Norman Percevel Rockwell was an American author and illustrator. His works have a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture. Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life he created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine over nearly five decades. Among the best-known of Rockwell's works are the Willie Gillis series, Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace, the Four Freedoms series, he is noted for his 64-year relationship with the Boy Scouts of America, during which he produced covers for their publication Boys' Life and other illustrations. These works include popular images that reflect the Scout Oath and Scout Law such as The Scoutmaster, A Scout is Reverent and A Guiding Hand, among many others. Norman Rockwell was a prolific artist. Most of his works are either in public collections, or have been destroyed in fire or other misfortunes. Rockwell was commissioned to illustrate more than 40 books, including Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn as well as painting the portraits for Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy and Nixon, as well as those of foreign figures, including Gamal Abdel Nasser and Jawaharlal Nehru.
His portrait subjects included Judy Garland. One of his last portraits was of Colonel Sanders in 1973, his annual contributions for the Boy Scouts calendars between 1925 and 1976, were only overshadowed by his most popular of calendar works: the "Four Seasons" illustrations for Brown & Bigelow that were published for 17 years beginning in 1947 and reproduced in various styles and sizes since 1964. He painted six images for Coca-Cola advertising. Illustrations for booklets, posters, sheet music, playing cards, murals rounded out Rockwell's œuvre as an illustrator. Rockwell's work was dismissed by serious art critics in his lifetime. Many of his works appear overly sweet in the opinion of modern critics the Saturday Evening Post covers, which tend toward idealistic or sentimentalized portrayals of American life; this has led to the often-deprecatory adjective, "Rockwellesque". Rockwell is not considered a "serious painter" by some contemporary artists, who regard his work as bourgeois and kitsch.
Writer Vladimir Nabokov stated that Rockwell's brilliant technique was put to "banal" use, wrote in his book Pnin: "That Dalí is Norman Rockwell's twin brother kidnapped by Gypsies in babyhood". He is called an "illustrator" instead of an artist by some critics, a designation he did not mind, as, what he called himself. In his years, Rockwell began receiving more attention as a painter when he chose more serious subjects such as the series on racism for Look magazine. One example of this more serious work is The Problem We All Live With, which dealt with the issue of school racial integration; the painting depicts a young black girl, Ruby Bridges, flanked by white federal marshals, walking to school past a wall defaced by racist graffiti. This painting was displayed in the White House when Bridges met with President Obama in 2011. Norman Rockwell was born on February 3, 1894, in New York City, to Jarvis Waring Rockwell and Anne Mary "Nancy" Rockwell, born Hill, his earliest American ancestor was John Rockwell, from Somerset, who immigrated to colonial North America in 1635, aboard the ship Hopewell and became one of the first settlers of Windsor, Connecticut.
He had Jarvis Waring Rockwell, Jr. older by a year and a half. Jarvis Waring, Sr. was the manager of the New York office of a Philadelphia textile firm, George Wood, Sons & Company, where he spent his entire career. Rockwell transferred from high school to the Chase Art School at the age of 14, he went on to the National Academy of Design and to the Art Students League. There, he was taught by Thomas Fogarty, George Bridgman, Frank Vincent DuMond; as a student, Rockwell was given small jobs of minor importance. His first major breakthrough came at age 18 with his first book illustration for Carl H. Claudy's Tell Me Why: Stories about Mother Nature. After that, Rockwell was hired as a staff artist for Boys' Life magazine. In this role, he received 50 dollars' compensation each month for one completed cover and a set of story illustrations, it is said to have been his first paying job as an artist. At 19, he became the art editor for Boys' Life, published by the Boy Scouts of America, he held the job for three years, during which he painted several covers, beginning with his first published magazine cover, Scout at Ship's Wheel, which appeared on the Boys' Life September edition.
