Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a public, land-grant, research-intensive university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855, the university has a threefold mission of teaching, research. Its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township. It has two law schools, Penn State Law, on the schools University Park campus, and Dickinson Law, the College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special-mission campuses located across the state, Penn State has been labeled one of the Public Ivies, a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League. Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students and it has the worlds largest dues-paying alumni association.
The universitys total enrollment in 2015–16 was approximately 97,500 across its 24 campuses, the university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The universitys research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, which is the worlds largest student-run philanthropy. This event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus, in 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The universitys athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Penn State Nittany Lions. They compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports, centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would eventually acquire. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation.
Atherton expanded the arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Athertons honor, Penn States Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton. His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, in the years that followed, Penn State grew significantly, becoming the states largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S, President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, and enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, in the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution
Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous apple trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple. The other species are known as crabapples, crab apples, crabs. The genus is native to the zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Apple trees are typically 4–12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, the leaves are 3–10 cm long, simple, with a serrated margin. Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects, all are self-sterile, and self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential, several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely. They are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one or two seeds, for the Malus pumila cultivars, the cultivated apples, see Apple. Crabapples are popular as ornamental trees, providing blossom in Spring. The fruits often persist throughout Winter, numerous hybrid cultivars have been selected, of which Evereste and Red Sentinel have gained The Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit.
Other varieties are dealt with under their species names, some crabapples are used as rootstocks for domestic apples to add beneficial characteristics. For example, varieties of Baccata, called Siberian crab and they are used as pollinizers in apple orchards. In emergencies, a bucket or drum bouquet of crabapple flowering branches are placed near the beehives as orchard pollenizers. Crabapple fruit is not an important crop in most areas, being extremely sour due to acid, and in some species woody. In some southeast Asian cultures they are valued as a condiment, sometimes eaten with salt and chili pepper. Some crabapple varieties are an exception to the reputation of being sour, crabapples are an excellent source of pectin, and their juice can be made into a ruby-coloured preserve with a full, spicy flavour. A small percentage of crabapples in cider makes a more interesting flavour, as Old English Wergulu, the crab apple is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.
Apple wood gives off a pleasant scent when burned, and smoke from a wood fire gives an excellent flavour to smoked foods. It is easier to cut when green, dry wood is exceedingly difficult to carve by hand
American Horticultural Society
The American Horticultural Society is a nonprofit, membership-based organization that promotes excellence in American horticulture. It is headquartered at River Farm in Alexandria, established in 1922, the AHS is one of the oldest national gardening organizations in the United States. In addition to publishing horticultural reference books, the organization publishes a magazine, The American Gardener. The American Horticultural Society publishes a monthly online e-bulletin, the American Horticultural Society conducts various events annually, to educate and inspire gardeners. Education is further instilled in the Society’s internship program, which hires interns in editorial/communications, member programs, through its national awards programs, AHS celebrates outstanding achievements, encourages excellence, and inspires innovation in the art and science of horticulture. AHS offers a program to those interested in gardening and horticulture. In 1973, the Society relocated their headquarters to River Farm, the property is home to numerous gardens, including a four-acre Andre Bluemel Meadow and a Childrens Garden.
Annual events at River Farm include the Spring Garden Market plant sale, garden workshops for children, a banquet for AHS award winners, the Horticultural and Corporate Partners programs join other allied organizations that help to support the Societys vision of making a nation of gardeners
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and is the second largest link in the Emerald Necklace. The Arboretum was founded in 1872 when the President and Fellows of Harvard College became trustees of a portion of the estate of James Arnold, Harvard used this land for the creation of the Bussey Institute, which was dedicated to agricultural experimentation. The first Bussey Institute building was completed in 1871 and served as headquarters for a school of agriculture. Sixteen years after Busseys death, James Arnold specified that a portion of his estate was to be used for. the promotion of Agricultural, either indigenous or exotic, which can be raised in the open air of West Roxbury. The historical mission of the Arnold Arboretum is to increase knowledge of plants through research. In 1872 Charles Sprague Sargent was appointed director and Arnold Professor of Botany shortly after the establishment of the institution, the Hunnewell building was designed by architect Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow, Jr. in 1892 and constructed with funds donated by H. H.
Hunnewell in 1903. From 1946 to 1950 the landscape architect Beatrix Farrand was the design consultant for the Arboretum. Her early training in the 1890s included time with Charles Sprague Sargent and Jackson Thornton Johnson, today the Arboretum occupies 281 acres of land divided between four parcels, viz. the main Arboretum and the Peters Hill, Weld-Walter and South Street tracts. The collections are located primarily in the main Arboretum and on the Peters Hill tract, the Arboretum remains one of the finest examples of a landscape designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. It is known as the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site and has designated as a National Historic Landmark. Dr. Ned Friedman is the eighth and current Director of the Arnold Arboretum and he is the Arnold Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. The Arboretum is privately endowed as a department of Harvard University, the land was deeded to the City of Boston in 1882 and incorporated into the so-called Emerald Necklace.
The annual operating budget of $7,350,644 is largely derived from the endowment, all Arboretum staff are University employees. Other income is obtained through granting agencies and contributors, the main Arborway gate is located on Route 203 a few hundred yards south of its junction with the Jamaicaway. Public transportation to the Arboretum is available on the MBTA Orange Line to its terminus at Forest Hills Station, the Arboretum is within easy walking distance from either of these points. The Arboretums southwest gate is close to the turn between Weld and Walter Streets on the #51 bus line between Cleveland Circle/Reservoir and Forest Hills. The Centre Street entrance, across from Whitcomb Ave and Westchester Road, is served by the #38 bus, the grounds are open free of charge to the public from sunrise to sunset 365 days of the year
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 in London, England, as the Horticultural Society of London, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UKs leading gardening charity and claims to be the world’s largest gardening charity, the RHS quotes its charitable purpose as The encouragement and improvement of the science and practice of horticulture in all its branches. The current Director General is Sue Biggs, the charity promotes horticulture through flower shows such as the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, RHS Tatton Park Flower Show and RHS Cardiff Flower Show. It supports training for professional and amateur gardeners, the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. The society would award prizes for gardening achievements, Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership, the proposal was accepted, despite Knights ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was President of the society from 1811–1838, and developed the societys aims, in 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, and the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were previously decided by election, Fellowship may be secured through a suggested £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively. The Royal Horticultural Societys four major gardens in England are, Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey, Rosemoor Garden in Devon, Hyde Hall in Essex and Harlow Carr in Harrogate, the Societys first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1821 the society leased part of the Duke of Devonshires estate at Chiswick to set up an experimental garden, from 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, and from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables.
In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the societys oldest garden, Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Dick, Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection which was based at Hyde Hall. The most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001 and it had been the Northern Horticultural Societys trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens, in 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its flower shows which take place across the UK.
The most famous of these shows being the RHS Chelsea Flower Show and this is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire
Cornell University is an American private Ivy League and land-grant doctoral university located in Ithaca, New York. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornells motto, the university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar. Cornell is one of three private land grant universities in the nation and the one in New York. Of its seven colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural. Of Cornells graduate schools, only the college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension program in every county of New York. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens are considered. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race, the student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and more than 120 countries.
Cornell University was founded on April 27,1865, the New York State Senate authorized the university as the land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site, fellow senator and experienced educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty, the university was inaugurated on October 7,1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as an innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus as well as to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a dynamo to light the grounds. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes and it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses, since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs.
In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar and it has partnerships with institutions in India and the Peoples Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its international profile. On March 9,2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new Bridging the Rift Center to be built, Cornells main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
Massachusetts Horticultural Society
The Massachusetts Horticultural Society, sometimes abbreviated to MassHort, is an American horticultural society based in Massachusetts. It describes itself as the oldest formally organized horticultural institution in the United States, as of 2014, it had some 5,000 members. It continued this tradition from 1871 through 2008 with its annual New England Spring Flower Show, in 1831 the society bought a 72-acre estate called Sweet Auburn for an arboretum and cemetery. Although the horticultural garden never materialized, in 1835 the site was incorporated as Mount Auburn Cemetery, until 1976, the society received one-fourth of the proceeds from the sale of Mount Auburns cemetery lots. In its early years, the Society met in various locations in Boston, starting in 1845, the society has built for itself three successive exhibit halls, each named Horticultural Hall. The first was located on School Street, the second on Tremont Street, since 2001 the societys headquarters have been at the Elm Bank Horticulture Center in Wellesley.
The 36 acres encompass multiple gardens including an acre-sized one designed by prominent UK plantsman Adrian Bloom, in 2008 the society found itself in financial difficulty. Feige resigned after the trustees presented the facts, but it was apparent that problems were building over a number of years due to overspending. In September 2009, MassHort announced that it would incorporate Blooms as part of the Boston Flower & Garden Show, produced by the Paragon Group and that show took place in March 2010 at the Seaport World Trade Center. MassHort took responsibility for two floral design competitions, amateur competition, Ikebana displays, plant society displays and one day of lectures. In its May 2010 newsletter, The Leaflet, MassHort described the venture as financially successful, in its May 2010 newsletter, MassHort reported it had reached agreement with the bulk of its remaining creditors by selling off an additional group of books from its collection. In January 2011 the Board of Trustees hired Katherine K.
Macdonald as Executive Director/President of the Society after the Board stabilized the organizations financials, in November and December, the Festival of Trees provides an enjoyable family event to celebrate the holidays. The Gardens at Elm Bank include twelve display gardens, in 2011, a new vegetable garden was designed to support the Garden to Table program. By 2013, this garden was producing over 4000 pounds of produce that was donated to two food pantries. The Welcome Garden near the lot entrance was added in 2012. Improvements to the Italianate Garden included the restoration of the fountain, in January 2014 the Italianate Garden was featured on This Old House. Since 2011, over $250,000 in capital investments have made to the property. A small staff and hundreds of volunteers, including Master Gardeners, Garden group tours are available Tuesdays at 10am from April 30 to October 1