Italian submarine Barbarigo
Barbarigo was a World War II Italian Marcello-class submarine. It was built by the Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico, was commissioned on 19 September 1938. After early peacetime training activity, two fruitless missions in the Mediterranean Sea, the Barbarigo was assigned to the Atlantic theater, reaching its base in Bordeaux on 8 September 1940, after an unsuccessful patrol. From October 1940 to May 1941, she went on three missions around Irish waters, which obtained only the damaging of a merchantman. In July, she sailed to the west of the Strait of Gibraltar and obtained its first successes, sinking the British ship Macon on 25 July, the oiler Horn Shell, before turning for port. On 22 October, Barbarigo sailed again, under the command of Capitano di Corvetta Enzo Grossi, but the patrol was unsuccessful. On the next patrol, the submarine met a lighted ship, but Grossi torpedoed and sank her nonetheless, on 23 January 1941. Afterwards, Barbarigo was sent to departing Bordeaux on 30 April, she was responsible for the first Brazilian war action of World War II.
The submarine managed to escape two attacks by Brazilian B-25 aircraft. On 20 May, the Barbarigo met the destroyer USS Moffett. With himself and his crew convinced to having seen and felt the battleship being struck and sinking, Barbarigo sailed away, while the American ships had not been aware of the attack. Grossi reported his sinking, despite the doubts and misgivings of BETASOM commander Romolo Polacchini, the action was publicized on Italian and German press. On its way home, Barbarigo sank the ship Charlbury, 28 May. On 29 August, the submarine sailed again. On the night of 6 October, Barbarigo met the corvette HMS Petunia, Grossi "recognized" her as a Mississippi-class battleship. Barbarigo returned to port on the night of 29 October. Again, Grossi's success was reported, he was promoted to Capitano di Vascello and awarded a second Gold Medal. After the war, Grossi's actions would be the object of two enquiries in 1949 and 1962, which concluded that he and his crew had been in good faith, but stripped him of his promotions and awards.
On 24 January 1943, the submarine departed for its last mission as an attack submarine, in which it sunk the ships Monte Igueldo on 24 February, Alfonso Pena on 2 March, Staghound on 3 March, before returning to Bordeaux on 3 April. After a period of time for repairs, as well as some replacements and retraining of crew, the submarine was converted into a transport to carry materiel between Germany and Japan in 1943, with guns and all but one periscope being removed. After the war, British records showed that an unidentified submarine had been attacked and presumed sunk between 17 and 19 June, in the area where Barbarigo might have been. Bagnasco, Erminio. Submarines of World War Two. London: Cassell & Co. ISBN 1-85409-532-3. Barbarigo at regiamarina.net Barone, João "1942: O Brasil e sua guerra quase desconhecida" Editora Nova Fronteira ISBN 8520933947
Italian cruiser Fiume
Fiume was a Zara-class heavy cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina. She was the second of four ships in the class, was built between April 1929 and November 1931. Armed with a main battery of eight 8-inch guns, she was nominally within the 10,000-long-ton limit imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty, though in reality she exceeded this figure. Fiume saw extensive service during World War II, having participated in several sorties to catch British convoys in the Mediterranean, she was present during the Battle of Calabria in July 1940, Battle of Cape Spartivento in November, the Battle of Cape Matapan in March 1941. In the last engagement and her sister ships Zara and Pola were sunk in a close-range night engagement with three British battleships. Fiume was 182.8 meters long overall, with a draft of 7.2 m. She displaced 13,944 long tons at full load, though her displacement was nominally within the 10,000-long-ton restriction set in place by the Washington Naval Treaty, her power plant consisted of two Parsons steam turbines powered by eight oil-fired Yarrow boilers, which were trunked into two funnels amidships.
