Duart Castle or Caisteal Dhubhairt in Scottish Gaelic is a castle on the Isle of Mull, off the west coast of Scotland, within the council area of Argyll and Bute. The castle is the seat of Clan MacLean. Duart Castle was built by Clan MacDougall in the 13th century, appears to have come into the hands of Clan MacLean in the following century. In 1350 Lachlan Lubanach Maclean of Duart, the 5th Clan Chief, married Mary, daughter of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and Duart was part of her dowry. In 1647, Duart Castle was attacked and laid siege to by the Argyll government troops of Clan Campbell, but they were defeated and driven off by the Royalist troops of Clan MacLean. In September 1653, a Cromwellian task force of six ships anchored off the castle, but the Macleans had fled to Tiree. A storm blew up on the 13 September and three ships were lost, including HMS Swan. To the north of the castle is a Historic Marine Protected Area within which lie the remains of a wrecked 17th century warship, believed to be the Swan.
In 1678, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, son of the Marquess of Argyll invaded the Clan MacLean lands on the Isle of Mull and Sir John Maclean, 4th Baronet fled the castle and withdrew to Cairnbulg Castle, afterward to Kintail under the protection of the Earl of Seaforth. In 1691 Duart Castle was surrendered by Sir John Maclean, 4th Baronet to Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll; the Campbell clan demolished the castle, the stones from the walls were scattered. Donald Maclean, 5th Laird of Torloisk used some of the stones to build a cottage for his family close to the site of the castle. By 1751 the remains of the castle were abandoned. Descendants of Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll sold the castle in 1801, to MacQuarrie, who sold it to Carter-Campbell of Possil who kept it as a ruin within the grounds of his own estate to the north, Torosay Castle, he sold his Torosay Estate which now included the ruins of Castle Duart to A. C. Guthrie in 1865. On 11 September 1911, the ruin was separated from the rest of the Torosay Estate and was bought by Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean, the 26th Chief of the Clan MacLean and restored.
Lairds are owners of an estateLachlan Lubanach Maclean, 5th Chief, 1st laird of Duart, it was part of his wife's dowry. Red Hector of the Battles Maclean, 6th Chief, 2nd laird of Duart. Lachlan Bronneach Maclean, 7th Chief, 3rd laird of Duart. Lachlan Og Maclean, 8th Chief, 4th laird of Duart. Hector Odhar Maclean, 9th Chief, 5th laird of Duart. Lachlan Maclean, 10th Chief, 6th laird of Duart. Lachlan Cattanach Maclean, 11th Chief, 7th laird of Duart. Hector Mor Maclean, 12th Chief, 8th laird of Duart. Hector Og Maclean, 13th Chief, 9th laird of Duart. Lachlan Mor Maclean, 14th Chief, 10th laird of Duart. Sir Hector Og Maclean, 15th Chief, 11th laird of Duart.... Sir John Maclean, 4th Baronet, 16th laird of Duart, he surrendered Duart Castle to 1st Duke of Argyll who demolished the castle. Sir John Maclean became the last laird of Duart until the restoration of the castle by Fitzroy Donald Maclean over 221 years later. In 2012, the centenary of the 1912 restoration, the Chief of Clan Maclean announced that his family could no longer afford the upkeep of the castle in light of the expense of major repairs.
In the winter of 2013–14 the castle lost four ceilings, which were brought down by water penetration through the chimneys. In July 2014, a restoration appeal was launched; the castle was used as a location in the 1945 film I Know Where I'm Going!. It was featured in the 1971 film When Eight Bells Toll, starring Anthony Hopkins and in the 1999 film Entrapment, starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones, it is the setting for the base of Buffy Summers in the first half of Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight. Official website Dark Isle Photos 360° image outside the castle History of Duart Castle
Clan MacLean is a Highland Scottish clan. They are one of the oldest clans in the Highlands and owned large tracts of land in Argyll as well as the Inner Hebrides. Many early MacLeans became famous for their honour and courage in battle, they were involved in clan skirmishes with the Mackinnons, MacDonalds and Campbells, as well as all of the Jacobite risings. There are several different origins for the surname MacLean, the clan surname is an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic MacGilleEathain; this was the patronymic form of the personal name meaning "servant of John". Or the "son of the servant of Saint John; the family grew powerful throughout the Hebrides and Highlands through allegiances with the Catholic Church in the 9th century, the MacDonalds in the 13th century, the MacKays and MacLeods in the 16th century. The founder of the clan was a Scottish warlord descended from the royal Cenél Loairn named Gillean of the Battle Axe; the stories of Gillean being descended from the FitzGerald dynasty are fictitious, as the FitzGeralds are of Cambro-Norman descent and the Macleans are of Gaelic descent, having been in Scotland since the Dalriadic migration from northeastern Ulster in the earlier centuries C.
E. Gillean's great-grandfather was Old Dugald of Scone, born ca. 1050 during the reign of King Macbeth of the House of Moray, the principal royal line of the Cenél Loairn. He was a Councillor to King David of Scots. Gillean fought at the Battle of Largs in 1263 during the Scottish-Norwegian War where the Scottish were victorious. Gillean's son Malise mac Gilleain was thought by some to have taken the name Gillemor in 1263 and is said to have led his followers at the Battle of Largs in 1263, he wrote his name as "Gillemor Mcilyn, County of Perth" on the third Ragman Rolls of 1296, swearing fealty to Edward I of England. Gillean's great-great-grandson was Iain Dhu Maclean. One of his sons was Lachainn Lubanach, the progenitor of the Macleans of Duart and the other son was Eachainn Reafanach, the progenitor of the Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie; the Macleans of Duart married into the family of John of Lord of the Isles. By the end of the 15th century the Macleans owned the isles Mull, Islay, Knapdale as well as Morvern in Argyll and Lochaber in mainland Scotland.
The Clan MacLean are said to have fought in support of Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. During the 14th and 15th century many battles were fought between the Clan Maclean and Clan Mackinnon. In 1411 the Clan MacLean fought as Highlanders at the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie in Aberdeenshire on 24 July 1411 against an Army of Scottish Lowlanders, their enemy was the forces of the Duke of Earl of Mar.. The MacLeans were led by "Red Hector of the Battles", the 6th Chief, who engaged in single combat with the chief of Clan Irvine, known as "Sir Alexander de Irwine". After a legendary struggle both died of the wounds inflicted upon each other; the Battle of Corpach took place in 1439. It was fought between the Clan Cameron. In 1484 the Clan MacLean fought at the Battle of Bloody Bay on the side of the Lord of the Isles, chief of Clan Donald. In 1513 During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Lachlan Maclean of Duart was killed at the Battle of Flodden; the clan extended its influence to other Hebridean islands such as Tiree and Islay and onto the mainland.
In 1560 the Clan MacLean, joined by their allies the Clan Mackay and Clan MacLeod became part of the Gallowglass, who were ferocious mercenaries of Norse-Gaelic descent who served in Ireland for King Shane O'Neill. The rising power of the Clan Campbell during the sixteenth century brought them into opposition with the Macleans. Several marriages were arranged between Macleans and Campbells to avoid feuding, however one of these went badly wrong when chief Lachlan Maclean married Lady Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of the Earl of Argyll, chief of Clan Campbell; the match was not a happy one and Maclean took drastic action by marooning his wife on a rock in the sea, leaving her to drown. However she was rescued by some passing fishermen who took her back to her kin and Maclean was killed by her brother in Edinburgh in 1523; the Battle of the Western Isles was fought in 1586, on the Isle of Jura, between the Clan MacDonald of Sleat and the Clan MacLean. In 1588 the Clan MacLean captured Mingarry Castle seat of the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Ardnamurchan, from where they fought off a Spanish galleon called the Florida.
