Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows. The equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Compared with a full-size van, a minivan is based on a passenger car platform and has a less tall body; the largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. These have platforms derived from D-segment passenger cars or compact pickups. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to the largest size; the term minivan originated in North America in order to differentiate the smaller passenger vehicles from full-size vans, which were simply called'vans'.
The first known use of the term minivan was in 1959, however it was not until the 1980s that the term became used. The 1936 Stout Scarab is regarded as the first minivan; the passenger seats in the Scarab were moveable and could be configured for the passengers to sit around a table in the rear of the cabin. Passengers exited the Scarab via a centrally-mounted door; the DKW Schnellaster— manufactured from 1949 to 1962— featured front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, flat floor and multi-configurable seating, all of which would become characteristics of minivans. In 1950, the Volkswagen Type 2 adapted a bus-shaped body to chassis of a small passenger car; when Volkswagen introduced a sliding side door to the Type 2 in 1968, it had the prominent features that would come to define a minivan: compact length, three rows of forward-facing seats, station wagon-style top-hinged tailgate/liftgate, sliding side door, passenger car base. The 1956-1969 Fiat Multipla had many features in common with modern minivans.
The Multipla had a rear engine and cab forward layout. The Ford Carousel was a prototype developed in 1973 and intended to be released in 1975, however the model was cancelled as a result of the mid-1970s fuel crisis and company financial difficulties; the Carousel was designed as a family car that would fit into a typical 7 ft tall American garage door opening and had interior trim levels equivalent to a passenger car rather than a cargo van. In the late 1970s, Chrysler began a development program to design "a small affordable van that looked and handled more like a car"; the result of this program was the 1984 Plymouth Voyager. The Voyager debuted the minivan design features of front-wheel drive, a flat floor and a sliding door for rear passengers; the badge-engineered Dodge Caravan was released in for the 1984 model year, was sold alongside the Voyager. The term minivan came into use in comparison to size to full-size vans. In 1984, The New York Times described minivans "the hot cars coming out of Detroit," noting that "analysts say the mini-van has created an new market, one that may well overshadow the... station wagon."In response to the popularity of the Voyager/Caravan, General Motors released the 1985 Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari badge-engineered twins, Ford released the 1986 Ford Aerostar.
These vehicles used a traditional rear-wheel drive layout, unlike the Voyager/Caravan. By the end of the 1980s, demand for minivans as family vehicles had superseded full-size station wagons in the United States. During the 1990s, the minivan segment underwent several major changes. Many models switched to the front-wheel drive layout used by the Voyager/Caravan minivans, for example Ford replaced the Aerostar with the front-wheel drive Mercury Villager for 1993 and the Ford Windstar for 1995; the models increased in size, as a result of the extended-wheelbase versions of the Voyager and Caravan which were in 1987. An increase in luxury features and interior equipment was seen in the 1988 Ford Aerostar Eddie Bauer, the 1990 Chrysler Town & Country and the 1990 Oldsmobile Silhouette; the third-generation Plymouth Voyager, Dodge Caravan and Chrylser Town & Country— released for the 1996 model year— were available with an additional sliding door on the drivers side. The highest selling year for minivans was in 2000.
However in the following years, the increasing popularity of sport utility vehicles began to erode sales of minivants. North American sales of the Volkswagen Transporter ceased in 2003. Ford exited the segment in 2006, when the Ford Freestar was cancelled, Chrysler discontinued its short-wheelbase minivans in 2007 and General Motors exited the segment in 2009 with the cancellation of the Chevrolet Uplander, it has been suggested that the lesser popularity of minivans than SUVs is due to the minivan's image as a vehicle for older drivers. In 2013, sales of the segment reached 500,000. Despite the declining sales for the segment in the late 2000s, several European brands launched minivans in the North American market; the Volkswagen Routan was sold from 200
Dongfeng Venucia Motor Company, traded as Venucia, is a subsidiary of Dongfeng Motor Co. Ltd. established in 2017 and focused on the marketing and production of cars. The Venucia marque, launched in September 2010, was owned by Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle, itself another subsidiary of Dongfeng Motor Co. Ltd. In September 2010 Dongfeng Nissan unveiled a new marque, Venucia, to be used to sell vehicles developed and designed by the company in China for the domestic market. In November 2011 Dongfeng Nissan announced that the first car to be sold under the Venucia marque would be the D50 mid-class saloon, that it would go on sale in the first half of 2012. Dongfeng Nissan unveiled a production version of the Venucia e30 electric car at the 2012 Auto Guangzhou motor show. An earlier version, the Venucia E-Concept was unveiled at the 2012 Beijing Auto Show; the electric car was scheduled for production in China by 2015, it has the same bodywork, electric-drive specifications and shares other features of the Nissan Leaf.
Dongfeng Nissan planned to start a pilot project in 15 Chinese cities to promote Venucia e30 jointly with local governments. A total of 216 units were delivered through December 2013; these units are being marketed as Venucia Morning Wind and they are rebadged Leafs since local production has not begun yet. In April 2014 Dongfeng Nissan announced that retail sales of the Venucia e30 were scheduled to begin in September 2014. Dongfeng Nissan launched its second production model, the R50 five-door mid-size hatchback car, in September 2012; the R50 is aimed at first-time buyers. The Venucia Viwa concept car was unveiled at the Shanghai Auto Show in April 2013, previewing a new production car based on the platform of the Nissan March; the R30 was subsequently launched in 2014. In its first two years of sales, Nissan claimed. In January 2015, the T70 was launched, a compact SUV based on the Nissan Qashqai. In February 2017, Venucia was spun off as a separate subsidiary of Dongfeng Motor Co. Ltd; that same year, the company launched a new mid-sized saloon, the D60, the first vehicle incorporating a new design style for the marque.
At first, Venucia's cars were designed directly by Dongfeng Nissan. In 2014, the company announced it would establish a separate facility in Guangzhou aimed at designing Venucias, called Venucia Design Centre, opened in June 2016. In April 2018, Dongfeng Venucia opened an advanced design centre in Shanghai; the Venucia vehicles are assembled at plants located in Zhengzhou. The first marque slogan for Venucia was "reading the world in a pleased China". At the 2013 Auto Guangzhou, the marque introduced a second slogan, "vibrant life, within reach". There was an English-language slogan, "enjoy more". In 2017, the Venucia company introduced the English-language slogan "Better for Better" and the Chinese-language slogan "ingenious craftsmanship, going with you"; that same year, the company unveiled a revised marque logo, replacing the original five stars on a deep blue background for a similar but simpler design. In February 2014, Venucia agreed to sponsor the Guangzhou Hengda until January 2016, with the club promoting Venucia's model line-up.
The sponsorship ended in December 2015, after Dongfeng Nissan sued the Guangzhou Hengda for breach of contract because the club did not include Venucia advert on the team kit as agreed. The Guangzhou Huadu District Court ruled in favour of Dongfeng Nissan. In June 2015, Venucia sponsored the International Vertical Marathon. In January 2019, Dongfeng Venucia signed an official sponsorship agreement for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup; the following Venucia vehicles are available in China: e30, EV based on Nissan Leaf, EV based on Renault Kwid D60, four-door compact saloon car M50V, MPV T70, five-door compact CUV T90, 3-row mid-size fastback CUV The following Venucia vehicles are discontinued products: R30, five-door supermini R50, five-door subcompact hatchback based on the Nissan Tiida hatchback R50X, AWD raised hatchback based on the Nissan Tiida hatchback D50, four-door subcompact saloon car based on the Nissan Tiida sedan T60, compact five-door CUV T70X, raised AWD compact five-door CUV Venucia Viwa Venucia Vow Venucia The X Official website
Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi S50
The Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi S50 is a compact sedan produced by Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor under the Jingyi product series of the Dongfeng Fengxing sub-brand. The Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi S50 sedan debuted during the 2014 Beijing Auto Show and was launched on the China car market in 2014; the Fengxing Jingyi S50 compact sedan shares the same platform as the Dongfeng Fengshen A60 compact sedan with both cars based on the Nissan Sylphy produced by the Dongfeng-Nissan joint venture in China. The styling of the Fengxing Jingyi S50 at launch was inspired by the Hyundai Sonata with similar front DRG designs despite being in a smaller segment; the final production Fengxing Jingyi S50 was launched in September 2014 with prices starting from 69,900 yuan to 102,900 yuan. As of 2015, news of an upcoming facelift with new engines was released, with the facelifted design placing the Fengxing Jingyi S50 sedan more inline with other Dongfeng Fengxing products. During the 2016 Beijing Auto Show in China, Dongfeng revealed the Fengxing S50-EV, based on the pre-facelift Fengxing Jingyi S50 sedan.
The Fengxing S50-EV has a range of 250 kilometers and a 150 km/h top speed with electric motor producing 120hp and 280nm of torque. Fengxing Jingyi S50 Official Website Fengxing Jingyi S50 EV Official Website
The Nissan Civilian is a single-decker minibus built by the Japanese automaker Nissan since 1959. It is available as a public bus and an intercity bus. In Japan, it was exclusive to Nissan Store locations, replaced the Nissan Echo. In Japan, Asia-Pacific, Mid-East, South America, its principal competitors are Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa, Isuzu Journey, Mazda Parkway and Toyota Coaster. In China, the Nissan Civilian is marketed by Dongfeng as the Dongfeng Green Lotus but uses the Nissan logos. Nissan Civilian is sold under the Civilian and W41 or W 41 names, it is sold in Japan as Civilian, several countries in Central & South America. The normal seating capacity is 26 passengers, its main competitors are the Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa, Toyota Coaster, Isuzu Journey, and, in some countries Civilian/ W41 minibuses are found only in small quantities, compared to the Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa, Toyota Coaster, the Isuzu Journey. It was replaced by the earlier Nissan Echo. TB45E: 4.5L Gasoline TD42: 4.2L Diesel TD42T: 4.2L Diesel Turbo RD28T: 2.8L Diesel Turbo ED33: 3.3 Diesel ED33T 3.3 Diesel Turbo ED35: 3.5L D ZD30DDTi: 3.0l Diesel Turbo direct injection Mitsubishi Fuso 4M50: 4.9l Diesel Turbo UW40: 1982-1988 MGW40/MW40: 1982-1990 FGW40/FW40/VUSW40: 1984-1988 RGW40/RYW40: 1988- BGW40/BW40: 1990- RAW40: 1993- Models vary from Roof Style, A/C Option, Wheelbase BCW41/BHW41/BJW41/BVW41: 1999-2004 ACW41/AHW41/AJW41/AVW41: 2004-2007 DCW41/DHW41/DJW41/DVW41: 2004- Models vary from Suspension and Wheelbase 21 passengers 30 passengers Includes reclining high-back seats, automatic sliding door, cloth carpet, tinted windows, self-leveling suspension and other options.