Her engines were produced a top speed of 32 knots. She enlisted men, she was protected with a armored belt, 150 mm thick amidships. Her armor deck was 70 mm thick in the central portion of the ship and reduced to 20 mm at either end; the gun turrets had 150 mm thick plating on the faces and the barbettes they sat in were 150 mm thick. The main conning tower had 150 mm thick sides, she was armed with a main battery of eight 203 mm Mod 29 53-caliber guns in four gun turrets. The turrets were arranged in aft. Anti-aircraft defense was provided by a battery of sixteen 100 mm 47-cal. Guns in twin mounts, four Vickers-Terni 40 mm/39 guns in single mounts and eight 12.7 mm guns in twin mounts. She carried a pair of IMAM Ro.43 seaplanes for aerial reconnaissance. Fiume's secondary battery was revised several times during her career. Two of the 100 mm guns and all of the 40 mm and 12.7 mm guns were removed in the late 1930s and eight 37 mm 54-cal. Guns and eight 13.2 mm guns were installed in their place. Two 120 mm 15-cal.
Starshell guns were added in 1940. Built in the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino in Trieste, Fiume was laid down on 29 April 1929, the first member of the class to be laid down, she was launched nearly a year on 27 April 1930, the same day as her sister ship Zara. Fitting-out work lasted another year and a half, the new cruiser was commissioned into the Regia Marina on 23 November 1931. In January 1935, tests with autogyros were conducted aboard Fiume; the experiments proved to be successful, although the autogyros themselves had limited range and were unreliable. Fiume took part in a lavish ceremony held for the visit of Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Nazi Germany, in May 1938, she and Zara conducted a gunnery demonstration while Hitler and the dictator of Italy, Benito Mussolini, observed from the battleship Conte di Cavour. When Italy formally joined the Second World War by declaring war on France and Britain on 10 June 1940, Fiume was assigned to the 1st Division with Zara and the four destroyers of the 9th Destroyer Flotilla.
The unit was assigned under the command of Admiral Inigo Campioni. Two days Fiume and the rest of the 1st Division, along with the 9th Division, sortied in response to British attacks on Italian positions in Libya. While they were at sea, the British submarine HMS Odin unsuccessfully attacked Fiume and her sister Gorizia. On 6 July, a convoy left Naples, bound for North Africa; the Italian naval high command therefore ordered the 1st Division and several other cruisers and destroyers to join the escort for the convoy. The battleships Conte di Cavour and Giulio Cesare provide distant support. Two days the Italian fleet clashed with the British Mediterranean Fleet in an inconclusive action off Calabria. In late September, the Italian fleet, including Fiume, made a sweep for a British troop convoy from Alexandria to Malta, but it made no contact with the British ships. Fiume was present in the harbor at Taranto when the British fleet launched the nighttime carrier strike on Taranto on the night of 11–12 November, but she was not attacked in the raid.
Another attempt to intercept a British convoy in late November resulted in the Battle of Cape Spartivento. The Italian fleet left port on 26 November and clashed with the British fleet the next day, in an engagement that lasted for about an hour. Campioni broke off the action because he mistakenly believed he was facing a superior force, the result of poor aerial reconnaissance; the British heavy cruiser HMS Berwick was hit twice by 203 mm rounds during the engagement, either fired by Fiume or her sister Pola. The Italian fleet, now commanded by Admiral Angelo Iachino, made another attempt to intercept a British convoy in late March 1941; the fleet was supported by the German 10th Air Corps. This operation resulted in the Battle of Cape Matapan; the battleship Vittorio Veneto was torpedoed by British aircraft and f
USS Republic (AP-33)
USS Republic was a troop transport that served with the US Navy during World War II. In World War I she served with the Navy as USS President Grant before being turned over to the Army and named Republic; the ship was renamed the President Buchanan in 1921 before reverting to Republic in 1924. Christened as the SS Servian, she was built in 1903 by Harland and Wolff, Ltd. of Belfast for the Wilson & Furness-Leyland Line, a subsidiary of International Mercantile Marine Co. spearheaded by J. P. Morgan. After plans for a North Atlantic service collapsed, she spent four years at anchor in the Musgrave Channel in Belfast. After being purchased by the Hamburg-American Packet Steamship Company in 1907, it was renamed the SS President Grant, the third ship named for Ulysses S. Grant. In August 1914, after seven years of trans-Atlantic passenger service, she took refuge at New York City when the outbreak of World War I made the high seas unsafe for German merchant ships, she was interned at Hoboken, New Jersey and remained inactive for nearly three years until the United States entered the war in April 1917.