Rockwell's family moved to New York, when Norman was 21 years old. They shared a studio with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe. With Forsythe's help, Rockwell submitted his first successful cover painting to the Post in 1916, Mother's Day Off, he followed that success with Circus Barker and Strongman, Gramps at the Plate, Redhead Loves Hatty Perkins, People in a Theatre Balcony, Man Playing Santa. Rockwell was published eight times on the Post cover within the first year. Rockwell published 323 original cover
Emmett Leo Kelly was an American circus performer, who created the memorable clown figure "Weary Willie", based on the hobos of the Depression era. Kelly was born in Kansas, the son of Irish parents both involved in the railroad business; as a child, he developed a love for the cartooning. In the early 1920s, he began his career as a trapeze artist. By 1923, Emmett Kelly was working his trapeze act with John Robinson's circus when he met and married Eva Mae Moore, another circus trapeze artist, they performed together as the "Aerial Kellys" with Emmett still performing as a whiteface clown. Kelly had developed his character "Weary Willie" around 1920 from sketches he'd made, but circus officials rejected the idea of a "hobo" clown as inappropriate. For his first decade in the circus, he alternated between trapeze artist and a conventional whiteface clown. With the onset of the Depression and tramps had become a regular sight to Americans and Kelly was at last able to gain approval for "Weary Willie".
"Weary Willie" was a tragic figure: a clown, who could be seen sweeping up the circus rings after the other performers. He failed to sweep up the pool of light of a spotlight, his routine was revolutionary at the time: traditionally, clowns wore white face and performed slapstick stunts intended to make people laugh. Kelly did perform stunts too—one of his most famous acts was trying to crack a peanut with a sledgehammer—but as a tramp, he appealed to the sympathy of his audience. Starting in 1942, Kelly performed with the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, where he was a major attraction, he landed a number of Broadway and film roles, including appearing as himself in his "Willie" persona in Cecil B. DeMille's The Greatest Show on Earth, he appeared in the Bertram Mills Circus. Kelly spent his final season before retiring from the circus working as the mascot for the Brooklyn Dodgers. For the last two decades of his life, he continued to make appearances on game shows and in TV commercials.
In 1956, he starred in a dramatic role, a TV adaptation of the story of Wilhelm Voigt, the "Captain From Kopenick," who masqueraded as a Prussian officer in 1906. It was broadcast as part of the Telephone Time anthology series. Kelly was a Mystery Guest on the March 11, 1956, broadcast of What's My Line? and answered the panelists' questions with grunts rather than speaking yes or no. When the round was over, panelist Arlene Francis mentioned that Kelly was not allowed to speak while in makeup. Kelly portrayed the character "Bigamy Bob" in the film Wind Across the Everglades, he starred in the 1967 musicalm The Clown and the Kids, shot and produced in Bulgaria. On July 6, 1944, Kelly was preparing to perform in a matinee show of the Ringling Brothers circus for an audience of 6,000 in Hartford, Connecticut. 20 minutes into the show, the circus tent, waterproofed with paraffin wax and gasoline, caught fire. Kelly was among those who acted to help extinguish the fire, he helped panicked audience members—mostly women and children, due to World War II—to swiftly exit the tent.
168 people died in the fire, 682 people were injured. The cause of the fire has yet to be determined. Kelly's actions that day were immortalized by audience member Ralph Emerson, who took a photograph of Kelly rushing toward the burning tent in his full clown make-up and costume, carrying a single bucket of water; the photograph was published in Life magazine on July 17, 1944. According to eyewitnesses, it was one of few times; the fire affected Kelly and for the remainder of his life. Emmett Kelly died of a heart attack while taking out garbage on March 28, 1979, at his home in Sarasota, Florida, he is buried in Lafayette, Indiana. Kelly's son, Emmett Kelly Jr. did a similar "Weary Willie" character. Kelly Jr. said that his version of Willie was "less sad", but seemed quite similar to most observers. Kelly Jr. died in 2006. Kelly's boyhood town of Houston, named Emmett Kelly Park in his honor and used to host an annual Emmett Kelly Clown Festival, which attracted clowns from across the region including Kelly's grandson Joey Kelly, who returned every year to perform as a special guest.
