Terence Joseph Nation was a Welsh television writer and novelist. Nation first made his name as a comedy writer before becoming a prolific writer for drama, working on many of the most popular British series of the 1960s and 1970s, he made a significant contribution to the long-running BBC science-fiction series Doctor Who from its outset, creating the villainous Daleks which established its early popularity and devising the recurring character of Davros. Nation was the creator of two series for the BBC, Survivors and Blake's 7. Born in Llandaff, Nation worked in comedy, entering the industry in 1955 after a incident in which Spike Milligan bought a sketch that he had written because he thought that Nation appeared hungry. During the 1950s, Nation worked with John Junkin and Johnny Speight for the writers' agency Associated London Scripts, where he collaborated on hundreds of radio plays for comedians such as Terry Scott, Eric Sykes, Harry Worth and Frankie Howerd, his career break came in 1962, when he was commissioned to write material for Tony Hancock – first for Hancock's unsuccessful series for Associated Television broadcast on ITV in 1963, his stage show.
Although Nation accompanied Hancock as his chief screenwriter on tour in 1963, Hancock would neglect Nation's scripts in favour of recycling his old material. Following an argument over this, Hancock fired Nation. Prior his association with Hancock, Nation had declined an offer from scriptwriter David Whitaker to write for a new science-fiction programme, entering production at the BBC. Now unemployed, with a young family to support, Nation contacted Whitaker and accepted the offer, writing the second Doctor Who serial, The Daleks; the serial introduced the eponymous extraterrestrial villains that would become the series' most popular and enduring monsters, resulted in a major merchandising success for the BBC. Nation contributed further scripts to Doctor Who. In 1965, Nation and Dennis Spooner co-wrote the 12-part serial The Daleks' Master Plan, after which Nation, who still held the copyright to the Daleks, attempted to launch a Dalek spin-off TV series in the United States. Various other Dalek tie-in material appeared, including comic strips in the children's weekly TV Century 21 and annuals.
Between 1966 and 1972, appearances by the Daleks in Doctor Who became less frequent and were written for the series by other authors. In 1973, following an eight-year absence from scriptwriting for the series, Nation returned to writing for the Daleks on Doctor Who with the Third Doctor serial Planet of the Daleks. In 1998, readers of Doctor Who Magazine voted Nation's 1975 serial Genesis of the Daleks the greatest Doctor Who story of all time. In the story, Nation introduced the character of Davros, the creator of the Daleks, who went on to appear in further storylines. Nation wrote two non-Dalek scripts for Doctor Who, The Keys of Marinus in 1964, which introduced the Voord and The Android Invasion in 1975, which introduced the Kraal. During this time, Nation wrote scripts for series such as The Avengers, The Baron, The Champions, Department S, The Persuaders! and The Saint. Nation's work on Doctor Who was the subject of the documentary Terror Nation, a special feature on the BBC DVD release of the serial Destiny of the Daleks.
Having returned to writing for Doctor Who, the BBC commissioned Nation to create a new science-fiction drama series. First broadcast in 1975, Survivors is the post-apocalyptic story of the last humans on Earth after the world's population has been devastated by plague. Although the series was well received, Nation's creative vision conflicted with that of producer Terence Dudley, the final two seasons were produced without Nation's involvement. Meanwhile, screenwriter Brian Clemens claimed that he had related the concept for Survivors to Nation in the late 1960s, having registered it with the Writers' Guild of Great Britain in 1965. Although the case was brought before the High Court, both sides withdrew from the proceedings after their legal costs mounted; the production of Nation's next BBC creation, experienced fewer problems. This series follows a group of criminals and political prisoners who are on the run from the evil "Terran Federation", piloting a stolen spaceship of unknown origin.
Blake's 7 ran for four series from 1978 to 1981. Although Nation scripted the whole of the first season of Blake's 7, his creative influence subsequently declined in the following two seasons despite writing some key episodes, as script editor Chris Boucher exerted a greater influence on those seasons. Nation didn't write any episodes in the fourth season of Blake's 7. In the 1980s, Nation attempted, without success, to secure funding for a fifth season of Blake's 7. During the 1970s, Nation wrote a children's novel for his daughter Rebecca titled Rebecca's World: Journey to the Forbidden Planet, as well as a novel based on Survivors. In 1980, Nation moved to Los Angeles, where he developed programme ideas and worked for various production studios. Little of his work from this time was as successful as that of his earlier period in Britain, he wrote scripts for A Fine Romance. Nation suffered from declining health in his final years, died from emphysema in Los Angeles on 9 March 1997, aged 66.