The ship was seized when the United States declared war against Germany. Turned over to the Navy, she was commissioned USS President Grant on 2 August 1917, Comdr. J. P. Morton in command. During her operations as a troop transport, she made sixteen round trips between New York and ports of France, carrying a total of 40,104 servicemen on her eastbound passage, a total of 37,025 servicemen on her westbound returns to New York. President Grant was transferred to the Army 6 October 1919. During the period January to November 1920, she served as the United States Army Transport Republic and made two voyages repatriating Czechoslovak troops from Vladivostok to Trieste. After a trip to France, she was delivered to the United States Shipping Board by the Army in March 1921; until 1924, she lay at Norfolk and was placed on North Atlantic passenger service with United States Lines. In 1931, she reverted to Army control as a troopship. After alterations, USAT Republic made three trips to San Francisco and Manila.
She made two visits to China and one to Japan. In 1932, Far Eastern ports were excluded and she was confined to a regular New York-Honolulu run until June 1941. USAT Republic was again taken over by the Navy and commissioned as USS Republic on 22 July 1941, under Commander Guy Clark, her armament consisted of one 5" and four 3" mounts. After completing a crossing from New York carrying troops to Iceland, Republic sailed for San Francisco. On 21 November 1941 Republic left San Francisco for the Philippines by way of Hawaii with 2,666 Army officers, including Brig. Gen. Julian F. Barnes, enlisted men and 18 civilians and flying cadets, reaching Pearl Harbor on 28 November. After overnight refueling she left port on the 29th to join six other vessels and assume the role of flagship for a convoy headed to the Philippines escorted by the USS Pensacola. Of the other ships only the USAT Willard A. Holbrook carried troops; that convoy known as the Pensacola Convoy, was being routed on the southern route to Manila by way of Port Moresby to avoid the Japanese mandated islands of the central route and on 6 December the convoy crossed the equator celebrating the largest Army Shellback initiation up to that time.
Aboard Republic for that celebration was the ground element of the Army Air Forces 7th Heavy Bombardment Group whose B-17 bombers were taking off the same day from Hamilton Field, California to arrive over Hawaii during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Other embarked units were 131st Field Artillery, 36th Division. Texas National Guard and the 36th Signal Platoon. At eleven in the morning of 7 December Commander Clark received a message indicating an attack on Pearl Harbor, first thought to be from an exercise until another message from Commander in Chief, U. S. Asiatic Fleet removed all doubt. Republic and other ships in the convoy improvised wartime measures by painting superstructures gray and searching cargo for weapons. In Republic's holds were found four British made 75-mm artillery pieces that men of the 453d Ordnance Bombardment Company, part of the 7th Heavy Bombardment Group, lashed to deck though no ammunition was found; the Republic had been in Stateside dry-dock just prior to the 2nd Battalion's boarding, had four 3-inch guns and one 5-inch gun.
The Battalion manned these guns from 7 December until their arrival in Brisbane Australia. With Japanese forces reported only 300 miles away in the Ellice Islands the convoy was ordered to put into Suva, Fiji Islands while a decision was made on the convoy's destination. Army and Navy planners wanted the forces returned to defend Hawaii and that decision was made until reversed after meetings at the White House with the ultimate decision the convoy should proceed to Brisbane. On 12 December the convoy was ordered to sail for Australia with troops designated Task Force South Pacific under General Barnes who had orders from Australia to place himself under General MacArthur's command. While awaiting orders the ships of the convoy had been searched for defense weapons with ammunition for the 75s found aboard Holbrook along with smaller weapons suitable for anti aircraft defense. On 22 December the convoy reached Brisbane under further escort by Australian and New Zealand warships and Task Force South Pacific became United States Forces in Australia.
