Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Hyundai Hysco, or HYSCO is a steel company of Hyundai Motor Group, established in 1975, headquartered in Ulsan, South Korea. They are a manufacturer of various steel pipes, its corporate office is located in Seoul, it operates in Ulsan in South Korea with operations worldwide. Hyundai Hysco operates a steel pipe facility in Korea, eleven overseas processing centers, three overseas offices internationally. Hyundai Hysco was established under the name Kyung-il Industrial Co. Ltd. in 1975. The company was renamed to Hyundai Pipe Co. Ltd. in 1980 soon after the completion of its full-scale steel pipe plant in 1979. As a scheme to be a leading steel company in the global market, the company was renamed once again to Hyundai Hysco in February 2001. In November 1982, two years after the steel pipe plant was built, Hyundai Hysco was awarded the'US$100 Million Export Tower' in November 1982. In 1997, the company set a new record in the steel industry by producing over 10 million tons of steel pipes. For over 20 years, Hyundai Hysco has been the leading company in the Korean steel pipe industry.
After taking the largest market share in the steel pipe industry, they entered the market for cold rolled products, which require the highest level of technology among other sectors of the steel industries. Hyundai Hysco has begun the commercial production of cold rolled products in April 1999. Since Hyundai Hysco set numerous records in the area of cold rolling, rewriting the history of Korean steel industries. Hyundai Hysco's achievements include the building of a full capacity system in less than one year from the commencement of commercial production and producing 5 million tons of automotive steel products in five years. In 2004, Hyundai Hysco took over an old and standstill works, Hanbo Steel, in Dangjin, in a consortium with Hyundai Steel. By taking over the old and abandoned works and completing the normalization in 2006, Hyundai Hysco not only build the 4 million tons of cold rolling capacity per year, but contributed to the Korean economy. Hyundai Hysco now operates Global Steel Service Center, Automotive Parts Business, Steel Pipe Products,and Resource Development as four core business after partial merger with Hyundai Steel in 2013.
Ulsan works. Hysco has eleven overseas steel service centers in total. There are four steel service center in China, one in India, four in Europe, two in US. Hysco has three sales office in Houston,LA in US and Tokyo in Japan. Lastly Hysco operates ASPI office in India to produce automotive pipe with Sumitomo. 1975.03 Established Kyung-il Co. Ltd. 1979.05 Completed construction on the steel pipe mill 1980.05 Changed name to Hyundai Pipe co. LTD. 1981.10 Obtained mill approval by Lloyd's Register of Shipping 1997.04 Started construction on the cold rolling mill 1999.03 Completed construction on the cold rolling mill 2000.11 Received Three Hundred Million-Dollar Export Award 2001.01 Changed company name to Hyundai Hysco 2003.11 Completion of Beijing Factory 2004.10 Opening of Dangjin Factory 2005.01 Exceed 10 million tons cold rolled steel sheet production 2005.05 Started commercial production of Hydroforming product 2006.01 Completed establishment of PCI system 2006.08 Completion of Dangjin Factory 2007.01 Completion of Jiangsu Factory 2007.08 Completion of India Factory 2008.01 Transferred to Seoul Jamwon Office Building 2013.12 Partial merger with Hyundai Steel for Cold-Rolled Sheet reorganization Auto parts Economy of South Korea Hyundai Mobis Hyundai Motor Company Hyundai Motor Group Kia Motors List of steel producers Hyundai Hysco Homepage
Electric arc furnace
An electric arc furnace is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. Industrial arc furnaces range in size from small units of one ton capacity up to about 400 ton units used for secondary steelmaking. Arc furnaces used in research laboratories and by dentists may have a capacity of only a few dozen grams. Industrial electric arc furnace temperatures can be up to 1,800 °C, while laboratory units can exceed 3,000 °C. Arc furnaces differ from induction furnaces in that the charge material is directly exposed to an electric arc and the current in the furnace terminals passes through the charged material. In the 19th century, a number of men had employed an electric arc to melt iron. Sir Humphry Davy conducted an experimental demonstration in 1810; the first successful and operational furnace was invented by James Burgess Readman in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1888 and patented in 1889. This was for the creation of phosphorus. Further electric arc furnaces were developed by Paul Héroult, of France, with a commercial plant established in the United States in 1907.
The Sanderson brothers formed The Sanderson Brothers steel Co. in Syracuse, New York, installing the first electric arc furnace in the U. S; this furnace is now on display at Station Square, Pennsylvania. "electric steel" was a specialty product for such uses as machine tools and spring steel. Arc furnaces were used to prepare calcium carbide for use in carbide lamps; the Stassano electric furnace is an arc type furnace that rotates to mix the bath. The Girod furnace is similar to the Héroult furnace. While EAFs were used in World War II for production of alloy steels, it was only that electric steelmaking began to expand; the low capital cost for a mini-mill—around US$140–200 per ton of annual installed capacity, compared with US$1,000 per ton of annual installed capacity for an integrated steel mill—allowed mills to be established in war-ravaged Europe, allowed them to compete with the big United States steelmakers, such as Bethlehem Steel and U. S. Steel, for low-cost, carbon steel "long products" in the U.
S. market. When Nucor—now one of the largest steel producers in the U. S.—decided to enter the long products market in 1969, they chose to start up a mini-mill, with an EAF as its steelmaking furnace, soon followed by other manufacturers. Whilst Nucor expanded in the Eastern U. S. the companies that followed them into mini-mill operations concentrated on local markets for long products, where the use of an EAF allowed the plants to vary production according to local demand. This pattern was followed globally, with EAF steel production used for long products, while integrated mills, using blast furnaces and basic oxygen furnaces, cornered the markets for "flat products"—sheet steel and heavier steel plate. In 1987, Nucor made the decision to expand into the flat products market, still using the EAF production method. An electric arc furnace used for steelmaking consists of a refractory-lined vessel water-cooled in larger sizes, covered with a retractable roof, through which one or more graphite electrodes enter the furnace.
The furnace is split into three sections: the shell, which consists of the sidewalls and lower steel "bowl". The roof supports the refractory delta in its centre, through which one or more graphite electrodes enter; the hearth may be hemispherical in shape, or in an eccentric bottom tapping furnace, the hearth has the shape of a halved egg. In modern meltshops, the furnace is raised off the ground floor, so that ladles and slag pots can be maneuvered under either end of the furnace. Separate from the furnace structure is the electrode support and electrical system, the tilting platform on which the furnace rests. Two configurations are possible: the electrode supports and the roof tilt with the furnace, or are fixed to the raised platform. A typical alternating current furnace is powered by a three-phase electrical supply and therefore has three electrodes. Electrodes are round in section, in segments with threaded couplings, so that as the electrodes wear, new segments can be added; the arc forms between the charged material and the electrode, the charge is heated both by current passing through the charge and by the radiant energy evolved by the arc.
The electric arc temperature reaches around 3000 °C, thus causing the lower sections of the electrodes to glow incandescently when in operation. The electrodes are automatically raised and lowered by a positioning system, which may use either electric winch hoists or hydraulic cylinders; the regulating system maintains constant current and power input during the melting of the charge though scrap may move under the electrodes as it melts. The mast arms holding the electrodes can either carry heavy busbars or be "hot arms", where the whole arm carries the current, increasing efficiency. Hot arms can be made from copper-clad steel or aluminium. Large water-cooled cables connect the bus tubes or arms with the transformer located adjacent to the furnace; the transformer is installed in a vault and is wa
Pohang is a city in the province of North Gyeongsang, South Korea, a main seaport in the Daegu-Gyeongbuk region. The built-up area of Pohang is located on the alluvium of the mouth of the Hyeongsan River; the city is divided into Buk-gu or Northern Ward and Nam-gu or Southern Ward. This city has the largest population of North Gyeongsang Province and it has the third largest land area of any city in South Korea; the earliest evidence of human occupation in the Pohang area is from the Mumun Pottery Period. Archaeologists have unearthed megalithic burials from this period. Still a small fishing village at the dawn of the 20th century, the earliest steps toward developing Pohang into a place of greater significance were taken in 1930 with the construction of a modern harbour. Pohang grew afterward, attaining the designation of town in 1931 and earning the status of city in 1949. Pohang's road arteries and shipping port made it a place of strategic significance during the Korean War. An unopposed landing of UN forces at Pohang on July 18, 1950 was the first large-scale amphibious operation since World War II, the region around Pohang saw fierce clashes between South Korea's 3rd Infantry Division and North Korea's 5th Infantry Division during August–September 1950.