According to Joey Kelly's website, the festival ended its 21-year run in May 2008. Kelly's "Weary Willie" inspired New York sports cartoonist Willard Mullin to sketch a version of him to represent the Brooklyn Dodgers as "Dem Bums" during the 1930s; the caricature, drawn to speak an exaggerated Brooklynese, caught on with Dodger fans and Mullin was subsequently hired to illustrate the covers of team yearbooks with variations of the "Brooklyn Bum". The Emmett Kelly Museum is located in Kansas. Kelly was an inaugural inductee to the International Clown Hall of Fame in 1989, he was inducted into the International Circus Hall of Fame in 1994. In 1998, Kelly was inducted into the Hall of Famous Missourians, a bronze bust depicting him is on permanent display in the rotunda of the Missouri State Capitol. In the silent feature film Silent Times, directed by Christopher Annino and written by Geoff Blanchette, the persona of Enzio Marchello was influenced in part by Kelly. According to the documentary Halloween Unmasked, the choice for the mask of the film's fictional serial killer Michael Meyers was down to two: a modified Captain Kirk mask and an Emmett Kelly mask.
While the Emmett Kelly mask was unsettling and eerie, it did not quite evoke the creepy feeling they were going for. The Kirk m
John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art
The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art is the state art museum of Florida, located in Sarasota, Florida. It was established in 1927 as the legacy of John Ringling for the people of Florida. Florida State University assumed governance of the Museum in 2000. Designated as the official state art museum for Florida, the institution offers twenty-one galleries of European paintings as well as Cypriot antiquities and Asian and contemporary art; the museum's art collection consists of more than 10,000 objects that include a variety of paintings, drawings, prints and decorative arts from ancient through contemporary periods and from around the world. The most celebrated items in the museum are 16th–20th-century European paintings, including a world-renowned collection of Peter Paul Rubens paintings. Other famous artists represented include Benjamin West, Marcel Duchamp, Diego Velázquez, Paolo Veronese, Rosa Bonheur, Gianlorenzo Bernini, Giuliano Finelli, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Frans Hals, Nicolas Poussin, Joseph Wright of Derby, Thomas Gainsborough, Eugène Boudin, Benedetto Pagni.
In all, more than 150,000 square feet have been added to the campus, which includes the art museum, circus museum, Ca' d'Zan, the Ringlings' mansion, restored, along with the historic Asolo Theater. New additions to the campus include the Visitor's Pavilion, the Education and Conservation Complex, the Tibbals Learning Center complete with a miniature circus, the Searing Wing, a 30,000-square-foot gallery for special exhibitions attached to the art museum. A. Everett Austin Jr. a member of the International Brotherhood of Magicians and, from 1927 to 1944, the innovative director of the Wadsworth Atheneum, was the Ringling Museum's first director. John Ringling willed his property and art collection, plus a $1.2 million endowment, to the people of State of Florida upon his death in 1936. One instruction of the will states that no one has permission to change the official name of the museum. For the next 10 years the museum was opened only irregularly and not maintained professionally, Ca' d'Zan was still used and not opened to the public, while the State fought with Ringling's creditors over the estate.
After prevailing in court, the Florida Department of State did nothing to manage the endowment or maintain the property, while the local community did little to support the Museum. By the late 1990s Ca' d'Zan was falling apart, the Museum had a serious roof leak plus its security systems were wholly inadequate to protect its collection, the Asolo Theater building was condemned, while the $1.2 million endowment had grown to only $2 million. The State of Florida transferred responsibility of the Museum to Florida State University in 2000; as part of the reorganization it created a Board of Trustees consisting of no more than 31 members, of which at least 1/3rd must be residents of either Manatee or Sarasota Counties. In 2002 it appropriated $42.9 million in construction funds, with one major condition – the Museum had to raise $50 million in private sector support within five years. In January 2007, a $76-million expansion and renovation of the Museum of Art was finished. A new Arthur F. and Ulla R. Searing Wing was added—the new wing being the final component of a five-year master plan that has transformed the museum.
It is now the sixteenth largest in the United States. In 2013, The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art was renamed The Ringling. Aside from the art museum, the estate contains the Ringling's mansion, Ca' d'Zan, Mable Ringling's rose garden, the Circus Museum and Tibbals Learning Center, the historic Asolo Theater, the Ringling Art Library, the Secret Garden, gravesite of John and Mable Ringling and the FSU Center for the Performing Arts; the Dwarf Garden showcases stone statues that the Ringlings brought back with them during their years of travel in Europe. Ca' d'Zan, is the waterfront residence built for John Ringling; the mansion was designed by architect Dwight James Baum with assistance from the Ringlings, built by Owen Burns, was completed in 1926. It is designed in Venetian Gothic style. Overlooking Sarasota Bay, the mansion became the center for cultural life in Sarasota for several years; the residence was restored in 2002 under the direction of Bill Puig. Mable Ringling’s rose garden was completed in 1913 while she and John were living in another house on the property.