Shortly before his death, he had been collaborating with actor Paul Darrow
Doctor Who (film)
Doctor Who referred to as Doctor Who: The Movie to distinguish it from the television series of the same name, is a 1996 television film continuing the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It was developed as a co-production between BBC Worldwide, Universal Studios, 20th Century Fox, the American network Fox, it premiered on 12 May 1996 on CITV in Edmonton, Canada, 15 days before its first showing in the United Kingdom on BBC One and two days before being broadcast in the United States on Fox. It was shown in some countries for a limited time in cinemas; the film was the first attempt to revive Doctor Who following its suspension in 1989. It was intended as a backdoor pilot for a new American-produced Doctor, it introduced Paul McGann as the Eighth Doctor in his only televised appearance as the character until "The Night of the Doctor" in 2013. It marks the final appearance of Sylvester McCoy as the Seventh Doctor, the only appearance of Daphne Ashbrook as companion Grace Holloway, the only appearance of Eric Roberts's version of The Master.
Although a ratings success in the United Kingdom, the film did not fare well on American television and no series was commissioned. The series was relaunched on the BBC in 2005; the only Doctor Who episodes between the film and the new series were a 1999 spoof, Doctor Who and the Curse of Fatal Death, a 2003 animation, Scream of the Shalka. Although the film was produced by different people than the 1963–1989 series and intended for an American audience, the producers chose not to produce a "re-imagining" or "reboot" of the series but rather a continuation of the original narrative; the production was filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, to date the only episode of Doctor Who filmed in Canada. Following the Master's trial and execution at the hands of the Daleks, the Doctor in his seventh incarnation, is transporting the Master's remains to Gallifrey via his TARDIS. En route, the box with the remains breaks open and an ooze leaks out, infecting the TARDIS; the Doctor is forced to make an emergency materialisation in San Francisco's Chinatown on 30 December 1999.
As he exits and locks the TARDIS, the Doctor is shot by a gang chasing down Chang Lee, a young Chinese-American man. Lee calls for an ambulance and escorts the unconscious Doctor to a hospital, unaware the ooze from the TARDIS has gotten aboard. At the hospital, after the bullets are removed, cardiologist Dr Grace Holloway attempts surgery to stabilise his unusual heartbeat, but is confused by his strange double-heart anatomy, accidentally lodges a cardiac probe in the Doctor's body killing him; the Doctor's body is taken to the morgue, while Lee is given the Doctor's possessions including the TARDIS key. Meanwhile, the ooze takes over the body of the ambulance driver, transforming him into a new body for the Master; the Doctor's body regenerates, the new Doctor, suffering amnesia, gathers clothes from remnants of a recent party. He recognises Holloway, who has resigned from the hospital after the failed operation, follows her to her car, proving to her he is the same man by pulling out the cardiac probe.
Holloway takes him home to recover. Lee returns to the TARDIS where the Master arrives and puts him under his mind control by claiming the Doctor had stolen his body; the Master convinces Lee to open the TARDIS and to open the Eye of Harmony within it, which requires a human retinal scan. When the Eye opens, the Doctor is flooded with memories and realises the Master is searching for him, tries to block the scan, he warns Holloway that while the Eye is opened, the fabric of reality will weaken, destroy the Earth by midnight on New Year's Eve if they cannot close it. However, he needs an atomic clock to do so, Holloway finds one on display at the San Francisco Institute of Technological Advancement and Research. Outside, they find the ambulance with the Lee waiting for them, offering them a ride; the Doctor does not recognise the Master, but discovers his true identity en route, he and Holloway escape, but not before the Master can spit an ooze-like substance on Holloway's wrist. The two continue to the Institute and obtain the clock, returning to the TARDIS.
The Doctor installs the clock and closes the Eye, but finds the damage to reality too great and that he must revert time before the Eye was opened to prevent the destruction of Earth. As he connects the proper TARDIS circuits to do this, the Master remotely takes control of Holloway's body, causing her eyes to become inhuman, she strikes the Doctor unconscious; the Doctor wakes to find himself chained above the Eye, the Master poised to take his remaining regenerations while Lee and Holloway watch. The Doctor is able to break the Master's control on Lee, Lee refuses to open the Eye for the Master; the Master kills him, releases his control on Holloway to return her eyes to normal. He forces her to open the Eye and begins drawing the Doctor's lifeforce. Holloway, under her own control, is able to complete the final circuits to put the TARDIS into a time-holding pattern, preventing Earth's destruction, goes to free the Doctor; the Master kills her, but this has given enough time for the Doctor to free himself and attack the Master.
The Doctor pushes the Master into the Eye. The Eye time reverts a few minutes, undoing Lee and Holloway's deaths. With no further risk to Earth, the Doctor prepares to leave. Lee returns his possessions, the Doctor warns him not to be in San Francisco on the next New Year's Eve. Th
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
History of Doctor Who
Doctor Who is a British television science fiction series and screened by the BBC on the BBC TV channel from 1963 to 1964, on BBC1 from 1964 to 1989 and since 2005. A one-off television movie, co-produced with Universal Pictures and 20th Century Fox Television, was screened on the Fox Network in the United States in 1996. In March 1962, Eric Maschwitz, the Assistant and Adviser to the Controller of Programmes at BBC Television, asked Donald Wilson, the Head of the Script Department, to have his department's Survey Group prepare a study on the feasibility of the BBC producing a new science fiction television series; the report was prepared by staff members Alice Frick and Donald Bull, delivered the following month, much to the commendation of Wilson and the BBC's Assistant Controller of Programmes Donald Baverstock. A follow-up report into specific ideas for the format of such a programme was commissioned, delivered in July. Prepared by Frick with another Script Department staff member, John Braybon, this report recommended a series dealing with time travel as being an idea worthy of development.
In December, Canadian-born Sydney Newman arrived at BBC Television as the new Head of Drama. Newman was a science fiction fan who had overseen several such productions in his previous positions at ABC Television and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. In March 1963, he was made aware by Baverstock – now promoted to Controller of Programmes – of a gap in the schedule on Saturday evenings between the sports showcase Grandstand and the pop music programme Juke Box Jury. Ideally, any programme scheduled here would appeal to children, accustomed to the timeslot, the teenaged audience of Juke Box Jury, the adult sports fan audience of Grandstand. Newman decided that a science fiction programme would be perfect to fill the gap, enthusiastically took up the existing Script Department research, initiating several brainstorming sessions with Wilson, Braybon and another BBC staff writer, C. E.'Bunny' Webber. Wilson and Webber contributed to the formatting of the programme and its initial cast of regular characters, co-wrote the programme's first format document with Newman.
Newman came up with the idea of a time machine larger on the inside than the outside and the idea of the central character, the mysterious "Doctor". In the year production was initiated and handed over to producer Verity Lambert and story editor David Whitaker to oversee, after a brief period when the show had been handled by a "caretaker" producer, Rex Tucker. Concerned about Lambert's relative lack of experience, Wilson appointed the experienced staff director Mervyn Pinfield as associate producer. Australian staff writer Anthony Coburn contributed, penning the first episode from a draft prepared by Webber, coming up with the idea that the time machine, the TARDIS, should externally resemble a police box. Doctor Who was intended to be an educational series, with the TARDIS taking the form of an object from that particular episode's time period; when the show's budget was calculated, however, it was discovered that it was prohibitively expensive to re-dress the TARDIS model for each episode.
The series' theme music was written by film and television composer Ron Grainer in collaboration with the BBC Radiophonic Workshop. While Grainer wrote the theme, it was Delia Derbyshire, responsible for its creation, using a series of tape recorders to laboriously cut and join together the individual sounds she created with both concrete sources and square- and sine-wave oscillators. Grainer was amazed at the results and asked "Did I write that?" when he heard it. Derbyshire replied that he had; the BBC prevented Grainer from getting her half the royalties. The title sequence was designed by graphics designer Bernard Lodge and realised by electronic effects specialist Norman Taylor. After actors Hugh David and Geoffrey Bayldon had both turned down approaches to star in the series, Verity Lambert and the first serial's director Waris Hussein managed to persuade 55-year-old character actor William Hartnell to take the part of the Doctor. Hartnell was known for playing army sergeants and other tough characters in a variety of films, but Lambert had been impressed with his sensitive performance as a rugby league talent scout in the film version of This Sporting Life, which inspired her to offer him the role.
