The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about 8 1⁄2 months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released; as of July 27, 2017, only the iPod Touch remains in production. Like other digital music players, iPods can serve as external data storage devices. Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music, videos, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks, calendars, to the devices supporting these features from computers using certain versions of Apple macOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems. Before the release of iOS 5, the iPod branding was used for the media player included with the iPhone and iPad, a combination of the Music and Videos apps on the iPod Touch; as of iOS 5, separate apps named "Music" and "Videos" are standardized across all iOS-powered products. While the iPhone and iPad have the same media player capabilities as the iPod line, they are treated as separate products.
During the middle of 2010, iPhone sales overtook those of the iPod. The iPod was released in late 2001; the iPod line came from Apple's "digital hub" category, when the company began creating software for the growing market of personal digital devices. Digital cameras and organizers had well-established mainstream markets, but the company found existing digital music players "big and clunky or small and useless" with user interfaces that were "unbelievably awful," so Apple decided to develop its own; as ordered by CEO Steve Jobs, Apple's hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinstein assembled a team of engineers to design the iPod line, including hardware engineers Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey, design engineer Sir Jonathan Ive. Rubinstein had discovered the Toshiba hard disk drive while meeting with an Apple supplier in Japan, purchased the rights to it for Apple, had already worked out how the screen and other key elements would work; the aesthetic was inspired by the 1958 Braun T3 transistor radio designed by Dieter Rams, while the wheel-based user interface was prompted by Bang & Olufsen's BeoCom 6000 telephone.
The product was developed in less than one year and unveiled on October 23, 2001. Jobs announced it as a Mac-compatible product with a 5 GB hard drive that put "1,000 songs in your pocket."Apple did not develop the iPod software in-house, instead using PortalPlayer's reference platform based on two ARM cores. The platform had rudimentary software running on a commercial microkernel embedded operating system. PortalPlayer had been working on an IBM-branded MP3 player with Bluetooth headphones. Apple contracted another company, Pixo, to help design and implement the user interface under the direct supervision of Steve Jobs; as development progressed, Apple continued to feel. Starting with the iPod Mini, the Chicago font was replaced with Espy Sans. IPods switched fonts again to Podium Sans—a font similar to Apple's corporate font, Myriad. Color display iPods adopted some Mac OS X themes like Aqua progress bars, brushed metal meant to evoke a combination lock. In 2007, Apple modified the iPod interface again with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classic and third-generation iPod Nano by changing the font to Helvetica and, in most cases, splitting the screen in half by displaying the menus on the left and album artwork, photos, or videos on the right.
In 2006 Apple presented a special edition for iPod 5G of Irish rock band U2. Like its predecessor, this iPod has engraved the signatures of the four members of the band on its back, but this one was the first time the company changed the colour of the metal; this iPod was only available with 30GB of storage capacity. The special edition entitled purchasers to an exclusive video with 33 minutes of interviews and performance by U2, downloadable from the iTunes Store. In September 2007, during a lawsuit with patent holding company Burst.com, Apple drew attention to a patent for a similar device, developed in 1979. Kane Kramer applied for a UK patent for his design of a "plastic music box" in 1981, which he called the IXI, he was unable to secure funding to renew the US$120,000 worldwide patent, so it lapsed and Kramer never profited from his idea. The name iPod was proposed by Vinnie Chieco, a freelance copywriter, called by Apple to figure out how to introduce the new player to the public. After Chieco saw a prototype, he thought of the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey and the phrase "Open the pod bay doors, Hal", which refers to the white EVA Pods of the Discovery One spaceship.
Chieco saw an analogy to the relationship between the spaceship and the smaller independent pods in the relationship between a personal computer and the music player. Apple researched the trademark and found that it was in use. Joseph N. Grasso of New Jersey had listed an "iPod" trademark with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in July 2000 for Internet kiosks; the first iPod kiosks had been demonstrated to the public in New Jersey in March 1998, commercial use began in January 2000, but had been discontinued by 2001. The trademark was registered by the USPTO in November 2003, Grasso assigned it to Apple Computer, Inc. in 2005. The earliest recorded use in commerce of an "iPod" trademark was in 1991 by Chrysalis Corp. of Sturgis, styled "iPOD". In mid-2015, several new color schemes for all of the current iPod models were spotted in the latest version of iTunes, 12.2. Belgian website Belgium iPhone found the images
Digital media player
A digital media player is a home entertainment consumer electronics device that can connect to a home network to stream digital media such as music, photos or digital video. Digital media players can stream files from a personal computer, network-attached storage or another networked media server, to play the media on a television or video projector display for home cinema. Most digital media players utilize a 10-foot user interface, many are navigated via a remote control; some digital media players have smart TV features, such as allowing users to stream media such as digital versions of movies and TV shows from the Internet or streaming services. Digital media players were first introduced in 2000. In the 2010s, the main difference between most digital media players and modern set-top boxes was the obligation to have a TV tuner. Set-top boxes contain at least one TV tuner and are as such capable of receiving broadcasting signals from cable television, satellite television, over-the-air television or IPTV.
In the 2010s, with the popularity of portable media players and digital cameras, as well as fast Internet download speeds and cheap mass storage, many people came into possession of large collections of digital media files that cannot be played on a conventional analog HiFi without connecting a computer to an amplifier or television. The means to play these files on a network-connected digital media player, permanently connected to a television is seen as a convenience; the rapid growth in the availability of online content has made it easier for consumers to use these devices and obtain content. YouTube, for instance, is a common plug-in available on most networked devices. Netflix has struck deals with many consumer-electronics makers to make their interface available in the device's menus, for their streaming subscribers; this symbiotic relationship between Netflix and consumer electronics makers has helped propel Netflix to become the largest subscription video service in the U. S. using up to 20% of U.
S. bandwidth at peak times. Media players are designed for compactness and affordability, tend to have small or non-existent hardware displays other than simple LED lights to indicate whether the device is powered on. Interface navigation on the television is done with an infrared remote control, while more-advanced digital media players come with high-performance remote controls which allow control of the interface using integrated touch sensors; some remotes include accelerometers for air mouse features which allow basic motion gaming. Most digital media player devices are unable to play physical audio or video media directly, instead require a user to convert these media into playable digital files using a separate computer and software, they are usually incapable of recording audio or video. In the 2010s, it is common to find digital media player functionality integrated into other consumer-electronics appliances, such as DVD players, set-top boxes, smart TVs, or video game consoles. Digital media players are commonly referred to as a "digital media extender", "digital media streamer", "digital media hub", "digital media adapter", or "digital media receiver".
Digital media player manufacturers use a variety of names to describe their devices. Some more used alternative names include: By November 2000, an audio-only digital media player was demonstrated by a company called SimpleDevices, awarded two patents covering this invention in 2006. Developed under the SimpleFi name by Motorola in late 2001, the design was based on a Cirrus Arm-7 processor and the wireless HomeRF networking standard which pre-dated 802.11b in the residential markets. Other early market entrants in 2001 included the Turtle Beach AudioTron, Rio Receiver and SliMP3 digital media players. An early version of a video-capable digital media player was presented by F. C. Jeng et al. in the International Conf. on Consumer Electronics in 2002. It included a network interface card, a media processor for audio and video decoding, an analog video encoder, an audio digital to analog converter for audio playback, an IR for remote-control-interface. A concept of a digital media player was introduced by Intel in 2002 at the Intel Developer Forum as part of their “Extended Wireless PC Initiative."
Intel’s digital media player was based on an Xscale PXA210 processor and supported 802.11b wireless networking. Intel was among the first to use the Linux embedded operating system and UPnP technology for its digital media player. Networked audio and DVD players were among the first consumer devices to integrate digital media player functionality. Examples include the Philips Streamium-range of products that allowed for remote streaming of audio, the GoVideo D2730 Networked DVD player which integrated DVD playback with the capability to stream Rhapsody audio from a PC, the Buffalo LinkTheater which combined a DVD player with a digital media player. More the Xbox 360 gaming console from Microsoft was among the first gaming devices that integrated a digital media player. With the Xbox 360, Microsoft introduced the concept of a Windows Media Center Extender, which allows users to access the Media center capabilities of a PC remotely, through a home network. More Linksys, D-Link, HP introduced the latest generation of digital media players that support 720p and 1080p high resolution video playback and may integrate both Windows Extender and traditional digital media player functionality.