The rose garden is located near the original Mary Louise and Charles N. Thompson residence within the beautifully landscaped grounds overlooking Sarasota Bay. John and Mable are both buried near this garden, just to the north, in what is called the Secret Garden; the Circus Museum, established in 1948, is the first museum of its kind to document the history of the circus. The museum has a collection of handbills and art prints, circus paper, business records, performing props, circus equipment, parade wagons; the adjacent Tibbals Learning Center contains the Howard Bros. Circus model. Built by Howard Tibbals, this ¾-inch-to-the-foot scale model display is inspired by the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus from 1919–1938, is billed as the "world's largest miniature circus" John Ringling owned a private railroad observation passenger car and used it from 1905 until 1917 to travel with his circus, conduct business trips in and to take vacations with. It was built by the George Mortimer Pullman
A pin-up model is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, i.e. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall. Pin-up models may be fashion models, or actors; these pictures are sometimes known as cheesecake photos. Cheesecake was an American slang word, considered a publicly acceptable term for seminude women because pin-up was considered taboo in the early twentieth century; the term pin-up may refer to drawings and other illustrations as well as photographs. The term was first attested to in English in 1941. Pin-up images could be cut out on a postcard or lithograph; such pictures appear on walls, desks, or calendars. Posters of pin-ups were mass-produced, became popular from the mid-20th century. Male pin-ups were less common than their female counterparts throughout the 20th century, although a market for homoerotica has always existed as well as pictures of popular male celebrities targeted at women or girls. Examples include Jim Morrison.
Beginning in the early nineteenth century, pin-up modeling had "theatrical origins", burlesque performers and actresses sometimes used photographic advertisement as business cards to advertise shows. These adverts and business cards could be found backstage in every theater's green room, pinned-up or stuck into "frames of the looking-glasses, in the joints of the gas-burners, sometimes lying on-top of the sacred cast-case itself." Understanding the power of photographic advertisements to promote their shows, burlesque women self-constructed their identity to make themselves visible. Being recognized not only within the theater itself but outside challenged the conventions of women's place and women's potential in the public sphere. "To understand both the complicated identity and the subversive nature of the 19th-century actress, one must understand that the era's views on women's potential were inextricably tied to their sexuality, which in turn was tied to their level of visibility in the public sphere: regardless of race, class or background, it was assumed that the more public the woman, the more'public,' or available, her sexuality, according to historian Maria Elena Buszek.
Being sexually fantasized, famous actresses in early-20th-century film were both drawn and photographed and put on posters to be sold for personal entertainment. Among the celebrities who were considered sex symbols, one of the most popular early pin-up girls was Betty Grable, whose poster was ubiquitous in the lockers of G. I.s during World War II. In Europe, prior to the First World War, the likes of Fernande Barrey, were arguably the world's first pin-ups as is known in the modern sense. Miss Barrey displayed full frontal nudity, her pictures were cherished by soldiers on both sides of the First World War conflict. Other pin-ups were artwork depicting idealized versions of what some thought a beautiful or attractive woman should look like. An early example of the latter type was the Gibson Girl, a representation of the New Woman drawn by Charles Dana Gibson. "Because the New Woman was symbolic of her new ideas about her sex, it was inevitable that she would come to symbolize new ideas about sexuality."
Unlike the photographed actresses and dancers generations earlier, fantasy gave artists the freedom to draw women in many different ways. The 1932 Esquire "men's" magazine featured many drawings and "girlie" cartoons but was most famous for its Vargas girls. Prior to World War II they were praised for their beauty and less focus was on their sexuality. However, during the war, the drawings transformed into women playing dress-up in military drag and drawn in seductive manners, like that of a child playing with a doll; the Vargas girls became so popular that from 1942–46, owing to a high volume of military demand, "9 million copies of the magazine-without adverts and free of charge was sent to American troops stationed overseas and in domestic bases." The Vargas Girls were adapted as nose art on many World War II fighter aircraft. Among the other well-known artists specializing in the field were Earle K. Bergey, Enoch Bolles, Gil Elvgren, George Petty, Rolf Armstrong, Zoë Mozert, Duane Bryers and Art Frahm.
Notable contemporary pin-up artists include Olivia De Berardinis, known for her pin-up art of Bettie Page and her pieces in Playboy. Many people believe that since its beginnings the pin-up "...has presented women with models for expressing and finding pleasure in their sexual subjectivity". According to Joanne Meyerowitz in "Women and Borderline Material" an article in Journal of Women's History, "As sexual images of women multiplied in the popular culture, women participated in constructing arguments to endorse as well as protest them."As early as 1869, women have been supporters and protesters of the pin-up. Female supporters of early pin-up content considered these to be a "positive post-Victorian rejection of bodily shame and a healthy respect for female beauty."Additionally, pin-up allows for women to change the everyday culture. The models "...succeed in the feminist aim of changing the rigid, patriarchal terms". It has further been argued by some critics that in the early 20th century, these drawings of women helped define certain body images—such as being clean, being healthy, being wholesome—and were enjoyed by both men and
Erie is a city on the south shore of Lake Erie and the county seat of Erie County, United States. Named for the lake and the Native American Erie people who lived in the area until the mid-17th century, Erie is the fourth-largest city in Pennsylvania, as well as the largest city in Northwestern Pennsylvania, with a population of 101,786 at the 2010 census; the estimated population in 2017 had decreased to 97,369. The Erie metropolitan area, equivalent to all of Erie County, consists of 276,207 residents; the Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area has a population of 369,331, as of the 2010 Census. Erie is halfway between the cities of Buffalo, New York, Cleveland and due north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Erie's manufacturing sector remains prominent in the local economy, though health care, higher education, service industries and tourism are emerging as significant economic drivers. Over four million people visit Erie during summer months for recreation at Presque Isle State Park, as well as attractions such as Waldameer Park.
Erie is known as the "Flagship City" because of its status as the home port of Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship Niagara. The city has been called the "Gem City" because of the sparkling lake. Erie won the All-America City Award in 1972, in 2012 hosted the Perry 200, a commemoration, celebrating 200 years of peace between England and Canada following the War of 1812 and Battle of Lake Erie. Cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the shoreline and bluffs in this area for thousands of years, taking advantage of the rich resources; the Sommerheim Park Archaeological District in Millcreek Township, Pennsylvania west of the city, includes artifacts from the Archaic period in the Americas, as well as from the Early and Middle Woodland Period a span from 8,000 BCE to 500 CE. The historic Iroquoian-speaking Erie Nation occupied this area before being defeated by the five nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 17th century during the Beaver Wars; the Iroquois tribes had developed and five nations formed a political league in the 1500s, adding their sixth nation in the early 18th century.
The Erie area became controlled by the Seneca, "keeper of the western door" of the Iroquois, who were based in present-day New York. Europeans first arrived as settlers in the region when the French constructed Fort Presque Isle near present-day Erie in 1753, as part of their effort to defend New France against the encroaching British colonists; the name of the fort refers to the peninsula that juts into Lake Erie, now protected as Presque Isle State Park. The French term "presque-isle" means peninsula; when the French abandoned the fort in 1760 during the French and Indian War, it was the last post they held west of Niagara. The British established a garrison at the fort at Presque Isle that same year, three years before the end of the French and Indian War. Erie is in what was the disputed Erie Triangle, a tract of land comprising 202,187 acres in the northwest corner of Pennsylvania fronting Lake Erie, claimed after the American Revolutionary War by the states of New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.
The Iroquois claimed ownership first so a conference was arranged for on January 9, 1789 wherein representatives from the Iroquois signed a deed relinquishing their ownership of the land. The price for it was $1,200 from the federal government; the Seneca Nation separately settled land claims against Pennsylvania in February 1791 for the sum of $800. It became a part of Pennsylvania on March 3, 1792, after Connecticut and New York relinquished their rights to the land and sold the land to Pennsylvania for 75 cents per acre or a total of $151,640.25 in continental certificates. The General Assembly of Pennsylvania commissioned the surveying of land near Presque Isle through an act passed on April 18, 1795. Andrew Ellicott, who completed Pierre Charles L'Enfant's survey of Washington, D. C. and helped resolve the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, arrived to begin the survey and lay out the plan for the city in June 1795. Initial settlement of the area began that year. Lt. Colonel Seth Reed and his family moved to the Erie area from New York.