Hartnell's Doctor would be accompanied by his granddaughter Susan Foreman to have been a travelling companion, but with a family tie added by Coburn, uncomfortable with the possible undertones the relationship could carry were they to be unrelated. They were joined in the first episode by two of Foreman's schoolteachers, Barbara Wright and Ian Chesterton, from contemporary 20th century England; this remained the line-up of the series for the entire first season, but over time the regular line-up would change as the Doctor's various companions left him to return home, having found new causes on worlds they had visited and elected to stay there, or occasionally being killed off. However, he would always find new travelling companions; such characters were used by the production team to relate the point of view of the viewers
BBC television drama
BBC television dramas have been produced and broadcast since before the public service company had an established television broadcasting network in the United Kingdom. As with any major broadcast network, drama forms an important part of its schedule, with many of the BBC's top-rated programmes being from this genre. From the 1950s through to the 1980s the BBC received much acclaim for the range and scope of its drama productions, producing series and plays across a range of genres, from soap opera to science-fiction to costume drama, with the 1970s in particular being regarded as a critical and cultural high point in terms of the quality of dramas being produced. In the 1990s, a time of change in the British television industry, the department went through much internal confusion and external criticism, but since the beginning of the 21st century has begun to return to form with a run of critical and popular successes, despite continual accusations of the drama output and the BBC in general dumbing down.
Many BBC productions have been exported to and screened in other countries in the United States on the Public Broadcasting Service Masterpiece Theatre strand and latterly on the BBC's own BBC America cable channel. Other major purchasers of BBC dramas include the BBC's equivalents in other Commonwealth nations, such as Australia's ABC, Canada's CBC and Gibraltar's Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation. An established national radio broadcaster, the BBC began test transmissions with the new technology of television in 1929, working with John Logie Baird and using his primitive early apparatus; the following year, as part of one of these test transmissions, the BBC screened their first television drama production, an adaptation of the Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello's short play The Man With the Flower in His Mouth. Broadcast live at 3.30pm on 14 July 1930, the play was produced from a small studio in the Baird Company headquarters at 133 Long Acre, London. The play was chosen because of its confined setting, small cast and short length, was directed by Val Gielgud, at the time the BBC's senior producer of radio drama.
Because of the primitive 30-line camera technology, only one figure could be shown on screen at a time and the field of vision of the cameras was restricted. The Prime Minister of the day, Ramsay MacDonald, watched the play with his family on the Baird Televisor Baird had installed at their 10 Downing Street home; the reviewer for The Times newspaper commented that: "This afternoon on the roof of 133, Long Acre will prove to be a memorable one... The time for interest and curiosity is come, but the time for serious criticism of television plays, as plays, is not yet."The BBC's test broadcasts continued throughout the early part of the decade as the quality of the medium improved. In 1936 the BBC launched the world's first "high-definition"—then defined as at least 240-lines — television channel, the BBC Television Service, from studios in a specially converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. At the time of the channel's debut on 2 November 1936 there were only five television producers responsible for the entire output.
The producer selected to oversee drama was George More O'Ferrall, who had some experience with working in a visual medium as he was a former assistant director of films. This was unlike most of his colleagues; the first drama production to be mounted as a part of the new, regular service was a twenty-five-minute selection of scenes from the West End play Marigold by L. Allen Harker and F. R. Pryor, produced by O'Ferrall with the original London Royalty Theatre cast; this was broadcast live from the Alexandra Palace studios on the evening of Friday 6 November 1936. BBC Television Head of Drama Shaun Sutton wrote about the production for The Times in 1972. "It was little more than a photographed version of the stage production, with the camera lying well back to preserve the picture-frame convention of the theatre." Most initial drama efforts were of a similar scale. An increasing number of full-length dramatised productions began to take place in the Alexandra Palace studios during 1937, with Journey's End in November 1937 being a notable full-scale adaptation of a play.
When television transmissions on Sundays began in March 1938, one Sunday per month would see the broadcast of a full-length Shakespeare play by actors from the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. Productions become more technically advanced, with the use of film inserts on telecine and more ambitious shooting and mixing, as opposed to televising the equivalent of a standard theatrical performance with unmoving cameras. Outside broadcast cameras were used to show thirty Territorial Army troops with two howitzers in the Alexandra Palace grounds for added effect in The White Chateau, boats on the Palace lake in scenes depicting the Zeebrugge Raid in a World War I play; the Times credited the ambition of BBC television drama in its review of a July 1938 modern dress version of Julius Caesar, while criticising some of the production's technical failings. "From the moment when Mr. Sebastian Shaw and Mr. Anthony Ireland were discovered sitting at a café table, discussing the political situation over a glass of beer, looking like two Fascist officers, yet speaking the lines assigned to Brutus and Cassius, the attention of the audience was riveted...
The penumbrascope, a device for providing a background by means of shadows, which came into play for the first time in this production, was use
Doctor Who fandom
The long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who has developed a large and devoted fan base over the years. Doctor Who fans are sometimes referred to as Whovians, or as the Doctor Who fandom; the usage of "Whovian" was restricted to fans in the United States during the 1980s, when the Doctor Who Fan Club of America published the Whovian Times as its newsletter. An early use of'Whovian', outside of the'Whovian Times', is from Flaming Carrot Comics issue number 19, when Flaming Carrot leads a combined group of Trekkies and Whovians into rebellion. Doctor Who fans in Britain have had a formally recognised organisation – the Doctor Who Appreciation Society – since the late 70s, it has thousands of members and enjoyed an ongoing relationship with the classic series and with BBC Worldwide. The Australasian Doctor Who Fan Club was founded soon after DWAS, in 1976, to galvanise resistance to the decision of the Australian Broadcasting Commission to cease broadcasting the Doctor Who series.
The club president edited Zerinza the club fanzine, until 1986. In the 1990s the club was renamed several times, today being the Doctor Who Club of Australia which publishes a newsletter, "Data Extract". In the 1980s, some US fans staged "Save Doctor Who" publicity campaigns, trying to urge their local television stations to keep airing the show; the North American Doctor Who Appreciation Society was founded in the 1980s and served as an umbrella organisation for dozens of local fan groups throughout the continent. Its demise in the early 1980s led to the foundation of the Doctor Who Fan Club of America, the Friends of Doctor Who. FDW ended unceremoniously in the mid-1990s, since American Doctor Who fandom has been served through local fan clubs; the Doctor Who Information Network was founded in Canada in 1980 and continues to serve fans in North America. It was one of the first Doctor Who clubs in North America, is the longest running Doctor Who club on the continent. DWIN supports the monthly Toronto Tavern fan gatherings.
DWIN sponsored several local chapters throughout Canada. In Canada is the Doctor Who Society of Canada, a social network for Whovians of all ages whose community focuses on social interaction, intelligent exchange and commonality; the DWSC launched in 2011 and provides monthly social gatherings, online community forums and have been featured prominently at Toronto area Fan Conventions including Fan Expo, as well as Montreal & Ottawa Comic Con. The DWSC has launched its own Doctor Who Festival on 17 November 2012 – REGENERATION – and is branching out into local chapters across the country including Toronto, Montreal and Kitchener/Waterloo; the New Zealand Doctor Who Fan Club was founded by Scott Walker and Andrew Poulson in 1988 and continues to remain the country's major fan support group. They continued to run the club until 1991; the club puts out Time Space Visualiser, twice-yearly. In 2012, The Doctor Who Fan Groups Google Map project was set up with the aim of making it easier for UK-based Doctor Who fans to find a local fan group and, in turn, to help local fan groups to find new members.
Many Doctor Who conventions are held worldwide. The first in 1977 was organised by The Doctor Who Appreciation Society and that event continues in the United Kingdom as the long-running Panopticon. Other popular conventions of the past include the Manchester-based Manopticon and the Swindon-based Leisure Hives and Honeycomb. More the company 10th Planet has held conventions such as Bad Wolf and Invasion. Wales-based Regenerations has had great success of late, as have other signing events held on the Strand by London-based Scificollector; the Doctor Who Appreciation Society has re-established itself as an event organiser too, whilst Panopticon, a name still associated with the Society, has not been held since 2003, other brands, namely'Time' and'Doctor Who Unleashed' are well known in the market. In Australia a variety of events have been organised, many "Whoventions" being held in Sydney by the Doctor Who Club of Australia, by some other clubs in various states; the high cost of travel and small population base makes it hard to pay for many of the stars, so many events have been organised at short notice during any visits by a star, or other person linked to the show, such as Jon Pertwee, Peter Davison and Janet Fielding.
North America's first events were based in Los Angeles in 1980 with Who One. Soon followed an enormous convention heyday during the 1980s in the Chicago area with the Spirit of Light events, which attracted many thousands of fans due to the show's popularity on public television, Creation Conventions held in various cities. In the late 1980s other events such as Omnicon and Megacon showcased the classic series; the 1990s saw a decline in major events, though Chicago featured the large-sized Visions events throughout the decade, the popular Gallifrey One convention began in Los Angeles. As of 2015, Gallifrey One and the ChicagoTARDIS convention continue, with the addition of Georgia's WHOlanta in Atlanta, Florida's Hurricane Who, Alabama's Con Kasterborous, New York's L. I. Who, the annual Sci Fi Sea Cruise featuring Doctor Who guests departing from different
Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
The Cameronians was a rifle regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. It was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 26th Cameronian Regiment and the 90th Perthshire Light Infantry. In 1968, when reductions were required, the regiment chose to be disbanded rather than amalgamated with another regiment, one of only two infantry regiments in the British Army to do so, with the other being the York and Lancaster Regiment, it can trace its roots to that of the Cameronians the 26th of Foot, who were raised in 1689. The 1881 amalgamation coincided with the Cameronian's selection to become the new Scottish Rifles; the Cameronians was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 26th Cameronian Regiment and the 90th Perthshire Light Infantry. After the amalgamation, the 1st Battalion preferred to be known as "The Cameronians" while the 2nd preferred to be known as "The Scottish Rifles"; the 2nd Battalion saw action at the Battle of Spion Kop in January 1900 during the Second Boer War.
Two Militia battalions were formed from the former 2nd Royal Lanark Militia. The 3rd battalion was embodied in May 1900 for service during the Second Boer War. More than 600 men embarked for South Africa in April 1901, returned in June 1902, following the end of hostilities; the 4th battalion had been embodied in December 1899 for service in the same war, 600 officers and men embarked for South Africa in late February 1900. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the 1st Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 19th Brigade, an independent command at that time, in August 1914 for service on the Western Front. The battalion famously refused to play football or otherwise fraternise with the enemy on Christmas Day 1914; the 2nd Battalion landed in France as part of the 23rd Brigade in the 8th Division in November 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 1/5th Battalion was one of the first Territorial Force units selected to reinforce the Regulars of the British Expeditionary Force in France.
It landed at Le Havre on 5 November 1914. At this time 19th Bde included 1st Bn Cameronians 19th Brigade was attached to the 6th Division; the 1/6th Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 23rd Brigade in the 8th Division in March 1915 for service on the Western Front. It joined 33rd Division and in 1916 it merged with the 1/5th to form 5th/6th Bn; the 1/7th Battalion and the 1/8th Battalion landed in Gallipoli as part of the 156th Brigade in the 52nd Division in June 1915. They served on the Western Front until the end of the war; the 9th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 27th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 10th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 46th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front; the 11th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 77th Brigade in the 26th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front but sailed for Salonika in November 1915.
The 1st Battalion was deployed to Ireland in 1919 during the Irish War of Independence and went to India in 1931 while the 2nd Battalion was deployed to Mesopotamia in 1919 and went to India in 1922. The 1st Battalion, in India at the start of the war and was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Galloway, was deployed to Burma as part of the 1st Burma Brigade in the 39th Indian Division in 1942 and saw action in the Burma Campaign; the 2nd Battalion commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Douglas Graham, was deployed to France as part of the 13th Infantry Brigade in the 5th Division within the British Expeditionary Force in September 1939 and, after taking part in the Dunkirk evacuation in June 1940, saw action in the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943 and, after fighting in the Italian Campaign, serving in both the Moro River and Anzio campaigns until July 1944, took part in the North West Europe Campaign in early 1945, ending in May. The 6th and 7th Battalions, both Territorial Army battalions, were deployed to France as part of the 156th Infantry Brigade in the 52nd Infantry Division to provide cover for the withdrawal of troops of the British Expeditionary Force.
The 9th Battalion took part in the Normandy landings as part of the 46th Infantry Brigade in the 15th Infantry Division in June 1944 and saw action in the North West Europe Campaign in late 1944 and in 1945. In 1948, along with every other infantry regiment of the British Army, the Cameronians regiment was reduced to a single regular battalion; the 1st Battalion, decimated in the Burma campaign was placed in suspended animation and the 2nd Battalion was renamed the 1st Battalion while at Gibraltar. It was deployed to Malaya in 1950 during the Malayan Emergency. Under the reforms of the army in the 1967 Defence White Paper, which saw several regiments amalgamated, the Cameronians chose to disband rather than amalgamate with another in the Lowland Brigade; the 1st Battalion, The Cameronians was dis