One thing that did unite the Macleans and the Campbells was their Protestant faith as well as their dislike for the MacDonalds. Sir Lachland Maclean harried the MacDonalds of Islay causing so much carnage that both he and the MacDonald chief were declared outlaws in 1594 by the Privy Council; however Lachlan redeemed himself when in the same year he fought for the king at the Battle of Glenlivet, on the side of the Earl of Argyll and Clan Campbell, against the Earl of Huntly and Clan Gordon. The Battle of Traigh Ghruinneart took place on the 5 August 1598, it was fought between the Clan Clan Maclean on the Isle of Islay. Chief Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean was killed. After Sir Lachlan MacLean's death in 1598, his sons took revenge on his suspected murderers, the MacDonalds, by carrying out a massacre of the people of Islay which lasted for three days. After obtaining "Letters of Fire and Sword" he was assisted in this by the MacLeods, MacNeils,and Camerons; the quarrel between the MacLeans and the Macdonalds of Islay and Kintyre was, at the outset a dispute as to the right of occupancy of the crown lands
Elgin Cathedral is a historic ruin in Elgin, north-east Scotland. The cathedral—dedicated to the Holy Trinity—was established in 1224 on land granted by King Alexander II outside the burgh of Elgin and close to the River Lossie, it replaced the cathedral at Spynie, 3 kilometres to the north, served by a small chapter of eight clerics. The new and bigger cathedral was staffed with 18 canons in 1226 and increased to 23 by 1242. After a damaging fire in 1270, a rebuilding programme enlarged the building, it was unaffected by the Wars of Scottish Independence but again suffered extensive fire damage in 1390 following an attack by Robert III's brother Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan known as the Wolf of Badenoch. In 1402 the cathedral precinct again suffered an incendiary attack by the followers of the Lord of the Isles; the number of clerics required to staff the cathedral continued to grow, as did the number of craftsmen needed to maintain the buildings and surrounds. The cathedral went through periods of enlargement and renovation following the fires of 1270 and 1390 that included the doubling in length of the choir, the provision of outer aisles to the northern and southern walls of both the nave and choir.
Today, these walls are at full height in places and at foundation level in others yet the overall cruciform shape is still discernible. A intact octagonal chapter house dates from the major enlargement after the fire of 1270; the gable wall above the double door entrance that links the west towers is nearly complete and was rebuilt following the fire of 1390. It accommodates a large window opening that now only contains stub tracery work and fragments of a large rose window. Recessed and chest tombs in both transepts and in the south aisle of the choir contain effigies of bishops and knights, large flat slabs in the now grass-covered floor of the cathedral mark the positions of early graves; the homes of the dignitaries and canons, or manses, stood in the chanonry and were destroyed by fire on three occasions: in 1270, 1390 and 1402. The two towers of the west front are complete and were part of the first phase of construction. Only the precentor's manse is intact. A protective wall of massive proportions surrounded the cathedral precinct, but only a small section has survived.
The wall had four access gates. The number of canons had increased to 25 by the time of the Scottish Reformation in 1560, when the cathedral was abandoned and its services transferred to Elgin's parish church of St Giles. After the removal of the lead waterproofing of the roof in 1567, the cathedral fell into decay; the building was still intact in 1615 but in the winter of 1637, a storm brought down the roof covering the eastern limb. In the spring of 1711, the central steeple above the crossing collapsed taking the walls of the nave with it. Ownership was transferred from the Church to the Crown in 1689 but that made no difference to the building's continuing deterioration. Only in the early years of the 19th Century did the Crown begin the conservation process—the stabilisation of the structure proceeded through until the end of the 20th Century with the large scale improvements to the two western towers; the Diocese of Moray was a regional bishopric unlike the pre-eminent see of the Scottish church, St Andrews, which had evolved from a more ancient monastic Celtic church and administered scattered localities.
It is uncertain whether there were bishops of Moray before c. 1120 but the first known prelate—possibly translated to Dunkeld—was Gregory and was bishop in name only. Gregory was a signatory to the foundation charter of Scone Priory, issued by Alexander I between December 1123 and April 1124, again in a charter defining the legal rights of the same monastery, he is recorded for the last time when he witnessed a charter granted by David I to Dunfermline Abbey in c. 1128. These actions are all, known of Gregory with no basis for assertions that he was a promoted monk in a'Pictish Church'. After the suppression of Óengus of Moray's rebellion in 1130, King David must have regarded the continued existence of a bishopric in Moray as essential to the stability of the province, yet the next bishop was the absentee titular bishop William, King David's chaplain, an aide since 1136 and had done little to improve the stability of the see by the time he died in 1162. Felix was the next bishop and is thought to have been prelate from 1166 to 1171 although no accurate dates are known—details of his tenure are unknown with only one appearance as a witness in a charter of William the Lion at his court held in Elgin.
Following Felix's death, Simon de Toeni, King William's kinsman and a former abbot of Coggeshall, in Essex became the next bishop. Bishop Simon was the first of the early bishops to adopt a hands-on attitude towards his diocese and was said to be buried in Birnie Kirk, near Elgin, after his death on 17 September 1184 although this suggestion first appeared in 18th-century, he was followed by Richard of Lincoln, once again a royal clerk, one who struggled to build up the revenues of the bishopric during and after the insurgence of Domnall mac Uilleim. Richard is regarded; these early bishops had no settled location for their cathedral, sited it successively at the churches of Birnie and Spynie. Pope Innocent III issued an apostolic bull on 7 April 1206 that allowed bishop Brice de Douglas to fix his cathedral church at Spynie—its inauguration was held between spring 1207 and summer 1208. A chapter of f
Richard II of England
Richard II known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to King Edward III. Upon the death of his grandfather Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne. During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of regency councils, influenced by Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. A major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, the young king played a central part in the successful suppression of this crisis. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years' War. A firm believer in the royal prerogative, Richard restrained the power of the aristocracy and relied on a private retinue for military protection instead. In contrast to his grandfather, Richard cultivated a refined atmosphere at court, in which the king was an elevated figure, with art and culture at its centre.
The king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent among the influential, in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were exiled; the next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned king. Richard is thought to have been starved to death in captivity, although questions remain regarding his final fate. Richard's posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by William Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard's misrule and his deposition by Bolingbroke as responsible for the 15th-century Wars of the Roses.
Modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While not insane, as historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, he may have had a personality disorder manifesting itself towards the end of his reign. Most authorities agree that his policies were not unrealistic or entirely unprecedented, but that the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, leading to his downfall. Richard of Bordeaux was the younger son of Joan of Kent. Edward, eldest son of Edward III and heir apparent to the throne of England, had distinguished himself as a military commander in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War in the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. After further military adventures, however, he contracted dysentery in Spain in 1370, he never recovered and had to return to England the next year. Richard was born at the Archbishop's Palace, Bordeaux, in the English principality of Aquitaine, on 6 January 1367.
According to contemporary sources, three kings – "the King of Castille, the King of Navarre and the King of Portugal" – were present at his birth. This anecdote, the fact that his birth fell on the feast of Epiphany, was used in the religious imagery of the Wilton Diptych, where Richard is one of three kings paying homage to the Virgin and Child, his elder brother, Edward of Angoulême, died near his sixth birthday in 1371. The Black Prince succumbed to his long illness in June 1376; the Commons in parliament genuinely feared that Richard's uncle, John of Gaunt, would usurp the throne. For this reason, the prince was invested with the princedom of Wales and his father's other titles. On 21 June the next year, Richard's grandfather Edward III, for some years frail and decrepit died, after a 50-year-long reign; this resulted in the 10-year-old Richard succeeding to the throne. He was crowned king on 16 July 1377 at Westminster Abbey. Again, fears of John of Gaunt's ambitions influenced political decisions, a regency led by the King's uncles was avoided.
Instead, the king was nominally to exercise kingship with the help of a series of "continual councils", from which John of Gaunt was excluded. Gaunt, together with his younger brother Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham, still held great informal influence over the business of government, but the king's councillors and friends Sir Simon de Burley and Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland gained control of royal affairs. In a matter of three years, these councillors earned the mistrust of the Commons to the point that the councils were discontinued in 1380. Contributing to discontent was an heavy burden of taxation levied through three poll taxes between 1377 and 1381 that were spent on unsuccessful military expeditions on the continent. By 1381, there was a deep-felt resentment against the governing classes in the lower levels of English society. Whereas the poll tax of 1381 was the spark of the Peasants' Revolt, the root of the conflict lay in tensions between peasants and landowners precipitated by the economic and demographic consequences of the Black Death and subsequent outbreaks of the plague.
The rebellion started in Kent and Essex in late May, on 12 June, bands of peasants gathered at Blackheath near London under the leaders Wat Tyler, John Ball, Jack Straw. John of Gaunt's Savoy Palace was burnt down; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon Sudbury, Lord Chancellor, the king's Lord High Treasurer, Rober
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar
Alexander Stewart was a Scottish nobleman, Earl of Mar from 1404. He acquired the earldom through marriage to the hereditary countess, ruled the northern part of Scotland, he was an illegitimate son of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan and Mairead inghean Eachainn. Alexander held the Earldom of Mar and the Lordship of the Garioch jure uxoris, in right of his first wife Isabel Douglas, Countess of Mar. Alexander's marriage to Isabella followed his capture of Kildrummy Castle, Isabella with it, in 1404, he had forced her to execute a charter settling the reversion to the earldom on himself and his heirs. This act she is belevied to have revoked in September, but on marrying him, on the 9th of December 1404, she granted him the earldom for life, the king confirming this on the 21st of June 1405; these events sent major shockwaves throughout the kingdom and Alexander only escaped punishment because he was a close relation to the Royal Family. His possession of the Earldom was regularised in 1424 by grant of his cousin, King James I.
He was a close supporter of his uncle Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, ruler of the kingdom as regent for his brother King Robert III of Scotland. Robert had been badly injured. Alexander led the so-called "Lowland" army, in fact that of the north-east and eastern Highlands, against Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles at the bloody and indecisive battle of Harlaw in 1411. Unlike his father, unable to keep the peace in the fractious north-east, Walter Bower says, "ruled with acceptance nearly all of the north of the country beyond the Mounth", he achieved this not by using different methods from his father but by his ability to keep his cateran forces in check and to use them to protect his extensive lands when needed. Alexander sat on the jury of 21 knights and peers that convicted his first cousin Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, two of his sons of treason in 1424, leading to their execution and the virtual annihilation of the Stewarts of Albany. Alexander first married Isabel Douglas, Countess of Mar. Alexander married Marie van Hoorn, daughter of Willem, Lord of Duffel, in 1410.
He died without having a legitimate male heir, the Earldom of Mar reverted to the crown. He had two illegitimate children: Thomas, who married Elizabeth, the widow of John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan, daughter of Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas and Margaret Stewart, Lady of Galloway Margaret, who married Lachlan Maclean of Duart. Boardman, Stephen I; the Early Stewart Kings: Robert II and Robert III Edinburgh, Reprint 2007. ISBN 978-1-904607-68-7 Grant, Alexander, "The Wolf of Badenoch" in W. D. H. Sellar, Moray: Province and People. Scottish Society for Northern Studies, Edinburgh, 1993. ISBN 0-9505994-7-6 Nigel Tranter, The Stewart Trilogy, Dunton Green, Kent: Coronet Books, 1986. ISBN 0-340-39115-4. Lords of Misrule, 1388–1396. A Folly of Princes, 1396–1402; the Captive Crown, 1402–1411
Robert II of Scotland
Robert II reigned as King of Scotland from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar. Edward Bruce, younger brother of Robert the Bruce, was named heir to the throne but he died without heirs on 3 December 1318. Marjorie had died in 1317 in a riding accident and parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart became High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, in same year parliament confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six-year-old David succeeded to the throne under the guardianship of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol—assisted by the English and those Scottish nobles, disinherited by Robert I—invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333.
Robert, who had fought at Halidon joined his uncle, King David in refuge in Dumbarton Castle. David escaped to France in 1334 and parliament, still functioning, appointed Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Randolph was captured by the English in July 1335 and in the same year Robert submitted to Balliol bringing about the removal of his guardianship; the office was reinstated in 1338 and Robert held it until David's return from France in June 1341. Hostilities continued and Robert was with David at the Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 and either escaped or fled the field but David was captured and remained a prisoner until he was ransomed in October 1357. Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising five daughters, his subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two surviving daughters. Robert rebelled against the King in 1363 but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. David died in 1371 and Robert succeeded him at the age of fifty-five.
The border magnates continued to attack English-held zones in southern Scotland and by 1384, the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands. Robert ensured that Scotland was included in the Anglo-French truce of 1384 and, a factor in the coup in November when he lost control of the country first to his eldest son and from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert. King Robert was buried at Scone Abbey. Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and King Robert I's daughter Marjorie Bruce, who died in 1317 following a riding accident, he had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, in Renfrew. In 1315 parliament removed Marjorie's right as heir to her father in favour of her uncle, Edward Bruce. Edward was killed at the Battle of Faughart, near Dundalk on 14 October 1318, resulting in a hastily arranged Parliament in December to enact a new entail naming Marjorie's son, Robert, as heir should the king die without a successor.
The birth of a son, afterwards David II, to King Robert on 5 March 1324 cancelled Robert Stewart's position as heir presumptive, but a Parliament at Cambuskenneth in July 1326 restored him in the line of succession should David die without an heir. This reinstatement of his status was accompanied by the gift of lands in Argyll and the Lothians; the first war of independence began in the reign of King John Balliol. His short reign was bedeviled by Edward I's insistence on his overlordship of Scotland; the Scottish leadership concluded that only war could release the country from the English king's continued weakening of Balliol's sovereignty and so finalised a treaty of reciprocal assistance with France in October 1295. The Scots forayed into England in March 1296—this incursion together with the French treaty angered the English king and provoked an invasion of Scotland taking Berwick on 30 March before defeating the Scots army at Dunbar on 27 April. John Balliol submitted to Edward and resigned the throne to him before being sent to London as a prisoner.
Despite this, resistance to the English led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray had emerged in the name of King John Balliol. On their deaths, Robert the Bruce continued to resist the English and succeeded in defeating the forces of Edward II of England and gained the Scottish throne for himself. David Bruce, aged five, became king on 7 June 1329 on the death of his father Robert. Walter the Steward had died earlier on 9 April 1327, the orphaned eleven-year-old Robert was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, Sir James Stewart of Durrisdeer, who along with Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, William Lindsey, Archdeacon of St Andrews were appointed as joint Guardians of the kingdom. David's accession kindled the second independence war. In 1332 Edward Balliol, son of the deposed John Balliol, spearheaded an attack on the Bruce sovereignty with the tacit support of King Edward III of England and the explicit endorsement of'the disinherited'. Edward Balliol's forces delivered heavy defeats on the Bruce supporters at Dupplin Moor on 11 August 1332 and again at Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, at which the 17-year-old Robert participated.
Robert's estates were overrun by Balliol, who granted them to David Strathbogie, titular earl of Atholl, but Robert evaded capture and gained protection at Dumbarton Castle where King David was taking refuge. Few other strongholds remain
Morvern also spelt Morven, is a peninsula and traditional district in the Highlands, on the west coast of Scotland. It lies south of the districts of Ardgour and Sunart, is bounded on the north by Loch Sunart and Glen Tarbert, on the south east by Loch Linnhe and on the south west by the Sound of Mull; the name is derived from the Gaelic A' Mhorbhairne. The highest point is the summit of the Corbett Creach Bheinn. Administratively Morvern is now part of the ward management area of Lochaber, in Highland council area, it forms part of the traditional shire and current registration county of Argyll. Morvern is 250 square miles with a current population of about 320. Morvern was known as Kinelvadon, which William J. Watson takes to be from Cineal Bhaodain, that lands of the Cenél Báetáin, a division of the Cenél Loairn named after Báetán, a putative great-grandson of Loarn mac Eirc; the Senchus fer n-Alban states that "Baotan has twenty houses". The ruined Ardtornish Castle was in the possession of Somerled in the 12th century and the Lords of the Isles, whose ownership was recalled in a poem of the same name by Sir Walter Scott.
Kinlochaline Castle was once the seat of the MacInnes clan. It was destroyed by the army of Oliver Cromwell and restored in 1890. Before the Highland clearances the population of Morvern was about 2500; the history of the parish of Morvern in the 19th century has been detailed in Philip Gaskell's Morvern Transformed. Some residents of St Kilda were relocated to Lochaline, the main village of Morvern, when the island was evacuated in 1930. On 19th- and early 20th-century Ordnance Survey maps, Morvern is spelled "Morven". From 1845 to 1975 most of the peninsula formed the civil parish of Morvern; the Kingairloch area in the east formed part of the civil parish of Ardgour. From 1930 to 1975 Morvern formed part of the landward district of Ardnamurchan in Argyll. Ferries depart from Lochaline to the Isle of Mull. Rahoy has a deer farm supported by Islands Enterprise; the Morvern Community Development Company, the local development trust, was established in 1999. It aims to provide increased employment opportunities for the young, to create a wind energy project.
In 2010 it was announced that MCDC would receive support for a full-time development worker from Highlands and Islands Enterprise. The closure of the silica mine at Lochaline was announced in December 2008, with the loss of 11 jobs. Lochaline Quartz Sand Ltd, a joint venture by Minerali Industriali and NSG Pilkington, reopened the mine in September 2012; the mine produces high quality silica sand, used in the production of solar panels. Ardtornish, one of the largest estates in the area, received planning permission in 2010 for a new "township" of 20 houses at Achabeag, two miles west of Lochaline. Duncan McNab, born at Achrinich in May 1820, was a Catholic missionary in Queensland and the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Rev Norman Macleod, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1900, was born in the manse at Morvern. Ardgour Ardnamurchan Glensanda Moidart Sunart Gaskell, Philip Morvern Transformed: A Highland Parish in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.
Maclean, Charles Island on the Edge of the World. Edinburgh. Canongate. Murray, W. H; the Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland. London. Collins