They became the first European-American settlers of Erie, settling at what became known as "Presque Isle". President James Madison began the construction of a naval fleet during the War of 1812 to gain control of the Great Lakes from the British. Daniel Dobbins of Erie and Noah Brown of Boston were notable shipbuilders who led construction of four schooner−rigged gunboats and two brigs. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry arrived from Rhode Island and led the squadron to success in the historic Battle of Lake Erie. Erie was an important shipbuilding and railroad hub during the mid-19th century; the city was the site. While the delays engendered cargo troubles for commerce and travel, they provided much-needed local jobs in Erie; when a national standardized gauge was proposed, those jobs, the importance of the rail hub itself, were put in jeopardy. In an event known as the Erie Gauge War, the citizens of Erie, led by the mayor, set fire to bridges, ripped up track and rioted to try to stop the standardization.
On August 3, 1915, the Mill Creek flooded downtown Erie. A culvert, or a tunnel, was blocked by debris, collapsed. A four-block reservoir, caused by torrential downpours, had formed behind it; the resulting deluge killed 36 people. After the flood, Mayor Miles Brown Kitts had the Mill Creek directed into another larger culvert, constructed under more than 2 mi
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, can be in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms and the details of light and colour, but realist or naturalist works of art may, as well or instead of illusionist realism, be "realist" in their subject-matter, emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid. This is typical of the 19th-century Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution, social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism; the Realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. There have been various movements invoking realism in the other arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism, Italian neorealist cinema.
Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the visual appearance of scenes and objects i.e. it is drawn in photographic precision. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism. Realistic art was created in many periods, it is in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization, it becomes marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck and other artists in the 15th century. However such "realism" is used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had seen in real life. 19th-century Realism art movement painters such as Gustave Courbet are by no means noted for precise and careful depiction of visual appearances. It is the choice and treatment of subject matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting, rather than the careful attention to visual appearances. Other terms such as naturalism, naturalistic and "veristic" do not escape the same ambiguity, though the distinction between "realistic" and "realist" is useful, as is the term "illusionistic" for the accurate rendering of visual appearances.
The development of accurate representation of the visual appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the accurate depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance, of detailed effects of light and colour; the Art of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe achieved remarkably lifelike depictions of animals, Ancient Egyptian art developed conventions involving both stylization and idealization that allowed effective depictions to be produced widely and consistently. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy, has remained an influential model since. No original works on panels or walls by the great Greek painters survive, but from literary accounts, the surviving corpus of derivative works it is clear that illusionism was valued in painting. Pliny the Elder's famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, but indicates the aspiration of Greek painting.
As well as accuracy in shape and colour, Roman paintings show an unscientific but effective knowledge of representing distant objects smaller than closer ones, representing regular geometric forms such as the roof and walls of a room with perspective. This progress in illusionistic effects in no way meant a rejection of idealism. Roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects; the art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, a change well underway by the time Christianity began to affect the art of the elite. In the West classical standards of illusionism did not begin to be reached again until the Late medieval and Early Renaissance periods, were helped, first in the Netherlands in the early 15th century, around the 1470s in Italy, by the development of new techniques of oil painting which allowed subtle and precise effects of light to be painted using small brushes and several layers of paint and glaze.
Scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy in the early 15th century and spread across Europe, accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art. As in classical times, idealism remained the norm; the accurate depiction of landscape in painting had been developing in Early Netherlandish/Early Northern Renaissance and Italian Renaissance painting, was brought to a high level in 17th-century Dutch Golden Age painting, with subtle techniques for depicting a range of weather conditions and degrees of natural light. After being another development of Early Netherlandish painting, by 1600 European portraiture could give a good likeness in both painting and sculpture, though the subjects were idealized by smoothing features or giving them an artificial pose. Still life paintings, still life elements in other w