheist.

Munn, Michael. Clint Eastwood: Hollywood's Loner. London: Robson Books. ISBN 0-86051-790-X. Don Siegel on IMDb Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database An Academy Salute to Don Siegel, With Curtis Hanson and Clint Eastwood

Emry Arthur

Emry Paul Arthur was an American Old-time musician. Arthur played an early version of the song Man of Constant Sorrow in 1928. Emry Arthur was born around the turn of the century in the Elk Spring Valley in Wayne County, Kentucky, his father collected old traditional songs from Kentucky and the entire family was known for their music in the area. Young Arthur and learned to play instruments like his brothers Henry and Sam, but after a hunting accident he was restricted to playing harmonica and strumming on the guitar; as a singer he built up a repertoire from different eras: the archaic local tradition. One influence was the Wayne County singer and musician Dick Burnett, who claimed to have taught young Emry I Am a Man of Constant Sorrow. Arthur was unable to earn a living from music, work in general was hard to find, so in the mid 1920s he migrated to Indianapolis. After a few years in Indianapolis, Arthur auditioned for Vocalion Records. For his first sessions he summoned his brother Henry from Kentucky.

With unidentified guitarists and with Henry on banjo, the brothers recorded vocal duets and solos by Emry, on some playing harmonica. One of Emry's solos was the first recording of "I Am A Man Of Constant Sorrow". Vocalion was impressed by good sales of the religious sides, by the fact that Emry was Southern singer living conveniently in the North, so he was invited back to record through 1928 and 1929; as with his first sessions, he recorded a mixture of solo songs and vocal duets, employing first Frank Owens William Rexroat in place of Henry Arthur. In addition, he recorded with a succession of choirs led by Arthur and one led by Rexroat, as well as with a group singing in a non-Southern idiom led by Floyd Thomson. In 1929, Emry's marriage broke up. Abandoning everything, he moved to Wisconsin, where he secured contacts with Paramount Records as a singer, with their parent Wisconsin Chair Company as a factory hand; as before, he recorded a mixture of vocal duets. But now his singing partner was Della Hatfield.

They continued to record for Paramount until the near collapse of the recording industry in 1931. In 1929, Arthur was involved with William Myers, a songwriter in Richlands, Virginia. Myers had posted his songs to singers he admired, including Mississippi John Hurt and Dock Boggs. Now he decided to start a record label, named Lonesome Ace; this folded after three recordings: one by two by Boggs with Arthur accompanying. In 1935, the recording industry had recovered somewhat, Emry recorded a final session with Decca Records. At some point and Della moved back to Indianapolis, where they lived for the rest of their lives, about which nothing is known. Emry Arthur died in 1967, survived by Della for four decades. Old Homestead Records collected some of Arthur's recordings on I Am a Man of Constant Sorrow in 1987. Charles K. Wolfe: Kentucky Country: Folk and Country Music of Kentucky, S. 35-37.

Henry Cowell

Henry Dixon Cowell was an American composer, music theorist, teacher and impresario. His contribution to the world of music was summed up by Virgil Thomson, writing in the early 1950s: Henry Cowell's music covers a wider range in both expression and technique than that of any other living composer, his experiments begun three decades ago in rhythm, in harmony, in instrumental sonorities were considered by many to be wild. Today they are the Bible of the young and still, to the conservatives, "advanced."... No other composer of our time has produced a body of works so radical and so normal, so penetrating and so comprehensive. Add to this massive production his long and influential career as a pedagogue, Henry Cowell's achievement becomes impressive indeed. There is no other quite like it. To be both fecund and right is given to few. Born in rural Menlo Park, California, to two bohemian writers—his father was an Irish immigrant and his mother, a former schoolteacher, had relocated from Iowa—Cowell demonstrated precocious musical talent and began playing the violin at the age of five.

After his parents' divorce in 1903, he was raised by his mother, Clarissa Dixon, author of the early feminist novel Janet and Her Dear Phebe. His father, with whom he maintained contact, introduced him to the Irish music that would be a touchstone for Cowell throughout his career. While receiving no formal musical education, he began to compose in his mid-teens. By the summer of 1914, Cowell was writing individualistic works, including the insistently repetitive Anger Dance; that fall, the self-taught Cowell was admitted to the University of California, Berkeley, as a protégé of Charles Seeger. There he studied harmony and other subjects under Seeger and Edward Griffith Stricklen and counterpoint under Wallace Arthur Sabin. After two years at Berkeley, Cowell pursued further studies in New York where he encountered Leo Ornstein, the radically "futurist" composer-pianist. Still a teenager, Cowell wrote the piano piece Dynamic Motion, his first important work to explore the possibilities of the tone cluster.

It requires the performer to use both forearms to play massive secundal chords and calls for keys to be held down without sounding to extend and intensify its dissonant cluster overtones. Cowell soon returned to California, where he had become involved with a theosophical community, led by the Irish poet John Varian, who fueled Cowell's interest in Irish folk culture and mythology. In 1917, Cowell wrote the music for Varian's stage production The Building of Banba. In years, Cowell would claim that the piece had been composed around 1912, in an evident attempt to make his musical innovations appear more precocious than they were. Beginning in the early 1920s, Cowell toured in North America and Europe as a pianist, playing his own experimental works, seminal explorations of atonality, polytonality and non-Western modes, it was on one of these tours that in 1923, his friend Richard Buhlig introduced Cowell to young pianist Grete Sultan in Berlin. They worked together—an aspect vital to Grete Sultan's personal and artistic development.

Cowell made such an impression with his tone cluster technique that Béla Bartók requested his permission to adopt it. Another novel method advanced by Cowell, in pieces such as Aeolian Harp, was what he dubbed "string piano"—rather than using the keys to play, the pianist reaches inside the instrument and plucks and otherwise manipulates the strings directly. Cowell's endeavors with string piano techniques were the primary inspiration for John Cage's development of the prepared piano. In early chamber music pieces, such as Quartet Romantic and Quartet Euphometric, Cowell pioneered a compositional approach he called "rhythm-harmony": "Both quartets are polyphonic, each melodic strand has its own rhythm," he explained. "Even the canon in the first movement of the Romantic has different note-lengths for each voice."In 1919, Cowell had begun writing New Musical Resources, which would be published after extensive revision in 1930. Focusing on the variety of innovative rhythmic and harmonic concepts he used in his compositions, it would have a powerful effect on the American musical avant-garde for decades after.

Conlon Nancarrow, for instance, would refer to it years as having "the most influence of anything I've read in music."Cowell's interest in harmonic rhythm, as discussed in New Musical Resources, led him in 1930 to commission Léon Theremin to invent the Rhythmicon, or Polyrhythmophone, a transposable keyboard instrument capable of playing notes in periodic rhythms proportional to the overtone series of a chosen fundamental pitch. The world's first electronic rhythm machine, with a photoreceptor-based sound production system proposed by Cowell, it could produce up to sixteen different rhythmic patterns complete with optional syncopation. Cowell wrote several original compositions for the instrument, including an orchestrated concerto, Theremin built two more models. Soon, the Rhythmicon would be forgotten, remaining so until the 1960s, when progressive pop music producer Joe Meek experimented with its rhythmic concept. Cowell pursued a radical compositional approach through the mid-1930s, with solo piano pieces remaining at the heart


Fjaðrárgljúfur is a canyon in south east Iceland. The Fjaðrá river flows through it; the canyon has winding water. It is about 2 kilometres long, it is located near the Ring Road, not far from the village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur. Its origins dates back to the cold periods of the Ice Age, about two million years ago; the canyon was created by progressive erosion by flowing water from glaciers through the rocks and palagonite over millennia. A waterfall flows down the western side of the canyon, visible from an observation platform at the end of a one-mile hike up the eastern edge. In May 2019, authorities closed the canyon to visitors after it appeared in a music video by Justin Bieber; the resulting stream of visitors threatened to damage the canyon's environment


Falahill is a village in the Scottish Borders, in the Moorfoot Hills, at NT387563, in the Parish of Heriot, close to the border with Midlothian. Nearby are Gilston, the Heriot Water, Scottish Borders, Soutra Hill, Torquhan; the hill serves as the origin for the name of the presidential dog of Franklin D. Roosevelt. List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in Scotland RCAHMS record for Falahill RCAHMS record for Falahill, A7 Road Bridge, Bridge No. 39 Railscot News: James Young's Photographs of Falahill STREETMAP for Falahill

Morris Kline

Morris Kline was a Professor of Mathematics, a writer on the history and teaching of mathematics, a popularizer of mathematical subjects. Kline was resided in Jamaica, Queens. After graduating from Boys High School in Brooklyn, he studied mathematics at New York University, earning a bachelor's degree in 1930, a master's degree in 1932, a doctorate in 1936, he continued at NYU as an instructor until 1942. During World War II, Kline was posted to the Signal Corps stationed at New Jersey. Designated a physicist, he worked in the engineering lab. After the war he continued investigating electromagnetism, from 1946 to 1966 was director of the division for electromagnetic research at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Kline resumed his mathematical teaching at NYU, becoming a full professor in 1952, he taught at New York University until 1975, wrote many papers and more than a dozen books on various aspects of mathematics and teaching of mathematics. He stressed the need to teach the applications and usefulness of mathematics rather than expecting students to enjoy it for its own sake.

He urged that mathematical research concentrate on solving problems posed in other fields rather than building structures of interest only to other mathematicians. One can get a sense of Kline's views on teaching from the following: I would urge every teacher to become an actor, his classroom technique must be enlivened by every device used in theatre. He should be dramatic where appropriate, he must not only have facts but fire. He can utilize eccentricities of behavior to stir up human interest, he should use it freely. An irrelevant joke or story perks up the class enormously. Morris Kline was a protagonist in the curriculum reform in mathematics education that occurred in the second half of the twentieth century, a period including the programs of the new math. An article by Kline in 1956 in The Mathematics Teacher, the main journal of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, was titled "Mathematical texts and teachers: a tirade". Calling out teachers blaming students for failures, he wrote "There is a student problem, but there are three other factors which are responsible for the present state of mathematical learning, the curricula, the texts, the teachers."

The tirade touched a nerve, changes started to happen. But Kline switched to being a critic of some of the changes. In 1958 he wrote "Ancients versus moderns: a new battle of the books"; the article was accompanied with a rebuttal by Albert E. Meder Jr. of Rutgers University. He says, "I find objectionable: first, vague generalizations undocumented, concerning views held by ‘modernists’, second, the inferences drawn from what has not been said by the ‘modernists’." By 1966 Kline proposed an eight-page high school plan. The rebuttal for this article was by James H. Zant. Zant criticized Kline’s writing for "vagueness, distortion of facts, undocumented statements and overgeneralization." In 1966 and 1970 Kline issued two further criticisms. In 1973 St. Martin’s Press contributed to the dialogue by publishing Kline’s critique, Why Johnny Can’t Add: the Failure of the New Math, its opening chapter is a parody of instruction as students’ intuitions are challenged by the new jargon. The book recapitulates the debates from Mathematics Teacher, with Kline conceding some progress: He cites Howard Fehr of Columbia University who sought to unify the subject through its general concepts, operations, mappings and structure in the Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study.

In 1977 Kline turned to undergraduate university education. Kline argues that onus to conduct research misdirects the scholarly method that characterizes good teaching, he lauds scholarship as expressed by expository writing or reviews of original work of others. For scholarship he expects critical attitudes to topics and methods. Among the rebuttals are those by D. T. Finkbeiner, Harry Pollard, Peter Hilton. Pollard conceded, "The society in which learning is admired and pursued for its own sake has disappeared." The Hilton review was more direct: Kline has "placed in the hand of enemies… weapon". Having started in 1956 as an agitator for change in mathematics education, he became a critic of some trends. Skilled expositor that he was, editors felt his expressions were best tempered with rebuttal. In considering what motivated Morris Kline to protest, consider Professor Meder’s opinion: I am wondering whether in point of fact, Professor Kline likes mathematics I think that he is at heart a physicist, or a ‘natural philosopher’, not a mathematician, that the reason he does not like the proposals for orienting the secondary school college preparatory mathematics curriculum to the diverse needs of the twentieth century by making use of some concepts developed in mathematics in the last hundred years or so is not that this is bad mathematics, but that it minimizes the importance of physics.

It might appear so, as Kline recalls E. H. Moore’s recommendation to combine science and mathematics at the high school level, but closer reading shows Kline calling mathematics a "part of man’s efforts to understand and master his world", he sees that role in a broad spectrum of sciences. In Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty (ch. XIII: "The