A digital media player can connect to the home network using either a wireless or wired Ethernet connection. Digital media pl
The Nintendo 64, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America and Brazil, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, September 1997 in France, it is the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until Nintendo's seventh console, the Nintendo Switch, released in 2017. The console was discontinued in mid-2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube, in 2001, it is the first Nintendo console to feature true 3D effects. Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64 were made to show this off. Codenamed "Project Reality", the Nintendo 64 design was complete by mid-1995, but its launch was delayed until 1996, when Time named it Machine of the Year, it was launched with Pilotwings 64 and Saikyō Habu Shōgi. As part of the fifth generation of gaming, the system competed with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn.
The suggested retail price at its United States launch was US$199.99, 32.93 million units were sold worldwide. The console was released in a range of designs over its lifetime. In 2015, IGN named it the 9th greatest video game console of all time. Around the end of the 1980s, Nintendo led the video game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System. Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES, was successful, sales took a hit from the Japanese recession. Competition from long-time rival Sega, relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendo's need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendo's strict licensing policies. Silicon Graphics, Inc. a long-time leader in graphics visualization and supercomputing, was interested in expanding its business by adapting its technology into the higher volume realm of consumer products, starting with the video game market.
Based upon its MIPS R4000 family of supercomputing and workstation CPUs, SGI developed a CPU requiring a fraction of the resources—consuming only 0.5 watts of power instead of 1.5 to 2 watts, with an estimated target price of US$40 instead of US$80–200. The company created a design proposal for a video game system, seeking an well established partner in that market. Jim Clark, founder of SGI offered the proposal to Tom Kalinske, the CEO of Sega of America; the next candidate would be Nintendo. The historical details of these preliminary negotiations were controversial between the two competing suitors. Tom Kalinske said that he and Joe Miller of Sega of America were "quite impressed" with SGI's prototype, inviting their hardware team to travel from Japan to meet with SGI; the engineers from Sega Enterprises claimed that their evaluation of the early prototype had uncovered several unresolved hardware issues and deficiencies. Those were subsequently resolved, but Sega had decided against SGI's design.
Nintendo resisted that summary conclusion, arguing that the real reason for SGI's ultimate choice of partner is that Nintendo was a more appealing business partner than Sega. While Sega demanded exclusive rights to the chip, Nintendo was willing to license the technology on a non-exclusive basis. Michael Slater, publisher of Microprocessor Report said, "The mere fact of a business relationship there is significant because of Nintendo's phenomenal ability to drive volume. If it works at all, it could bring MIPS to levels of volume never dreamed of". Jim Clark met with Nintendo CEO Hiroshi Yamauchi in early 1993. On August 23, 1993, the two companies announced a global joint development and licensing agreement surrounding Project Reality, projecting that the yet unnamed eventual product would be "developed for Nintendo, will be unveiled in arcades in 1994, will be available for home use by late 1995... below $250". This announcement coincided with Nintendo's August 1993 Shoshinkai trade show."Reality Immersion Technology" is the name SGI had given the set of core componentry, which would be first utilized in Project Reality: the MIPS R4300i CPU, the MIPS Reality Coprocessor, the embedded software.
Some chip technology and manufacturing was provided by NEC, Sharp. SGI had acquired MIPS Computer Systems, the two worked together to be responsible for the design of the Reality Immersion Technology chips under engineering director Jim Foran and chief hardware architect Tim Van Hook; the initial Project Reality game development platform was developed and sold by SGI in the form of its US$100,000–US$250,000 Onyx supercomputer loaded with the namesake US$50,000 RealityEngine2 graphics boards and four 150 MHz R4400 CPUs, with early Project Reality application and emulation APIs based upon Performer and OpenGL. This graphics supercomputing platform had served as the source design which SGI had reduced down to become the Reality Immersion Technology for Project Reality; the system's game controller was a Super NES controller modified to have a primitive analog joystick and Z trigger. Under maximal secrecy from the rest of the company, a LucasArts developer said his team would "furtively hide the prototype controller in a cardboard box while we used it.
In answer to the inevitable questions about what we were doing, we replied jokingly that it was a new type of controller—a bowl of liquid that absorbed your thoughts through your fingertips. Of course, you had to think in Japanese..."On June 23, 1994, Nintendo announced the new official name of the st
A flash cartridge is one of several cartridges containing flash memory that have been developed for use in video game consoles. These cartridges enable homebrew games to be used; the capacity of the cartridges can range from 64 Mbit up to 8 Gbit. More recent cartridges use external memory cards as memory, in place of onboard memory, such as Compact Flash, Secure Digital, etc. memory cards. These cartridges remain the best-known way to create and distribute homebrew games for many consoles, such as the Game Boy Advance.. Games are written to the cartridge with a device called "linker". Depending on the brand of flash cartridge, the linker either connects to a link port on the console and writes to the cartridge through the console, or connects to a mini-USB slot on the cartridge itself and writes directly to the flash cartridge; these linkers connect to a PC through a USB or parallel plug on the other end. Most linkers that connect to a link slot are capable of copying ROM information from commercial software cartridges.