That organization, originated aboard Republic at sea, became the nucleus and model for the supply organization functioning throughout the war in the South West Pacific Area. After debarking the troops, the Republic sai
Fremantle is a major Australian port city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River. Fremantle Harbour serves as the port of the state capital. Fremantle was the first area settled by the Swan River colonists in 1829, it was declared a city in 1929, has a population of 29,000. The city is named after Captain Charles Fremantle, the English naval officer who established a camp at the site on 2 May 1829; the city contains well-preserved 19th century buildings and other heritage features. The Western Australian vernacular diminutive for Fremantle is Freo; the Nyungar name for the area is Walyallup. Fremantle lies on a series of limestone hills known by the Nyungar people as Booyeembara; the original vegetation of the area was Xanthorrhoea and eucalyptus trees, which were traditionally fired annually by the Aboriginal people. The suburb of Fremantle is bounded by the Swan River to the north and north-west, the Indian Ocean to the west, South Street to the south, the suburbs of East Fremantle and White Gum Valley to the east.
The central part of the suburb extends eastwards to include Royal Fremantle Golf Club and a suburban area south of Marmion Street and west of Carrington Street. The City of Fremantle local government area includes the suburbs of Beaconsfield, North Fremantle, O'Connor, South Fremantle, White Gum Valley. East Fremantle is not governed by the City of Fremantle. Fremantle is the end of the Fremantle railway line which runs from Perth to Fremantle, run by the Western Australia's Public Transport Authority. Major highways including Stirling Highway, Canning Highway and Leach Highway have Fremantle as their start point and/or terminus. Fremantle has a Mediterranean climate; the regular sea breeze is known as the Fremantle Doctor, as it provides cooling relief from the summer heat when it arrives between noon and 3pm. Fremantle is a few degrees cooler than Perth in summer and less cold in winter; the traditional owners of the land on which the city of Fremantle is built are the Whadjuk Noongar people who called the area Walyalup.
To the local Noongar people, Fremantle is a place of ceremonies, significant cultural practices and trading. For millennia the Noongar people met there in autumn to feast on fish and game. Anglesea Point and the limestone hill area at Arthur Head to Point Marquis was called Manjaree, an important meeting place where bush paths converged and a major trading place for Whadjuk and neighbouring Noongars. Today and other Noongars continue to gather and meet in Walyalup and at Manjaree; the area was considered as a site for possible British settlement in 1827, when Captain James Stirling, in HMS Success, explored the coastal areas near the Swan River. His favourable report was welcomed by the British Government, who had for some time been suspicious of French colonial intentions towards the western portion of Australia; as a result of Stirling's report, Captain Charles Howe Fremantle of HMS Challenger, a 603-ton, 28-gun frigate, was instructed to sail to the west coast of Australia to establish a settlement there.
On 2 May 1829, Fremantle hoisted the Union Flag in a bay near what is now known as Arthur Head, in accordance with his instructions, took formal possession "of the whole of the West Coast of New Holland" in the name of Britain's King George IV. Western Australia Day is observed on the first Monday in June, although it was on 2 June 1829 that Captain James Stirling on the Parmelia arrived with Surveyor-General Roe and the first contingent of immigrants to set up the Swan River Colony; the settlement of Perth began on 12 August 1829. Captain Fremantle left the colony on 25 August after providing much assistance to Stirling in setting up the colony, it was that Stirling decided to name the port settlement "Fremantle". In early September 1829 the merchant vessel Anglesea grounded at Gage Roads, at the mouth of the Swan River, she did not break up, as had been expected, but instead survived to become Western Australia's first prison hulk. Lotus, which arrived on 10 October 1829, became the second vessel to land immigrants at Fremantle.
On 1 June 1850, the first convicts arrived at Fremantle aboard the Scindian. The thirty-seventh and last convict ship to dock at Fremantle was the Hougoumont on 10 January 1868, signalling the end of penal transportation to Australia. Among the 280 convicts on board were 62 Fenian military and political prisoners—members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood—six of whom managed to escape the Convict Establishment in the Catalpa rescue of 1876. During this period, notorious South Sea pirate Bully Hayes lived in Fremantle with his fiancée Miss Scott, daughter of the Fremantle Harbour Master. In 1897, Irish-born engineer C. Y. O'Connor deepened Fremantle Harbour and removed the limestone bar and sand shoals across the entrance to the Swan River, thus rendering Fremantle a serviceable port for commercial shipping; this occurred at the height of the late 19th-century Western Australian gold rush, transforming Fremantle into a capital of trade and gateway for thousands of gold miners to the inland boom towns of Coolgardie and Southern Cross.
Camels and their Afghan drivers were familiar sights, by-laws regulating the driving of camels through the streets of Fremantle were enacted. The wealth generated during this period resulted in the construction of several prestigious hotels throughout Fremantle. Fremantle still serves as the chief general seaport for Western Australia, though far greater tonnages are exported from the iron-ore ports of the Pilbara. Fremantle has seen many industrial conflicts, the
Don Isidro (1939)
Don Isidro, delivered in 1939, was the second and larger of two Krupp built motor ships of De La Rama Steamship Company, Philippines in inter-island service. The ship under a time charter by the United States Army as a transport during the Japanese invasion of the Philippines; as defending forces became cut off from supply by the Japanese blockade Don Isidro was one of eight ships, only three of which were successful, known to make an attempt to run the blockade. In that attempt, under her captain Rafael J. Cisneros, Don Isidro became involved in the 19 February Japanese attack on Darwin, Australia where, though not in the port, she was strafed and left off Bathurst Island burning with all lifeboats destroyed; the captain attempted to make land when she grounded about three miles off Melville Island to which survivors swam. Of the sixty-seven crew and sixteen soldiers aboard eleven of the crew and one soldier were killed or missing. Survivors were rescued by HMAS Warrnambool, taken to Darwin, treated at the hospital and awaited orders at the 147th Field Artillery camp.
Don Isidro was constructed 1939 at Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft A. G. Kiel, Germany for the inter-island passenger service of the De La Rama Steamship Company in Philippine waters, she was a diesel motor ship with two nine cylinder turbocharged engines driving two screws for a speed of twenty knots. The day after Great Britain and France declare war with Germany Don Isidro was subject of an incident at Port Said on 5 September 1939 as she cleared the Suez Canal on her maiden voyage from Kiel to Manila. British authorities removed from the ship two German engineers, sailing with the vessel to provide training and technical support, provoking a diplomatic protest from the United States "as illegal and a violation of the neutral rights of the United States" on the day after President Roosevelt proclaimed that neutrality; the British explanation was unsatisfactory to the Department of State but was considered closed "on the assumption that similar instances will not be permitted to occur in the future."Over the next twenty-six months Don Isidro, along with the smaller and older Don Esteban were noted as the luxury vessels of inter-island passenger service.
That war caught up again with the 7 December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines only hours on 8 December. Whatever the movements of Don Isidro between Manila being evacuated and being declared an open city on 23 and 26 December 1941 the ship had come under the War Shipping Administration, allocated to U. S. Army charter on 11 January 1942 at Fremantle, was in Brisbane, Australia being loaded with rations and ammunition on 22 January 1942 when defenders were ordered to withdraw from the Abucay-Mauban line to final defense lines in Bataan, she left Brisbane on a "special mission" at 1.45 p.m. 27 January 1942 "bound for Corregidor" seeking to supply forces still on Bataan. The ship's location in Brisbane was no coincidence. Supplies and ships were being sent to the Netherlands East Indies from Brisbane as the Malay Barrier concept was still alive and the port had been the first stop for a number of ships diverted to Australia with the invasion of the Philippines. Significant supplies munitions, were there or on the way from there to Java, closest to the besieged forces in the Philippines and small, fast blockade running vessels were presumed to be available there.
The prototype seaplane, the Navy's XPBS-1, had been sent to Australia and onward to Java with critical aircraft parts and a rush order of torpedo exploders from San Diego—and on departure from Pearl 30 January General Patrick Hurley with a bag of cash to add to that dispatched for procurement locally of vital supplies. Ships of the Pensacola convoy and SS President Polk had been diverted first to Brisbane and with supplies and munitions intended for the forces in the Philippines to Java. Polk had arrived there 12 January 1942 with 55 P-40E and 4 C-53 aircraft including 55 pilots, 20 million.30 caliber, 447,000.50 caliber, 30,000 three inch AA and 5,000 75 mm rounds of ammunition along with five carloads of torpedoes, over 615,000 pounds of rations and 178 officers and men in addition to the pilots and herself was heading to Java when Don Isidro was loading and departing for the same destination. At Brisbane Don Isidro was provided defense in the form of a detachment from the 453d Ordnance Bombardment Company of fifteen men under Second Lieutenant Joseph F. Kane, winner of the command by a coin toss.
That unit had been embarked aboard the naval transport USS Republic in the Pensacola convoy. The soldiers armed the ship with five.50-caliber heavy machine guns on improvised mounts. Captain Cisneros as Coast Farmer was readying to leave Brisbane on the same mission, took the ship south around Australia to Fremantle on the west coast for engine repairs and water before setting out for Batavia for instructions on the run to Corregidor. Arriving there on 9 February 1942 the entire plan was unraveling as Japanese forces take Tengah airfield and make an additional landing on the island of Singapore as well as begin movements toward Sumatra. Meeting U. S. Navy representatives 10 February, as the situation in Singapore worsens and Japanese are conquering Borneo and the Celebes, the plan is changed with Don Isidro joining a British escorted convoy that day in passage through Sunda Strait to the Indian Ocean. There the ship would separate from the convoy on the 13th and attempt a run south of Java, through the Timor Sea through the Torres Straits and through the Dampier Strait east of New Guinea for the run through the Bismarck Sea and Pacific to the Philippines.
As the ship was making that attempt the Japanese b
Deadweight tonnage or tons deadweight is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fresh water, ballast water, provisions and crew. DWT is used to specify a ship's maximum permissible deadweight, although it may denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity. Deadweight tonnage is a measure of a vessel's weight carrying capacity, does not include the weight of the ship itself, it should not be confused with displacement, which includes the ship's own weight, nor other volume or capacity measures such as gross tonnage or net tonnage. Deadweight tonnage was expressed in long tons but is now given internationally in tonnes. In modern international shipping conventions such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, deadweight is explicitly defined as the difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the draft corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the light displacement of the ship.
MS Augustus (1950)
MS Augustus was a 27,090 GRT, luxurious ocean liner built in 1950 for Italian Line. She was the sister ship to MS Giulio Cesare, launched in the same year; these two ships were built with similar specifications. After the Augustus was sold to Hong Kong, she sailed under five names; the ship was sold to Manila Hotel and renamed MS Philippines, functioning as a static hotel. As reported by both Maritimematters, ssmaritime, the MS Philippines, was sold for scrap in September 2011; as of December 2011, she was beached in Alang for scrapping. After the end of World War II, the Italian Line lost many of their fleet including their two super liners, SS Rex and SS Conte di Savoia, so they planned to build two 27,000 GRT ocean liners for post war service to replace them. Giulio Cesare and Augustus were impression of power and beauty with fat and round bows, curved superstructures, modern masts, enormous funnel, graceful sterns, her external beauty restrained to the most canvassing standards with pleasingly sculptured bridge wings, an evocative nape at the aft funnel base, a trademark ventilator aft of the funnel that earned nicknamed the "robot" for its extraordinary shape.