By the 1960s, Pohang was a small coastal city with a population of 50,000. The next major development in Pohang's growth came in 1968 with the inauguration of the steel maker POSCO, the local plant's commencement of production in 1972; the introduction of heavy industry to the city brought the local economy to a blend of iron, steel and fisheries through the end of the 20th century. The early 21st century and the age of globalization has brought new economic challenges to companies such as POSCO, giving rise to beliefs that Pohang would be wise to not be overly reliant on heavy industry to maintain its prosperity. In response, the Pohang of today presents itself as having an eye to the future, striving to become a diversified city of environmentalism and advanced learning, as well as a centre of arts and culture. During the Silla Dynasty the area was made up of four hyeon, Toehwa-hyeon, Jidap-hyeon, Geunoji-hyeon, Haea-hyeon. During the Goryeo Dynasty these four were renamed to Heunghae-gun, Janggi-hyeon, Yeongil-hyeon, Cheongha-hyeon respectively.
On 4 August 1896, the three remaining hyeon, which at that time were Janggi and Cheongha were reassigned as counties or gun as part of the change to the 13-province division of the Korean Empire. On 1 March 1914, the four counties were unified as one Yeongil-gun, subdivided into 18 myeons. On 1 April 1931, Pohang-myeon was designated as an eup, thus giving Yeongil-gun 17 myeon. On 1 April 1934, Jukbuk-myeon and Juknam-myeon were united to make Jukjang-myeon, while Janggi-myeon and Bongsan-myeon united to make Jihaeng-myeon, so that there were 1 eup and 15 myeon. On 1 October 1938, Hyeongsan-myeon was incorporated into Pohang-eup, leaving Yeongil-gun with 1 eup and 14 myeon. On 1 October 1942 Changju-myeon was renamed and reclassified as Guryongpo-eup, leaving 2 eup and 13 myeon. On 15 August 1949, Pohang-eup was designated as Pohang-si, leaving Yeongil with 1 si, 1 eup, 13 myeon and 1 local office. On 8 July 1956, Heunghae-myeon and Gokgang-myeon are incorporated into Uichang-myeon leaving 1 si, 1 eup and 12 myeon.
On 29 October 1957, Daljeon-myeon is abolished and incorporated into Heunghae-myeon and Yeonil-myeon leaving 1 si, 1 eup and 11 myeons. On 1 March 1967, the Gibuk Local Office of Gigye-myeon is established. On 1 July 1973, Uichang-myeon is designated as Uichang-eup leaving 1 si, 2 eup, 10 myeon and 3 local offices. On 1 December 1980, Yeonil-myeon and Ocheon-myeon are both designated as eup leaving 1 si, 4 eup, 8 myeon and 3 local offices. On 1 September 1982, Haedo-dong and Sangdae-dong are separated into Haedo 1 and 2-dong and Sangdae 1 and 2-dong respectively. On 1 April 1986, Daebo Local Office and Gibuk Local Office are designated as myeon leaving 1 si, 4 eup, 10 myeon and 1 local office. On 1 January 1995, a united Pohang-si absorbs all of Yeongil-gun, composed of 1 si, 2 gu, 4 eup, 10 myeon, 25 dong and 1 local office. On 1 September 1998, the unification of Small-dong left Pohang with 1 si, 2 gu, 4 eup, 10 myeon, 19 dong and 1 local office. On 1 January 2009, the unification of Small-dong left Pohang with 1 si, 2 gu, 4 eup, 10 myeon, 15 dong and 1 local office.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Pohang has a humid subtropical climate. The mean temperature in the coldest month, January, is mild at 1.8 °C. The warmest month is August, when the mean temperature is 25.7 °C. On average, Pohang receives 1,152 mm of precipitation per year; the driest month is December. However, the mean amount of precipitation for the wettest month, August, is 227.4 mm. Head office: 1 head office, 4 office, 6 team, 25 department Executive office: 1 office 7 experts Direct organizations: three centers and six departments Business offices: 11 offices and 7 departments Nam-gu and Buk-gu office: 12 departments Eup,Myeon and Dong: 4 Eup, 10 Myeon and 15 Dong Mayor Globalization strategy headquarter Self-governing Administration Bureau Economy & Industries Bureau Welfare environment office Cons
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Incheon the Incheon Metropolitan City, is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic, Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it South Korea's third most-populous city after Seoul and Busan; the city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's fifth largest metropolitan area by population. Incheon has since led the economic development of Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea's first free economic zone. Since large local companies and global enterprises have invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone, including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.