Some more recent flash cartridges use digital media cards in which files are placed via a memory card reader. A number of devices have been released which use popular flash memory cards such as SD and CF for storage; these have proven popular since the development of techniques to run Nintendo DS software from a GBA cartridge, due to the smaller size of DS games and the low price of these cards compared to conventional GBA flash cartridges. Examples of such devices include the R4 and Supercard. There are those. However, some people use other software to write games to the cartridge. An example of this software is X-ROM Frontend by DanSoft Australia; some flash cartridges use specialized software designed for the specific cartridge, such as Power Writer and USB Writer software for the Flash2Advance Ultra cartridges. This presents several conflicts in regard to homebrew, as Power Writer uses a large database for proper naming and saving of games. ROMs that are not in the database are prone to saving issues, editing the database manually is difficult and involves the use of a hex editor.
Such cartridges have a proprietary interface, making it difficult or impossible to use operating systems other than Microsoft Windows for writing to the cartridge with a few exceptions. Flash cartridges such as Supercard DSTWO are available directly for other consoles, like the Nintendo DS and DSi, the 3DS; the Nintendo DSi and the Nintendo 3DS have the ability to update their system firmware via the Internet, which makes it possible for Nintendo to fix the exploit that allowed the flashcarts to work, block the flashcart from loading on the console. There are project files existing on the Internet that guide people through creating their own flash cartridge for the original Nintendo Game Boy; the legality of flashcarts has been called into question many times by Nintendo. In a 2010 high court case, the court ruled in Nintendo's favour, flashcarts were outlawed in the United Kingdom; some game consoles have official flash cartridges used by developers to test prototypes of their games. These cartridges are part of the console's software development kit and are only available to licensed developers.
PHWiki:Category:GBA Flash Cards
USB flash drive
A USB flash drive known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key, flash-drive, memory stick, USB key, USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface. It is removable and much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 1 oz. Since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with all other computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped; as of March 2016, flash drives with anywhere from 8 to 256 GB were sold, while 512 GB and 1 TB units were less frequent. As of 2018, 2TB flash drives were the largest available in terms of storage capacity; some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the exact type of memory chip used, are thought to last between 10 and 100 years under normal circumstances. USB flash drives are used for storage, data back-up and transfer of computer files. Compared with floppy disks or CDs, they are smaller, have more capacity, are more durable due to a lack of moving parts.
Additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference, are unharmed by surface scratches. Until about 2005, most desktop and laptop computers were supplied with floppy disk drives in addition to USB ports, but floppy disk drives became obsolete after widespread adoption of USB ports and the larger USB drive capacity compared to the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch floppy disk. USB flash drives use the USB mass storage device class standard, supported natively by modern operating systems such as Windows, macOS and other Unix-like systems, as well as many BIOS boot ROMs. USB drives with USB 2.0 support can store more data and transfer faster than much larger optical disc drives like CD-RW or DVD-RW drives and can be read by many other systems such as the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, DVD players, automobile entertainment systems, in a number of handheld devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, though the electronically similar SD card is better suited for those devices. A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a USB connector, insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberized case, which can be carried in a pocket or on a key chain, for example.
The USB connector may be protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive, although it is not to be damaged if unprotected. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, but drives for other interfaces exist. USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection; some devices combine the functionality of a portable media player with USB flash storage. M-Systems, an Israeli company, were granted a US patent on November 14, 2000, titled "Architecture for a -based Flash Disk", crediting the invention to Amir Ban, Dov Moran and Oron Ogdan, all M-Systems employees at the time; the patent application was filed by M-Systems in April 1999. In 1999, IBM filed an invention disclosure by one of its employees. Flash drives were sold by Trek 2000 International, a company in Singapore, which began selling in early 2000. IBM became the first to sell USB flash drives in the United States in 2000; the initial storage capacity of a flash drive was 8 MB.