Includes an automatic folding door, non-tinted windows with curtains and non-reclinable, low-back seats, other options. Includes an automatic folding door, high-back seats, better audio equipment, rear windshield wipers and other options. Includes an automatic reclinable high-back driver's seat, supreme audio equipment, TV, rear windshield wipers and other amenities. Includes an automatic height-adjustable driver's seat, cruise control, BOSE audio equipment, Rear Projection TV, passenger air-bags, refrigerator, reclinable passenger seats with retractable table, self-levelling suspension. Bloodmobile Police Bus School Bus Presidential transportation Grand saloon bus Ambulance Motorhome Library Car Execution Van Wheelchair Van Ousted Panama dictator Manuel Noriega, in his reign, had at least one Nissan Civilian as his personal transport, it was a luxury furnished version with amenities such as TV, restroom and kitchenette. This Civilian is now said to be owned by a Panamanian national who obtained it in bad condition and restored it.
Hootsuite CEO Ryan Holmes' bussauna, is a custom converted Nissan Civilian minibus. Its interior features a conventional sauna for up to 8 people, is equipped with amenities such as a sliding side door, exterior awning and sink. Holmes has installed an accompanying home base spa zone including showers and changerooms beside the bus parking spot at Hootsuite’s headquarters. List of buses Nissan Civilian Official Homepage NCSOL Bus Release "Nissan Civilian"
Dongfeng Renault Automobile Company or Dongfeng Renault is an owned Chinese joint venture between car manufacturers Dongfeng Motor Group and Renault aimed to produce and sell Renault-badged vehicles, established in 2013. The joint venture emerged from Sanjiang Renault, a previous partnership between Renault and Sanjiang Space established in 1993. In 1993, Renault and Sanjiang Space Group established a manufacturing joint venture at Xiaogan called Sanjiang Renault Automotive Company. Renault had a 45% stake in the company while Sanjiang had 55%. In 1995, the company started assembling Renault Trafics; the partnership proved unsuccessful, Sanjiang Renault only assembled 4,906 units before it halted production in 2003 or 2004. Talks with Dongfeng began in 2004 or 2003 around the same time production halted at the failed Sanjiang-Renault partnership; as part of Dongfeng's agreements with Nissan, the three companies agreed to create a so-called "golden triangle" of three-way collaboration. In June 2013, Dongfeng acquired the 55% stake in Sanjiang Renault from its erstwhile Chinese partner renaming the legal entity Dongfeng Renault Automobile Company.
Renault signed on to the creation of an owned joint venture on 16 December 2013 after gaining final approval from the Chinese government. Dongfeng Renault is in charge of Renault's China sales; the Dongfeng Renault plant was built at Wuhan and started production in February 2016. It has an estimated output of up to 150,000 vehicles per year; the Renault's Wuhan facilities include an engine workshop and a research and development centre. Production will focus on sport utility vehicles. Renault Koleos Renault Kadjar
Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi X3
The Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi X3 is a subcompact CUV produced by Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor under the Jingyi product series of the Dongfeng Fengxing sub-brand. It is positioned under the Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi X5 compact MPV it shares the platform with, it was launched in 2014 with prices ranges from 66,900 yuan to 86,900 yuan. Design is similar to the facelifted Dongfeng Fengxing Jingyi X5 I as the two vehicle shares the same platform. A minor facelift was launched in 2016 refreshing the front grilles. Fengxing Jingyi X3 Official website
The Dongfeng EQ2102 is a 3.5 tonne capacity troop/cargo carrier truck developed and built by Dongfeng Motor Corporation and used by the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China for transport. The truck is a copied version of the Nissan Diesel Condor CM series; when in civilian use, this series of trucks uses a variety of different names but is referred to as the Dongfeng 145. A facelifted version is called the "160", it entered service in the 1990s to replace the aging CA-30 and the EQ245/EQ2100. Seating: 1+4.