These two ships were one of the Italian post war ships. The ship had twin 12-cylinder Fiat diesel engines, generating 24,000 base horsepower that drove her twin screws at a service speed of 21 knots. Both ships were designed to sail on the Italy-South America route, run with three classes. Both ships' interior were designed to have full air conditioning and swimming pools for each of three classes to make the ships looked like a luxurious hotel and to be the symbol of modern technology; the Augustus was launched on November 9, 1950 at the Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico, San Marco shipyard near Trieste, by Francesca De Gasperi. On March 4, 1952, she sailed from Genoa to South America on her maiden voyage, she was put in a normal route from Genoa, calling at Naples, Barcelona, Rio de Janeiro and Montevideo, to Buenos Aires. Following the loss of the SS Andrea Doria in 1956, she was put into the North Atlantic service in February 1957 before returning to her usual Genoa-South America route in 1960 after the new SS Leonardo da Vinci was in service on the North Atlantic route.
She and her sister were converted to two classes. Like her sister, the ship was given a refit; the Augustus had the following nine passenger decks: Sun Deck, Lido Deck, Boat Deck, Promenade Deck, Upper Deck, Foyer Deck, A Deck, B Deck, C Deck. Sun Deck, which started off from the wheelhouse, radio room, following along either side of aft, encircling the funnel casing and the "robot" ventilator, was first class's facility. Lido Deck started off from a narrow full-wrap around promenade and officers' quarters, culminating aft with a bar, the first class pool, changing rooms. Boat Deck started off forward with another narrow promenade, opening into wider expansion beneath a canopy of lifeboats and davits along either side. Inwardly, this level started off with the first class Belvedere Observation Lounge, equipped with a panorama of windows overlooking the ship's bow. A reading room was continuing aft on the starboard side; this space's amidships was the first class writing room. The forward staircase's highest level was just aft with its burled panels and magnificent modern glass railings.
There was an elevator, linking the first class decks in this part of the ship. The deluxe suite facility started along port and aft passageways, to a small gymnasium, playroom and message room on the starboard side; the aft part of Boat Deck, which had its own pool and bar, was cabin class's facility. Promenade Deck started forward with a first class observation area number three-like encompassing, continuing aft through narrow links to the glass-enveloped first class promenade. Inwardly, it started with the phenomenal social hall with its curved panorama of windows and an aft bulkhead that held sculptures and reliefs in bronze by Mascherini. In this sheered salon, the ceiling accommodated an oval recess in which the lighting was designed in a zodiac fashion; this room was converted into an auditorium in 1964. The only part of this social hall to be carried over into the auditorium was an oval ceiling recess constellation-like lighting arrangement; the forward staircase lobby continued aft with foyer starting off on either side to the passageways and promenades which brought aft to the first class ballroom.
The staircase itself, was decorated with Mascherini's sculptures. The Augustus was retired from service in January 1976. On January 15, 1976, she was laid up in Naples, she was renamed Great Sea. After a little use, she was renamed Ocean King in 1980, and in 1983, she was renamed Philippines. At that time, she served as an accommodation ship in Manila, she was renamed President in 1985. However, she was laid up in Kaohsiung, in 1987, she was renamed Asian Princess and in 1997, she was moved to Subic Bay, where she was converted into cruising. However, the ship has failed in making money in this venture, she was moved and place at anchorage off Manila. She was dry-docked at Subic Bay in mid-1998, in February 1999, she returned to Manila, where she was refitted for use as a floating hotel and restaurant venue as planned; the ship was berthed at Pier 15 South Harbour Manila on October 2, 1999 after she was acquired by the Manila Hotel. On the October 12, 1999 in a gala ceremony attended by President Estrada, the ship was renamed MS Philipp