Another version of the flash drive, described as a pen drive, was developed. Pua Khein-Seng from Malaysia has been credited with this invention. Patent disputes have arisen over the years, with competing companies including Singaporean company Trek Technology and Chinese company Netac Technology, attempting to enforce their patents. Trek has lost battles in other countries. Netac Technology has brought lawsuits against PNY Technologies, aigo and Taiwan's Acer and Tai Guen Enterprise Co. Flash drives are measured by the rate at which they transfer data. Transfer rates may be given in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or in optical drive multipliers such as "180X". File transfer rates vary among devices. Second generation flash drives have claimed to read at up to 30 MB/s and write at about half that rate, about 20 times faster than the theoretical transfer rate achievable by the previous model, USB 1.1, limited to 12 Mbit/s with accounted overhead. The effective transfer rate of a device is affected by the data access pattern.
By 2002, USB flash drives had USB 2.0 connectivity, which has 480 Mbit/s as the transfer rate upper bound. That same year, Intel sparked widespread use of second generation USB by including them within its laptops. Third generation USB flash drives were announced in late 2008 and became available in 2010. Like USB 2.0 before it, USB 3.0 improved data transfer rates compared to its predecessor. The USB 3.0 interface specified transfer rates up compared to USB 2.0's 480 Mbit/s. By 2010 the maximum available storage capacity for the devices had reached upwards of 128GB. USB 3.0 was slow to appear in laptops. As of 2010, the majority of laptop models still contained the 2.0. In January 2013, tech company Kingston, released a flash drive with 1TB of storage; the first USB 3.1 type-C flash drives, with read/write speeds of around 530 MB/s, were announced in March 2015. As of July 2016, flash drives within the 8 to 256 GB
Amazon Fire TV
Amazon Fire TV is a digital media player and its microconsole remote developed by Amazon. The device is a small network appliance that can deliver digital audio/video content streamed via the internet, to a high-definition television, it allows users to play video games with the included remote, via a mobile app, or with an optional game controller. The device comes in two form factors: Fire TV, a set top box, Fire TV Stick a cut-down version presented as an HDMI plug-in stick; the first-generation Fire TV device featured 2 GB of RAM, MIMO dual-band Wi-Fi, a Bluetooth remote control with a microphone for voice search. It supported 1080p streaming and Dolby Digital Plus 7.1 surround sound but was dependent on internet bandwidth of the user. Unveiled on April 2, 2014, the Amazon Fire TV was made available for purchase in the US the same day for US$99 and was launched with a video game called Sev Zero. In 2015, the Amazon Fire TV was released with improved processor speed and 4K UHD support. Amazon Fire TV is available in the United Kingdom, Germany and launched in India in 2016.
In September 2018, Amazon announced the Fire TV Recast, a digital video recorder which works with a HD antenna to record shows for viewing on a Fire TV or Echo Show device. It is a part of the cord-cutting movement. In October 2018, Amazon announced the latest Fire TV Stick which offers 4K UHD for $50, it is designed as an affordable device with the 4K UHD playback that higher-end Fire TV devices have. The first Fire TV offers HDMI audio, with support for Dolby Digital Plus and 7.1 surround sound pass-through, along with an Ethernet port and a USB 2.0 port. According to Amazon, the Fire TV is designed to outpace competitors like the Apple TV and Roku in performance: The 0.72-inch-thick box features a 1.7 GHz quad-core CPU, 2 GB of RAM and 8 GB of internal storage, along with a dual-band wireless radio for 1080p streaming over 802.11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi and a 10/100 ethernet connection. The company said, it has a dedicated controller accessory. Amazon released a 2nd-generation Fire TV, codenamed "Sloane", in late 2015.
The 2nd generation now features 4K Ultra High Definition support, improved processor performance, a MediaTek 8173C chipset to support H.265, VP8, VP9 codecs. Wireless hardware upgrades includes a dual-band 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 4.1. On September 27, 2017, Amazon announced the third generation Fire TV alongside five other new Amazon products. On October 3, 2018, Amazon has announced discontinuing Fire TV in favor of Fire TV Stick. On November 19, 2014, Amazon released. Codenamed "Montoya", it is an HDMI-port plug-in device that replicates much of the functionality of the larger Fire TV, its hardware is different, it has 1 GB of RAM, 8 GB of internal storage, weighs 0.9 oz. and it uses a Broadcom BCM28155 dual-core 1.0 GHz Cortex-A9 processor and a Broadcom VideoCore IV GPU. Wireless hardware includes a dual-band 802.11 a/b/g/n Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 3.0 The Fire TV Stick is bundled with a remote control, in either of two variants. On October 20, 2016, Amazon released Fire TV Stick with Alexa Voice Remote, codenamed "Tank".