As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was held in Incheon on 19 September 2014. Incheon has established itself as a major transportation hub in northeast Asia with the Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port; the city is home to the Green Climate Fund, an international organization addressing environmental issues. The first historical record of the Incheon area dates back to 475 CE, during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo, by the name of Michuhol, supposed to be located on today's Munhak Hill; the area underwent several name changes with successive dynasties. In Goryeo era, Incheon was called Inju; the current name was turned to Incheon in 1413. Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture. Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon and northern part of Siheung City; the city centre was Gwangyo-dong, where the local academy were located.
The "original" two remaining buildings of the Incheon prefecture office are located in Munhak Elementary School, while the newly built prefecture office buildings are right across from Munhak Baseball Stadium. Another historical name of the city, was not used until the opening of the port in 1883. After the opening of the Incheon port, the city centre moved from Gwangyo to Jemulpo. Today, either Jemulpo or Gwangyo-dong is considered "Original Incheon", it was renamed as Jinsen during Japanese rule in Korean peninsula. In 1914, the Japanese colonial government merged outer parts of old Incheon with Bupyeong County, forming Bucheon County. Through 1936 and 1940, some part of Bucheon County was recombined into Incheon City, by which some part of "old" Bupyeong was annexed into Incheon. Incheon was part of Gyeonggi Province, but was granted Directly Governed City status on July 1, 1981. In 1989, neighbouring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.
Incheon was known as Inchon prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000. The city was the site of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay, where the first shots of the Russo-Japanese War were fired. During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950. Eleven days Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon, when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward; the result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950. The USS Inchon was named after the tide-turning battle. Incheon has hosted a series of major international events; the Global Fair & Festival 2009 Incheon was held in the Songdo District in August 2009. It was open from 7 August to 25 October for a period of 80 days, it was a comprehensive international event with global institutions and corporations as participants. Various musicians and artists performed during the event; the city hosted a meeting of the G20 Finance Ministers in February 2010.
Incheon was the site of the third Global Model United Nations Conference, held from 10th to the 14th of August 2011. It first hosted the Incheon Women Artists' Biennale in 2004 which expanded into welcoming international artists in its subsequent 2007, 2009 and 2011. Incheon hosted the Asian Games in 2014. On 27 February 2007, Incheon declared itself an "English City," and inaugurated the "Incheon Free English Zone" program; the goal of the program is to make the city as proficient in English as Hong Singapore. This is for the ultimate purpose of establishing Incheon as a commercial and business hub of northeast Asia; the official slogan of the program is "Smile with English." Incheon is home to a number of colleges and universities: George Mason University Korea Campus Ghent University Global Campus Gyeongin National University of Education Incheon campus Inha University Gachon University Medical·Ganghwa campus Gyeongin Women's College Inha Technical College Incheon Catholic University Incheon City College I
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro