Prince Akaki Tsereteli mononymously known as Akaki, was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure. Born in the village of Skhvitori, Imereti region of western Georgia on June 9, 1840, to a prominent Georgian aristocratic family, his father was Prince Rostom Tsereteli, his mother, Princess Ekaterine, a daughter of Ivane Abashidze and a great-granddaughter of King Solomon I of Imereti. Following an old family tradition, Tsereteli spent his childhood years living with a peasant’s family in the village of Savane, he was brought up by peasant nannies, all of which made him feel empathy for the peasants’ life in Georgia. He graduated from the Kutaisi Classical Gymnasium in 1852 and the University of Saint Petersburg Faculty of Oriental Languages in 1863. Tsereteli was a close friend of Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, a Georgian progressive intellectual youth leader; the young adult generation of Georgians during the 1860s, led by Chavchavdze and Tsereteli, protested against the Tsarist regime and campaigned for cultural revival and self-determination of the Georgians.
He is an author of hundreds of patriotic, historical and satiric poems humoristic stories and autobiographic novel. Tsereteli was active in educational and theatrical activities; the famous Georgian folk song Suliko is based on Tsereteli’s lyrics. He died on January 26, 1915, was buried at the Mtatsminda Pantheon in Tbilisi. Had a son, Russian opera impresario Alexey Tsereteli. A major boulevard in the city of Tbilisi is named after him, as is one of Tbilisi's metro station Tsereteli Tsereteli Georgian Information Portal biography Donald Rayfield, The Literature of Georgia: A History, pp. 159–168: "The luminaries: Ilia Chavchavadze & Akaki Tsereteli", ISBN 0-7007-1163-5. Tsereteli, Akaki; the Story of My Life. Translated by Rayfield, Donald. Ilia State University Press. ISBN 978-9941-18-103-0
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol was a Russian dramatist of Ukrainian origin. Although Gogol was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the preeminent figures of the natural school of Russian literary realism critics have found in his work a fundamentally romantic sensibility, with strains of surrealism and the grotesque, his early works, such as Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, were influenced by his Ukrainian upbringing, Ukrainian culture and folklore. His writing satirised political corruption in the Russian Empire; the novel Taras Bulba and the play Marriage, along with the short stories "Diary of a Madman", "The Tale of How Ivan Ivanovich Quarreled with Ivan Nikiforovich", "The Portrait" and "The Carriage", are among his best-known works. Gogol was born in the Ukrainian Cossack town of Sorochyntsi, in Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire, his mother descended from Leonty Kosyarovsky, an officer of the Lubny Regiment in 1710. His father Vasily Gogol-Yanovsky, a descendant of Ukrainian Cossacks and who died when Gogol was 15 years old, belonged to the'petty gentry', wrote poetry in Ukrainian and Russian, was an amateur Ukrainian-language playwright.
As was typical of the left-bank Ukrainian gentry of the early nineteenth century, the family spoke Ukrainian as well as Russian. As a child, Gogol helped. In 1820, Gogol went to a school of higher art in Nizhyn and remained there until 1828, it was there. He was not popular among his schoolmates, who called him their "mysterious dwarf", but with two or three of them he formed lasting friendships. Early he developed a dark and secretive disposition, marked by a painful self-consciousness and boundless ambition. Early he developed a talent for mimicry, which made him a matchless reader of his own works and induced him to toy with the idea of becoming an actor. In 1828, on leaving school, Gogol came to Saint Petersburg, full of vague but glowingly ambitious hopes, he had hoped for literary fame, brought with him a Romantic poem of German idyllic life – Hans Küchelgarten. He had it published, at his own expense, under the name of "V. Alov." The magazines he sent it to universally derided it. He destroyed them, swearing never to write poetry again.
Gogol was in touch with the "literary aristocracy", had a story published in Anton Delvig's Northern Flowers, was taken up by Vasily Zhukovsky and Pyotr Pletnyov, was introduced to Pushkin. In 1831 Gogol brought out the first volume of his Ukrainian stories, which met with immediate success, he followed it in 1832 with a second volume, in 1835 by two volumes of stories entitled Mirgorod, as well as by two volumes of miscellaneous prose entitled Arabesques. At this time Russian editors and critics such as Nikolai Polevoy and Nikolai Nadezhdin saw in Gogol the emergence of a Ukrainian, rather than Russian, using his works to illustrate supposed differences between Russian and Ukrainian national characters; the themes and style of these early prose works by Gogol, as well as his drama, were similar to the work of Ukrainian writers and dramatists who were his contemporaries and friends, including Hryhory Kvitka-Osnovyanenko and Vasily Narezhny. However, Gogol's satire was unconventional. At this time, Gogol developed a passion for Ukrainian history and tried to obtain an appointment to the history department at Kiev University.
Despite the support of Pushkin and Sergey Uvarov, the Russian minister of education, his appointment was blocked by a Kyivan bureaucrat on the grounds that Gogol was unqualified. His fictional story Taras Bulba, based on the history of Ukrainian cossacks, was the result of this phase in his interests. During this time he developed a close and lifelong friendship with another Ukrainian, the historian and naturalist Mykhaylo Maksymovych. In 1834 Gogol was made Professor of Medieval History at the University of St. Petersburg, a job for which he had no qualifications, he turned in a performance ludicrous enough to warrant satiric treatment in one of his own stories. After an introductory lecture made up of brilliant generalizations which the'historian' had prudently prepared and memorized, he gave up all pretence at erudition and teaching, missed two lectures out of three, when he did appear, muttered unintelligibly through his teeth. At the final examination, he sat in utter silence with a black handkerchief wrapped around his head, simulating a toothache, while another professor interrogated the students."
This academic venture proved a failure and he resigned his chair in 1835. Between 1832 and 1836 Gogol worked with great energy, though all his work has in one way or another its sources in these four years of contact with Pushkin, he had not yet decided that his ambitions were to be fulfilled by success in literature. During this time, the Russian critics Stepan Shevyrev and Vissarion Belinsky, contradicting earlier critics, reclassified Gogol from a Ukrainian to a Russian writer, it was only after the presentation at the Saint Petersburg State Theatre, on 19 April 1836, of his comedy The Government Inspector that he came to believe in his literary vocation. The comedy, a violent satire of Russian provincial bureaucracy, was staged thanks only to the intervention of the emperor, Nicholas I. From 1836 to 1848 Gogol lived abroad, travelling through Switzerland. Gogol spent the winter of 1836–37 in Paris, among Russian expatriates and Polish exiles meeting the Polish poets Adam
Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky was a Russian geographer of Polish-Russian origin and a renowned explorer of Central and East Asia. Although he never reached his ultimate goal, the holy city of Lhasa in Tibet, he traveled through regions unknown to the West, such as northern Tibet and Dzungaria, he contributed to European knowledge of Central Asian geography. He described several species unknown to European science: Przewalski's horse, Przewalski's gazelle, the Wild Bactrian camel, all of which are now endangered. Przhevalsky was born in Smolensk into a noble polonized Belarusian family, studied there and at the military academy in St. Petersburg. In 1864, he became a geography teacher at the military school in Warsaw. In 1867, Przhevalsky petitioned the Russian Geographical Society to be dispatched to Irkutsk, in central Siberia, his intention was to explore the basin of the Ussuri River, a major tributary of the Amur on the Russian-Chinese frontier. This was his first important expedition, it lasted two years, after which Przhevalsky published a diary of the expedition under the title, Travels in the Ussuri Region, 1867-69.
In the following years he made four journeys to Central Asia: 1870–1873 from Kyakhta he crossed the Gobi Desert to Beijing explored the upper Yangtze, in 1872 crossed into Tibet. He surveyed over 7,000 sq mi, collected and brought back with him 5000 plants, 1000 birds and 3000 insect species, as well as 70 reptiles and the skins of 130 different mammals. Przehevalsky was awarded the Constantine Medal by the Imperial Geographical Society, promoted to lieutenant-general, appointed to the Tsar's General Staff, received the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th Class. During his expedition, the Dungan Revolt was raging in China; the journey provided the General Staff with important intelligence on a Muslim uprising in the kingdom of Yaqub Beg in western China, his lecture to the Russian Imperial Geographical Society was received with "thunderous applause" from an overflow audience. The Russian newspaper Golos Prikazchika called the journey "one of the most daring of our time". 1876–1877 traveling through East Turkestan through the Tian Shan, he visited what he believed to be Qinghai Lake, which had not been visited by any European since Marco Polo.
The expedition consisted of ten men, twenty-four camels, four horses, three tonnes of baggage and a budget of 25,000 rubles, but the expedition was beset by disease and poor quality camels. In September 1877, the caravan was refurbished with better camels and horses, 72,000 rounds of ammunition and large quantities of brandy and Turkish delight and set out for Lhasa, but did not reach its goal. 1879–1880 via Hami and through the Qaidam Basin to Qinghai Lake. The expedition crossed the Tian Shan into Tibet, proceeding to within 260 km of Lhasa before being turned back by Tibetan officials; the expedition returned to Qinghai Lake and moved westwards to Hotan and Issyk Kul. The results of these expanded journeys opened a new era for the study of Central Asian geography as well as studies of the fauna and flora of this immense region that were unknown to his Western contemporaries. Among other things, he described Przewalski's horse and Przewalski's gazelle, which were both named after him, he described what was considered to be a wild population of Bactrian camel.
In the 21st century, the Wild Bactrian camel was shown to be a separate species from the domestic Bactrian camel. Przhevalsky's writings include five major books written in Russian and two English translations: Mongolia, the Tangut Country, the Solitudes of Northern Tibet and From Kulja, Across the Tian Shan to Lob-Nor; the Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founder's Gold Medal in 1879 for his work. Przhevalsky died of typhus not long before the beginning of his fifth journey, at Karakol on the shore of Issyk Kul in present-day Kyrgyzstan, he contracted typhoid from the Chu River, acknowledged as being infected with the disease. The Tsar changed the name of the town to Przhevalsk. There are monuments to him, a museum about his life and work and another monument in St. Petersburg. Less than a year after his premature death, Mikhail Pevtsov succeeded Przhevalsky at the head of his expedition into the depths of Central Asia. Przhevalsky's work was continued by his young disciple Pyotr Kozlov.
There is another place named after Przhevalsky: he had lived in a small village called Sloboda, Smolensk Oblast, Russia from 1881-7 and he loved it. The village is now called Przhevalskoye. There is a memorial complex there that includes the old and new houses of Nikolay Przhevalsky, his bust, garden, birch alleys, khatka; this is the only museum of the famous traveler in Russia. Przhevalsky is commemorated by the plant genus Przewalskia Maxim, his name is eponymic with more than 80 plant species as well. Przhevalsky is honored in the scientific names of five species of lizards: Alsophylax przewalskii, Eremias przewalskii, Phrynocephalus przewalskii, Scincella przewalskii, Teratoscincus przewalskii. According to David Schimmelpenninck Van Der Oye's assessment, Przhevalsky's books on Central Asia feature his disdain for the "Oriental"— Chinese civilization. Przhevalsk
Otar Chiladze was a Georgian writer who played a prominent role in the resurrection of Georgian prose in the post-Joseph Stalin era. His novels characteristically fuse Sumerian and Hellenic mythology with the predicaments of a modern Georgian intellectual. Chiladze was born in a town in Kakheti, the easternmost province of then-Soviet Georgia, he graduated from the Tbilisi State University with a degree in journalism in 1956. His works, primary poetry, first appeared in the 1950s. At the same time, Chiladze engaged in literary journalism, he gained popularity with his series of lengthy, atmospheric novels, such as A Man Was Going Down the Road, Everyone That Findeth Me, others. He was a chief editor of the literary magazine Mnatobi since 1997. Chiladze published several collections of poems and plays, he was awarded the Shota Rustaveli Prize in 1983 and the State Prize of Georgia in 1993. Chiladze died after a long illness in October 2009 and was buried at the Mtatsminda Pantheon in Tbilisi, where some of the most prominent writers, artists and national heroes of Georgia are buried.
His elder brother Tamaz Chiladze is a writer. Otar Chiladze's novels characteristically fuse Sumerian and Hellenic mythology with the predicaments of a modern Georgian intellectual, he gained popularity with his series of lengthy, atmospheric novels, such as A Man Was Going Down the Road, Everyone That Findeth Me, others. Otar Chiladze who became a Georgian classic author during his lifetime was awarded some Highest State Prizes of Georgia and in 1998 was nominated for the Nobel Prize along with five other writers, his works are translated into English, Armenian, Serbian, Danish, Bulgarian, Czech and Spanish. Otar Chiladze’s novels A Man Was Going Down the Road and Avelum, translated by Donald Rayfield, were published in the United Kingdom in 2012 and 2013; the Cloud, Intelekti Publishing, 2014 The Sky Starts on Earth, Intelekti Publishing, 2010 Poetry Collection, Pegasi Publishing, 2010 Eternity Ahead, Intelekti Publishing, 2009 100 Poems, Intelekti Publishing, 2009 Tsete’s Red Boots, Pegasi Publishing, 2007.
Happy Martyr, Logos Press Publishing, 2003 The Basket, Rustavi 2 Print, 2003, Arete Publishing, 2006 The Stairs, Publishing Sani, 2003 Avelum, Merani Publishing, 1995 The March Rooster, Merani Publishing, 1987, Arete Publishing 2007 Remember Life, Publishing Sov. Georgia, 1984, Pegasi Publishing, 2010 The Iron Theatre, Merani Publishing, 1981, Arete Publishing, 2007 Everyone That Findeth Me, Publishing Sov. Georgia, 1975, Arete Publishing, 2007 The Other Side of Heart, Publishing Sov. Georgia,1974 A Man Was Going Down the Road, Merani Publishing, 1973, Arete 2007 Nine Long Poems, Publishing Sov. Georgia, 1969, The Child Humored the Guests, Merani Publishing, 1968 Clay Tablets, Publishing Sov. Georgia, 1963, Trains and Passengers, Publishing Sov. Writer, 1959 Literary Award SABA 2003 in category the best novel for The Basket. Ilia Chavchavadze State Prize 1997 for Artistic Work; the State Prize of Georgia 1993 for his Contribution to the Georgian Literature. Shota Rustaveli State Prize 1983 for The Iron Theatre
Kvachi Kvachantiradze is a novel written by Mikheil Javakhishvili in 1924. It was translated by Donald Rayfield in 2015; this is the best-known Picaresque novel written in Georgia. This book was a collection of sketches. Javakhishvili decided to rework it into a novel in 1924 and this novel was published in 1925; as it glorified pre-war France and condemned the Russian Revolution and the Soviet invasion of Georgia, a new version was issued in 1934 censored by the Soviet censors. In 2011, the reissue only used the 1934 text, not the 1925 one; this translation uses the 1925 text. The hero of this book, Kvachi Kvachantiradze, is a scurrilous rogue but, like many a literary rogue, a charming one, he charms us and he charms the people he meets, who seem to be not only unaware of his treachery but thank him for his help. The book starts with an auspicious day. There is a heavy thunderstorm. A tree is broken in two by lightning and the only other inn in town, a rival of the inn of Kvachi's father, Silibistro, is destroyed.
The baby Kvachi is born uttering the word me. A fortune teller forecasts that he will be a great man, get what he wants and bring fortune to his family. Apart from a brief digression about how his parents came to marry, we follow Kvachi's early life, he is a precocious child and talking early, helping in his parents' inn. Silibistro is certain that he descends from nobles but can not prove it, he spends a fortune on doing so, till he gets a man to issue him with a certificate of nobility. The man is a notorious swindler but Silibistro is happy with his certificate and becomes more snobbish. Kvachi is sent to Kutaisi to study and it is here that he develops his sharp ways, he stays with a couple, he an elderly man, Tsviri, much younger. As they do not have a child of their own, Tsviri starts mothering him but, as he gets older, mothering becomes loving and he becomes her lover, for which she gives him gifts. Little does she know that she is not the first but she soon finds out that he sees other women.
Kvachi is astute with money. He borrows at an opportune moment but, of course, never does; when someone is short, he offers to lend them money but never does. From earning money as a gigolo and his friends, soon upgrade to extortion and are indifferent as to whom they extort from, including poor widows, he makes enough money to get his parents a house, while he moves off to Odessa, nominally to study law. He does start studying but, as Javakhishvili points out, Georgians are distracted and lazy and all they want to do is to carouse, which they do, he still carries on his various methods of extortion. Women continue to be his weak spot, he falls in love with Mme Lapoche and gives her lots of presents but she and her husband are smarter than Kvachi. He tries selling stoves and insurance The gang moves to St Petersburg, where he has more trouble with women raping a young woman who resists his charms, he manages to meet Rasputin but is horrified, when his latest girlfriend would rather sleep with Rasputin than with him.
However, he gains Rasputin's confidence and thus access to the Tsar,which allows hm to perpetrate a whole range of scams. Soon he is off again, travelling around Europe - to Warsaw, Vienna and ending up in London, where money and scams keep him busy. By the start of World War I, he is back in Russia where we learn, though history has kept silent about it, he is responsible for killing Rasputin and starting both the February and October Russian revolutions, he joins the Whites, sometimes both on the same day. It is not surprising, he gets much involved in both revolutions though not forgetting to make large sums of money for himself. Things do not always go well. Kvachi Kvachantiradze - The "hero" of this book. Silibistro Kvachantiradze - Kvachi's father. Pupi - Kvachi's mother. Notio - Kvachi's grandmother. Khukhu - Kvachi's grandfather. Budu Sholia - Owner of inn in Kutaisi Tsviri - Budus wife. Beso Shiqia - Kvachi's friend. Jalil - Kvachi's friend. Grigori Rasputin - Russian peasant, mystical faith healer and a trusted friend to the family of Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.
He became friend of Kvachi. Ladi Chikinjiladze - Kvachi's friend. Rebeca - Kvachi's Women. Elene - Kvachi's Women. Madame Lapoche - Kvachi's Women. Kvachi is a good old-fashioned rogue's tale, chronicling the adventures of one Kvachi Kvachantiradze in early twentieth-century Georgia and beyond; the setting and the tumultuous times – leading through the First World War, the Russian Revolution and civil war, the early Soviet Union period – aren't unfamiliar, as numerous Russian and the Soviet authors of the period chronicled these in similarly outrageous stories and novels, but the Georgian angle adds a less familiar perspective – and Javakhishvili puts his own entertaining spin on all this. Kvachi was precocious as an infant, much was expected from him. Of course, small-time Georgia provided limited opportunities – he's well aware: "Georgia is too small to contain me" – and, while returning he progressively distanced himself from it in trying to make his way in the world: mother Russia offered more opportunities.
Opportunities for fleecing folks, t
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website