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Donald Davies

Donald Watts Davies, was a Welsh computer scientist, employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory. In 1965 he conceived of packet switching, today the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide. Davies proposed a national network in the United Kingdom and designed and built the local-area NPL network to demonstrate the technology. Many of the wide-area packet-switched networks built in the 1970s were similar "in nearly all respects" to his original 1965 design; this was independent of the work of Paul Baran in the United States who had a similar idea in the early 1960s. The ARPANET project credited Davies for his influence, key to the development of the Internet. Davies was born in Treorchy in the Rhondda Wales, his father, a clerk at a coalmine, died a few months and his mother took Donald and his twin sister back to her home town of Portsmouth, where he went to school. He attended the Southern Grammar School for Boys, he received a BSc degree in physics at Imperial College London, joined the war effort working as an assistant to Klaus Fuchs on the nuclear weapons Tube Alloys project at Birmingham University.

He returned to Imperial taking a first class degree in mathematics. In 1955, he married Diane Burton. From 1947, he worked at the National Physical Laboratory where Alan Turing was designing the Automatic Computing Engine computer, it is said that Davies spotted mistakes in Turing's seminal 1936 paper On Computable Numbers, much to Turing's annoyance. These were some of the first "programming" bugs in existence if they were for a theoretical computer, the universal Turing machine; the ACE project was floundered, leading to Turing's departure. Davies took over the project and concentrated on delivering the less ambitious Pilot ACE computer, which first worked in May 1950. A commercial spin-off, DEUCE was manufactured by English Electric Computers and became one of the best-selling machines of the 1950s. Davies worked on applications of traffic simulation and machine translation. In the early 1960s, he worked on government technology initiatives designed to stimulate the British computer industry.

In 1965, Davies developed the idea of packet switching, dividing computer messages into packets that are routed independently across a network via differing routes, are reassembled at the destination. Unbeknown to him, Paul Baran of the RAND Corporation in the United States was working on a similar concept. Davies used the word "packets" after consulting with a linguist because it was capable of being translated into languages other than English without compromise. Davies' key insight came in the realisation that computer network traffic was inherently "bursty" with periods of silence, compared with constant telephone traffic, he designed and proposed a national data network based on packet switching in his 1966 Proposal for the Development of a National Communications Service for On-line Data Processing. In 1966 he returned to the NPL at Teddington just outside London, where he headed and transformed its computing activity, he became interested in data communications following a visit to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he saw that a significant problem with the new time-sharing computer systems was the cost of keeping a phone connection open for each user.

Davies was the first to describe the concept of an "Interface computer", in 1966, today known as a router. He and his team were the first to use the term'protocol' in a data-commutation context in 1967; the NPL team carried out simulation work on packet networks, including datagram networks. His work on packet switching, presented by his colleague Roger Scantlebury caught the attention of the developers of ARPANET, a US defence network, at a conference in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967. In Scantlebury's report following the conference, he noted "It would appear that the ideas in the NPL paper at the moment are more advanced than any proposed in the USA". Larry Roberts of the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the United States applied Davies' concepts of packet switching in the late 1960s for the ARPANET, which went on to become a predecessor to the Internet. Davies first presented his own ideas on packet switching at a conference in Edinburgh on 5 August 1968. At NPL Davies helped build a packet-switched network.

It was replaced with the Mark II in 1973, remained in operation until 1986, influencing other research in the UK and Europe. Baran was happy to acknowledge. In an e-mail to Davies he wrote You and I share a common view of what packet switching is all about, since you and I independently came up with the same ingredients. Leonard Kleinrock, a contemporary working on analysing message flow using queueing theory, developed a theoretical basis for the operation of message switching networks in his PhD thesis during 1961-2, published as a book in 1964. However, Kleinrock's claim to have developed the theoretical basis of packet switching networks is disputed, including Robert Taylor and Davies. Davies and Baran are recognized by historians and the U. S. National Inventors Hall of Fame for independently inventing the concept of digital packet switching used in modern computer networking including the Internet. Davies, along with Roger Scantlebury, participated in the International Networking Working Group from 1972 chaired by Vint Cerf.

He was ac

List of newspapers in Uganda

This is a list of newspapers in Uganda. Media in Uganda List of radio stations in Africa Communications in Uganda John C. G. Isobal. "Rise and Fall of Uganda's Newspaper Industry, 1900–1976". Journalism Quarterly. 57: 224–233. Doi:10.1177/107769908005700204. "Uganda: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. P. 1190. ISBN 1857431839. "Uganda", Freedom of the Press, USA: Freedom House, 2016 Karen Fung, African Studies Association. "News: Uganda". Africa South of the Sahara. USA – via Stanford University. Annotated directory

Robert Jabanungga

Robert Mellor Granites Jabanungga AKA Robert Kantilla, Robert Japanangka, Robert Japananga, Robert Jabanunga Kantilla was a TV actor, Aboriginal dancer and musician best known for playing the didgeridoo at many Canberra festivals as well as national and international events. Jabanungga Avenue in the Canberra suburb of Ngunnawal is named in his honour; the word Jabanungga is a skin name. Jabanungga was born in 1952 in Yuendumu a settlement established by the Federal government to deliver rations and welfare services to the Walpiri people. Raised as a Walpiri, he had eight brothers and eight sisters and lived in a humpy and hunted kangaroos, goannas and snakes, he received a traditional Aboriginal education including tribal rites and ceremonies. The Yuendumu community operated within the bounds of a native affairs policies of forced assimilation, his cousins were members of the lost generation, in that the authorities forcibly removed them from their tribe and placed them into foster care in a white community.

Jabanungga's tribal group was moved to Mt Doreen Cattle Station, west of Yuendumu and still to Warrabri, another settlement, where he received the western education alongside his native one. He was placed with the Mellor family who lived in Alice Springs. Here he started a butchers apprenticeship, he worked for three years in a local butchers shop. He adopted their family name for a time. During the late 1960s he spent a few years in Adelaide, he relocated to Melbourne in the early 1970s where he worked as a teacher aide at the newly established Debney Meadows Primary School. The school had just introduced a performing arts program integrated with its Australian history syllabus where Jabanungga taught students about aboriginal cultural studies including the corroboree. Aboriginal actors were in demand for Australia's expanding television industry, he found sporadic work in Channel 7's Cash and Company. Through the 1970s, Jabanungga travelled to Malaysia, Hong Kong and other parts of Asia playing didgeridoo and dancing.

He worked as an Aboriginal Culture Advisor for the Victorian Department of Education and Special Services. During the 1980s Jabanungga worked at Aboriginal Studies at "Birrigai", one of Australia’s foremost Indigenous Outdoor Education Centres situated in the Brindabella Range, south west of Canberra. Jabanungga died at the age of 39 in 1985. Jabanungga performed with the band Goanna in the 1980s, he performed in the video clip of the same name. Robert like many of his generation experienced the culture wars between the indigenous and white communities, he witnessed the brutal regime at Mt Doreen station where the station owner treated "the blacks" as slaves. Aboriginal writer and activist Kevin Gilbert interviewed Jabanungga for the award winning book Living Black: Blacks Talk to Kevin Gilbert. Suffering is. Modern Aboriginals are victims of this chain of historical events. I believe that Aborigines should come to view their background a bit more realistically on the surface and with a bit less shame underneath.

Aboriginal people were forced to work, if they didn’t, the station owners called the police in. I always thought Australia was different to America; the people might not have been sold on the blocks like the American Negroes were, but they were owned, just the same. Cash and Company 1975 Bellbird