Other than the new remote, the updates include MediaTek MT8127D Quad-core ARM 1.3 GHz processor with a Mali-450 MP4 GPU, support for the H.265 codec. Wireless hardware upgrades includes a dual-band 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 4.1. It retains the 1GB of RAM and 8GB of storage and weighs more at 1.1 oz.. Amazon re-released the second generation Fire TV Stick with the all-new Alexa Voice Remote from the third generation Fire TV Stick 4K. On October 3, 2018, Amazon announced the Fire TV Stick 4K with all-new Alexa Voice Remote. Included for the first time are buttons for volume and mute. Amazon scheduled the release date for October 31, 2018, which will introduce the new remote control as a standalone product; the Fire TV Stick 4K delivers Ultra HD and HDR streaming through an HDMI dongle that costs $50. It is the first media stick to support Dolby Atmos, Dolby Vision and HDR10+ that promises higher video and audio quality to compatible audio systems and TVs; the device syncs with Amazon's Alexa Voice Remote with features like Bluetooth, "multi-directional" infrared and buttons for power and muting.
Amazon announced that in-app Alexa control will be featured in more specialized video service, such as AMC, HBO Now, A&E, VH1 and Sony Crackle, among others. For undisclosed reasons, the screen mirroring functionality, unavailable during release was restored through an OS update early April 2019; the Fire TV Stick 4K has a 1.7GHz processor, faster than the 2017 Fire TV, a 4K streamer with dangling "pendant" designs. Amazon predicts faster loading in this edition. Germany and the UK were to release the Fire TV Stick 4K on November 14 and Japan to receive it by the end of 2018; the Fire TV Cube was launched in June 2018, as a mix of the Fire Echo Dot. The device uses a 1.5 GHz quad-core ARM 4xCA53 processor, 2 GB RAM, 16 GB storage. The device ran Fire OS 3.0, based on Android Jelly Bean 4.2. According to Amazon, that made it "simple for developers to port their services and games over to Fire TV."In November 2017, Amazon launche
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the industrial and medical radio bands, from 2.400 to 2.485 GHz, building personal area networks. It was conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing and consumer electronics; the IEEE standardized no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. A network of patents apply to the technology; the development of the "short-link" radio technology named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden and by Johan Ullman. The purpose was to develop wireless headsets, according to two inventions by Johan Ullman, SE 8902098-6, issued 1989-06-12 and SE 9202239, issued 1992-07-24.
Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund. Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecommunications company Ericsson in 1994; the first consumer bluetooth launched in 1999. It was a hand free mobile headset which earned the technology the"Best of show Technology Award" at COMDEX; the first Bluetooth mobile phone was the Sony Ericsson T36 but it was the revised T39 model which made it to store shelves in 2001. The name Bluetooth is an Anglicised version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann, the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom; the implication is. The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach of Intel who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth.
The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes and, Harald's initials. Bluetooth operates at frequencies between 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and 2483.5 MHz including guard bands 2 MHz wide at the bottom end and 3.5 MHz wide at the top. This is in the globally unlicensed industrial and medical 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses. Bluetooth divides transmitted data into packets, transmits each packet on one of 79 designated Bluetooth channels; each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. It performs 1600 hops per second, with adaptive frequency-hopping enabled. Bluetooth Low Energy uses 2 MHz spacing. Gaussian frequency-shift keying modulation was the only modulation scheme available. Since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, π/4-DQPSK and 8-DPSK modulation may be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate mode where an instantaneous bit rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible; the term Enhanced Data Rate is used to describe π/4-DPSK and 8-DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively.
The combination of these modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a BR/EDR radio. Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master/slave architecture. One master may communicate with up to seven slaves in a piconet. All devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 µs intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs, two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets, the master transmits in slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, receives in slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long, but in all cases the master's transmission begins in slots and the slave's in odd slots; the above excludes Bluetooth Low Energy, introduced in the 4.0 specification, which uses the same spectrum but somewhat differently. A master BR/EDR Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet, though not all devices reach this maximum; the devices can switch roles, by agreement, the slave can become the master.
The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. At any given time, data can be transferred between one other device; the master chooses. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; the specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets. Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications proto