Chinatown, San Francisco
The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and one of the largest Chinese enclave outside Asia. It is the largest of the four notable Chinatowns within the City. Since its establishment in 1848, it has been important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in North America. Chinatown is an enclave that continues to retain its own customs, places of worship, social clubs, identity. There are two hospitals, several parks and squares, numerous churches, a post office, other infrastructure. While recent immigrants and the elderly choose to live here because of the availability of affordable housing and their familiarity with the culture, the place is a major tourist attraction, drawing more visitors annually than the Golden Gate Bridge. Chinatown is located in downtown San Francisco, covers 24 square blocks, overlaps five postal ZIP codes, it is within an area of 1⁄2 mi long by 1⁄4 mi wide with the current boundaries being Kearny Street in the east, Broadway in the north, Powell in the west, Bush Street in the south.
Within Chinatown there are two major north-south thoroughfares. One is Grant Avenue, with the Dragon Gate at the intersection of Bush Street and Grant Avenue, designed by landscape architects Melvin Lee and Joseph Yee and architect Clayton Lee; the other, Stockton Street, is frequented less by tourists, it presents an authentic Chinese look and feel reminiscent of Hong Kong, with its produce and fish markets and restaurants. It is dominated by mixed-use buildings that are three to four stories high, with shops on the ground floor and residential apartments upstairs. A major focal point in Chinatown is Portsmouth Square. Since it is one of the few open spaces in Chinatown and sits above a large underground parking lot, Portsmouth Square bustles with activity such as T'ai Chi and old men playing Chinese chess. A replica of the Goddess of Democracy used in the Tiananmen Square protest was built in 1999 by Thomas Marsh and stands in the square, it is made of bronze and weighs 600 lb. According to the San Francisco Planning Department, Chinatown is "the most densely populated urban area west of Manhattan", with 34,557 residents living in 20 square blocks.
In the 1970s, the population density in Chinatown was seven times the San Francisco average. During the time from 2009 to 2013, the median household income was $20,000 - compared to $76,000 citywide - with 29% of residents below the national poverty threshold; the median age was the oldest of any neighborhood. As of 2015, two thirds of the residents lived in one of Chinatown's 105 single room occupancy hotels, 96 of which had private owners and nine were owned by nonprofits. There are two public housing projects in Ping Yuen and North Ping Yuen. Most residents are monolingual speakers of Cantonese; the areas of Stockton and Washington Streets and Jackson and Kearny Streets in Chinatown are entirely Chinese or Asian, with blocks ranging from 93% to 100% Asian. Many of those Chinese immigrants who gain some wealth while living in Chinatown leave it for the Richmond District, the Sunset District or the suburbs. Working-class Hong Kong Chinese immigrants began arriving in large numbers in the 1960s.
Despite their status and professional qualifications in Hong Kong, many took low-paying employment in restaurants and garment factories in Chinatown because of limited English. An increase in Cantonese-speaking immigrants from Hong Kong and Mainland China has led to the replacement in Chinatown of the Taishanese dialect by the standard Cantonese dialect. Due to such overcrowding and poverty, other Chinese areas have been established within the city of San Francisco proper, including one in its Richmond and three more in its Sunset districts, as well as a established one in the Visitacion Valley neighborhood; these outer neighborhoods have been settled by Chinese from Southeast Asia. There are many suburban Chinese communities in the San Francisco Bay Area in Silicon Valley, such as Cupertino and Milpitas, where Taiwanese Americans are dominant. Despite these developments, many continue to commute in from these outer neighborhoods and cities to shop in Chinatown, causing gridlock on roads and delays in public transit on weekends.
To address this problem, the local public transit agency, Muni, is planning to extend the city's subway network to the neighborhood via the new Central Subway. Unlike in most Chinatowns in the United States, ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam have not established businesses in San Francisco's Chinatown district, due to high property values and rents. Instead, many Chinese-Vietnamese – as opposed to ethnic Vietnamese who tended to congregate in larger numbers in San Jose – have established a separate Vietnamese enclave on Larkin Street in the working-class Tenderloin district of San Francisco, where it is now known as the city's "Little Saigon" and not as a "Chinatown" per se. San Francisco's Chinatown was the port of entry for early Chinese immigrants from the west side of the Pearl River Delta, speaking Hoisanese and Zhongshanese, in the Guangdong province of southern China from t
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Eugene Edward "Handsome Gene" Schmitz was an American musician and politician, the 26th mayor of San Francisco, in office during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and became notorious for his conviction by a jury on charges of corruption. Born in San Francisco, Schmitz was the son of a German father, he played the violin and conducted the orchestra at the Columbia Theatre on Powell Street in San Francisco, was president of the Musicians' Union when city boss Abe Ruef chose him to run for mayor of his hometown on the ticket of the Union Labor Party. Schmitz was elected in 1902, giving protection to criminals including houses of prostitution for protection money while remaining popular with the working class despite a reform candidate backed by a fusion party, reelected in 1905, he was still mayor when the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and subsequent fire destroyed a prodigious amount of the city. On the day of the earthquake, April 18, 1906, he invited a cross-section of the city's most prominent businessmen and civic leaders, but none of the members of the Board of Supervisors, to form the Committee of Fifty to help him manage the crisis.
On June 13, 1907 Schmitz was found guilty of extortion, the office of mayor was declared vacant while he was sent to jail to await sentence. Shortly thereafter he was sentenced to five years at San Quentin State Prison, the maximum sentence the law allowed, he appealed. On January 9, 1908 the District Court of Appeals nullified his conviction. Two months the California Supreme Court upheld the Court of Appeals' ruling, he was released on bail pending the resolution of the outstanding bribery indictments. In 1912 he was brought to trial once more, this time on charges of bribery, but after Ruef was brought from San Quentin to testify but refused to give evidence, the other key witness, Chief Supervisor Gallagher, fled to Canada, Schmitz was acquitted. Schmitz was soundly defeated due to his past reputation. Elected to the Board of Supervisors in 1921, he remained until 1925, he had two daughters. New International Yearbook for 1907 and 1908 George Kennan, "The Fight for Reform in San Francisco," McClure's, Sept. 1907 & Nov. 1907.
Walton Bean: Boss Ruef's San Francisco: The Story of the Union Labor Party, Big Business, the Graft Prosecution. Gordon Thomas & Max Morgan Witts: The San Francisco Earthquake. Schmitz' "Shoot to kill" order at the Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco 1907 editorial cartoon from the San Francisco Examiner Photographs related to the San Francisco graft trial, 1907–1908, The Bancroft Library "Schmitz, Eugene F.". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Abraham Ruef, known as Abe Ruef, was an American lawyer and politician. He gained notoriety as the corrupt political boss behind the administration of Mayor Eugene Schmitz of San Francisco during the period before and after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Born Abraham Rueff, his parents were from a French-Jewish background. Ruef was a bright student and when fourteen, he began studying at the University of California, majoring in classical studies. While attending the university, he developed an interest in fighting the rampant corruption, endemic to local and national politics at the time. With some fellow students he formed the "Municipal Reform League." He corresponded with like-minded individuals across the nation, including a young New Yorker named Theodore Roosevelt. At 18, Ruef graduated with the highest honors proceeded to enroll at the Hastings College of Law in San Francisco, he graduated from Hastings less than three years and was accepted to the California State Bar when he was 21, the minimum age of admittance.
California was a center of corruption at the time, influenced by the Southern Pacific Railroad which controlled both political parties in the state. They and other well-funded interest groups and individuals used their economic power and influence to form trusts and monopolies that guaranteed them power. Many of these wealthy and powerful people lived in San Francisco, when necessary could reinforce their hold on power through corrupt politicians and city bosses. Although Ruef was for a long time a Republican, he wanted more power and in 1901 was the driving force behind the foundation of the new Union Labor Party. Using his position there, he maneuvered himself into a position of power. Ruef selected the relative unknown president of the Musicians Union, Eugene Schmitz, a violinist and amateur composer, to run for Mayor on the Union Labor Party ticket. Schmitz had no scandals in his past, was a tall, handsome man, a commanding speaker, possessed a likeable nature, was married with two children.
Ruef hoped that Schmitz might be both electable and conducive to influence that might lead the way to the governorship on. Behind the scenes, Ruef wrote Schmitz' speeches, planned his public appearances, ran his campaign. Schmitz became "Ruef's puppet" and was elected Mayor in 1902. Ruef's political machine gained control of the Chief of Police, the Board of Supervisors, several judges, but shortly after the 1905 election, his choice for District Attorney, William L. Langton, began enforcing vice laws ignored until then. Since the gold rush of 1849, San Francisco had a reputation as an open town, the Barbary Coast's notorious dance halls and concealed gambling dens attracted money and people from across the West. Reformers gained considerable sympathy and support from the general population, who were growing tired of illicit and immoral activity. Radical puritans like Anthony Comstock and prohibitionists were slowly gaining influence. Political reformers, among whom Ruef had once belonged, had become more powerful over the previous decade, Langton threw the power of his office behind attacks on the brothels and gambling halls supported by the reformers.
The San Francisco newspaper "Bulletin" edited by Fremont Older backed Langton's actions, the publisher persuaded millionaire Rudolph Spreckels to fund a Federal investigation into corruption at City Hall. The widespread devastation that followed the 1906 San Francisco earthquake slowed the investigation. Ruef himself lost "nearly $750,000 of his real estate holdings". Mayor Schmitz formed the extra-legal Committee of Fifty to expedite repairs, Ruef was not invited, but he showed up anyway at Franklin Hall where the committee met. Since "there wasn't a desk in the hall for Ruef, he accepted an offer to share a corner of the Mayor's desk." A contemporary editorial in the Los Angeles Herald called him "the real menace to the successful rehabilitation of San Francisco" for his leadership of the committee. He became chairman of the Subcommittee on Relocating the Chinese and told the other members that "the Chinese must not be allowed to return to the desirable area that Chinatown occupied." The subcommittee debated the question without arriving at a consensus as to.
Meanwhile, the Chinese residents returned to Chinatown. In October 1906, Ruef ordered that District Attorney William Langdon be suspended, had himself named in Langdon's place, as his first order, dismissed Langdon's deputy, Francis J. Heney. On December 6, 1906, Ruef and Schmitz were arraigned in court. "As the indictments were read out by the clerk, Ruef made clear his disdain for the proceedings by standing with his back to the judge." At the time of his trial, Ruef occupied offices in North Beach. In February 1907 Ruef pleaded not guilty. On March 18, 1907, all of the Supervisors confessed before a grand jury to "receiving money from Ruef in connection with the Home Telephone, overhead trolley, prize fight monopoly, gas rates deals. In exchange, "they would not be forced to resign their offices; the grand jury returned 65 indictments against Ruef for bribery of the supervisors."After the Supervisors' admissions, Ruef reached an agreement with the prosecution that he'd confess and receive immunity from most of the charges.
On May 15, 1907, Ruef pleaded guilty and the next day testified before a grand jury, incriminating Schmitz. This led to Schmitz' conviction and removal from the Mayor's office on June 13, 1907. Ruef's trial ended on December 10, 1908, with a verdict of guilty and the maximum sentence for bribery—14 year
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association is a historical Chinese Association established in various parts of the United States and Canada with large populations of Chinese. It is known by other names such as Chong Wa Benevolent Association in Seattle and United Chinese Society in Honolulu, Hawaii. Since its inception over 135 years ago in 1882, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association has received a diverse range of publicity from the American media. Much of the attention overlooked the inherent cultural differences, which lead to misunderstanding by much of the American population; this factor and the anti-Chinese sentiment hastened the need for an empowered Chinese organization in the United States. Thus, the CCBA was formed out of the need for the Chinese to have organized social and economic structures; the CCBA was set up to help Chinese people relocate and travel to and from the US, included returning of corpses to China. With many families fragmented between China and across the US, the association allowed for communal care of the sick or poor.
When it became more prominent and anti-Chinese sentiment increased the US, the organization offered legal and physical protection. Physical abuse was not uncommon in Chinatown from racist Americans; such incidents lead to the rise of groups like the Tongs, which were noted to have protected Chinese from abuse by white miners. The CCBA exerted political power, becoming authorized to speak on behalf of Chinatown throughout the United States; the CCBA board of directors became powerful as it consisted of wealthy merchants and businessmen. The board had many dealings with local and federal governments, exerted influence in a variety of methods. One method was the use of a Caucasian attorney, who the spokesman of the organization, which helped reduce the push-back. Through the 1800s, a large portion of Chinese immigrants to California came for the promise of work in the gold mines; as the gold caused California's economy to excel, the Chinese became an integral part of this economy. When gold mining decreased, the Chinese found other opportunities including fishing, food services and building of railroads.
Many in the mid- to late 19th century argued that the influx of Chinese immigrants decreased job availability for American citizens. However, the job competition theory is disputed because of the strong language barrier which forced many of the Chinese to create their own jobs. Chinese immigrants felt. To protect their own interests, Chinese businessmen from Guangdong formed the Kong Chow Association; when tensions arose between Cantonese people of different dialects and districts, the association split in two. Four more organizations appeared in the 1850s in prominent neighborhoods in San Francisco; the organizations consisted of the six most important Chinese district associations of California. The associations had some mutual coordination before the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, or Chinese Six Companies was established in 1882 in San Francisco. Branches were established in other US cities; these immigrant organizations were rooted in the tradition of huiguan, support groups in Chinese cities for merchants and officials originating from a given area.
Most Chinese in California were from six districts collectively called Gangzhou, the first huiguan there emerged in 1851, the Kong Chow Company. In 1851, the Sam Yap Company formed associated with Nanhai, Shunde and Xingyun districts. Towards the end of 1851, the Sze Yap Company was formed of Xinhui, Kaiping and Enpig districts. In 1852, the Yeong Wo Company was formed of Heung-shan, Tung-kun, Tsang-shing districts. In 1852, the Hip Kat company was formed by Hakka immigrants from Bow On, Chak Tai, Tung Gwoon and Chu Mui districts; the Sze Yap company divided and the Ning Yeung company emerged. The Six Companies served as ambassadors of the Qing government to Chinatown and provided services for Chinese workers in San Francisco, their early efforts included to deter prostitution in the Chinese community, encourage Chinese immigrants to lead moral lives, discourage excessive continuing Chinese immigration causing hostility toward Chinese in US. The Six Companies created a safety net for sick Chinese workers.
They opened a Chinese-language school, settled disputes among members, maintained a Chinese census, helped send remittances to members to their home villages through district associations. In 1875, they endorsed the position that continued Chinese immigration caused a general lowering of wages for both whites and Chinese in America. Though the Six Companies discouraged the continuing immigration of Chinese to America, it continued throughout the years. In the 1960s, discrimination began to arise within these Chinese communities. Assimilation of Chinese communities increased through the years, caused a cultural clash within the Chinese communities between newly immigrated people and those who were American-born and have assimilated to the culture. Many new Chinese immigrants came to America without savings because most of their money was spent on their transportation to the United States. Many immigrant children were affected by these conditions, having to work when they are not in school and struggling to learn English.
This led to many of the children of new immigrants joining gangs. These gangs were
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala