The Fuguijiao or Cape Fugui Lighthouse is a lighthouse on Cape Fugui near Laomei Village in Shimen District, New Taipei City, Taiwan. The lighthouse is named after the northernmost point of Taiwan, its Japanese name was Fūki Kaku. Its Chinese name was romanized Cape Fukwei for the Chinese Postal Map, Fu-kuei Chiao using simplified Wade-Giles, Fugueijiao during the brief period of official use of Tongyong Pinyin, it was sometimes known in English as the Hoek Lighthouse. A structure was first erected on the rocks at Cape Fugui in 1897 by the occupying Japanese, it was a terminus for undersea cables from the Japanese islands and its construction materials all came from there. It was ruined during World War II but its remains were used by China's Nationalist government for the erection of a 30 m octagonal iron lighthouse in 1949; the foghorn was needful, owing to poor visibility in the area during the fall and winter months. The lighthouse's current 14.3 m concrete black-and-white octagonal tower was raised in 1962.
The height was reduced to improve the reception of the nearby air force radar station. Taiwan's Customs traditionally welcomed visitors to the lighthouse once a year on Tax Day as an open house gesture. After the enthusiastic public response to opening Eluanbi Lighthouse to more general tourism, Taiwan's Maritime and Port Bureau decided to open Fuguijiao to regular visitors in 2015; the first tourists were allowed onto the grounds on September 5, making it the 11th Taiwanese lighthouse opened to the general public. It remains inaccessible on weekdays because of the radar station; the tower itself remains closed to the public. The lighthouse is located about 2 km north of Laomei Village, off Provincial Highway 2. List of tourist attractions in Taiwan List of lighthouses in Taiwan Official site, Taipei: Maritime and Port Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation and Communication, 2016. Official site, New Taipei City: Tourism and Travel Department, 2019
The Dongquan Lighthouse or Dongju Island Lighthouse is a lighthouse on Dongju Island, Juguang Township, Lienchiang County, Fujian Province, Republic of China. The lighthouse was built by the British Empire in 1872 to guide ships to Fuzhou during the Qing Dynasty when they were forced to open up along with four other treaty ports for trading, it was designated as a second-grade historic site in 1988 by the Ministry of the Interior. Until 2013, the lighthouse came under the administration of Customs Administration of the Ministry of Finance before it was changed to Maritime and Port Bureau of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications; the lighthouse is connected to the office annex building via a 30-meter long windbreak wall. The lighthouse features the Lighthouse Museum, opened in the English-style building in June 2008, it can cast a beam of light. List of lighthouses in Taiwan List of tourist attractions in Taiwan Maritime and Port Bureau MOTC
A light characteristic is a graphic and text description of a navigational light sequence or colour displayed on a nautical chart or in a Light List with the chart symbol for a lighthouse, buoy or sea mark with a light on it. The graphic indicates how the real light may be identified when looking at its actual light output type or sequence. Different lights use different colours and light patterns, so mariners can identify which light they are seeing. While light characteristics can be described in prose, e.g. "Flashing white every three seconds", lists of lights and navigation chart annotations use abbreviations. The abbreviation notation is different from one light list to another, with dots added or removed, but it follows a pattern similar to the following. An abbreviation of the type of light, e.g. "Fl." for flashing, "F." for fixed. The color of the light, e.g. "W" for white, "G" for green, "R" for red, "Y" for yellow. If no color is given, a white light is implied; the cycle period, e.g. "10s" for ten seconds.
Additional parameters are sometimes added:The height of the light above the chart datum for height. E.g. 15m for 15 metres. The range in which the light is visible, e.g. "10M" for 10 nautical miles. An example of a complete light characteristic is "Gp Oc W 10s 15m 10M"; this indicates that the light is a group occulting light in which a group of three eclipses repeat every 10 seconds. A fixed light, abbreviated "F", is a steady light. A flashing light is a rhythmic light in which the total duration of the light in each period is shorter than the total duration of the darkness and in which the flashes of light are all of equal duration, it is most used for a single-flashing light which exhibits only single flashes which are repeated at regular intervals, in which case it is abbreviated as "Fl". It can be used with a group of flashes which are repeated, in which case the abbreviation is "Fl" or "Gr Fl", for a group of two flashes. Another possibility is a composite group, in which successive groups in the period have different numbers of flashes, e.g. "Fl." indicates a group of two flashes, followed by one flash.
A specific case sometimes used is. Such a light is sometimes denoted "long flashing" with the abbreviation "L. Fl". If the frequency of flashes is large the light is denoted as a "quick light", see below. An occulting light is a rhythmic light in which the duration of light in each period is longer than the total duration of darkness. In other words, it is the opposite to a flashing light where the total duration of darkness is longer than the duration of light, it has the appearance of flashing off, rather than flashing on. Like a flashing light, it can be used for a single occulting light that exhibits only a single period of darkness or the periods of darkness can be grouped and repeated at regular intervals, a group or a composite group; the term occulting is used because the effect was obtained by a mechanism periodically shading the light from view. An isophase light, abbreviated "Iso", is a light which has light periods of equal length; the prefix derives from the Greek iso- meaning "same".
A quick light, abbreviated "Q", is a special case of a flashing light with a large frequency. If the sequence of flashes is interrupted by repeated eclipses of constant and long duration, the light is denoted "interrupted quick", abbreviated "I. Q". Group notation similar to flashing and occulting lights is sometimes used, e.g. Q. Another distinction sometimes made is between quick quick and ultra quick; this can be combined with notations for interruptions, e.g. I. U. Q for interrupted ultra quick, or grouping, e.g. V. Q for a quick group of nine flashes. Quick characteristics can be followed by other characteristics, e.g. VQ LFl for a quick group of six flashes, followed by a long flash. A Morse code light is light in which appearances of light of two different durations are grouped to represent a character or characters in the Morse Code. For example, "Mo" is a light in which in each period light is shown for a short period followed by a long period, the Morse Code for "A". A fixed and flashing light, abbreviated "F. Fl", is a light in which a fixed low intensity light is combined with a flashing high intensity light.
An alternating light, abbreviated "Al", is a light. For example, "Al WG" shows green lights alternately. Lighthouse Pilotage Signal lamp U. S. ATON light characteristic terms illustrated
Eluanbi Lighthouse is a lighthouse located on Cape Eluanbi, the southernmost point of Taiwan, which separates Taiwan's South Bay from Banana Bay and the Taiwan Strait and the South China Sea from the Philippine Sea. It is near Eluan Village in the township of Hengchun in Taiwan; the lighthouse is open to the public all year around. The lighthouse is named after nearby Cape Eluanbi, the southernmost point on Formosa or Taiwan Island; the name appears as Eluan and Eluan Pi. Eluanbi Lighthouse is known as "The Light of East Asia" because its light is the most intense of those on Taiwan. Shipwrecks were common around Cape Eluanbi in the early modern era owing to the nearby Qixingyan reefs and strong currents; the hostile native reactions to these accidents rose to the level of international incidents in the case of the Rover and a Ryukyu convoy, which prompted invasions from the United States and Japan in 1867 and 1874. In the latter case, the Qing Dynasty explicitly disavowed responsibility for native-held areas on Taiwan Island, creating a power vacuum that threatened Japanese or European colonization of the region.
Following the advice of Charles Le Gendre, the American consul at Xiamen, the Viceroy of Liangjiang, Shen Baozhen, began constructing coastal defenses to improve the situation. Construction of the Eluanbi Lighthouse fell under the purview of the British diplomat Robert Hart, inspector general of the Imperial Maritime Customs Service, he sent agents to purchase the southern cape from the leaders of the Kuie Chia Chiao in 1875. Construction began in 1881. Although Shen favored French officers like Prosper Giquel, Hart placed construction of the Eluanbi works under the English engineer John Ropinald and architect W. F. Spindey. Wang Fulu oversaw the 500 soldiers sent to protect it. Native opposition from the Paiwan and other local aboriginal tribes was severe and sustained; the structure was the only armed lighthouse on the island, surrounded by a 6 m fosse provided with caponiers and barbed-wire fencing. It was riddled with gunports to allow its garrison to repel assaults. Work was finished in early 1883 and the tower began operation on 1 April.
The total cost was more than 200,000 silver taels. £ 5,881 were used for the fort. A great deal of the rest was used for dynamiting the coral around a nearby creek and constructing a 52 m concrete jetty for landing personnel and supplies. George Taylor assisted with construction after its first year and served as its first lightkeeper until 1889, he maintained close relations with the Paiwan and became proficient in their language, but was protected by 16 Chinese soldiers under a German officer. Their arsenal included two 18-pounder cannons, two Gatling guns, a Cohon mortar; the station kept a team of laborers and kitchen staff on site. The first tower cast iron, it was 6 m in 4 m at the top. The lantern included revolving steel shutters to protect the glass from attack, its gallery included gunports for rifles and one of the fort's Gatling guns; the foreign staff had spacious brick bungalows whose rooms were connected by bulletproof corridors to the 4 m2 fort. The Chinese staff lived in the fort at all times and maintained its kitchen, armory and underground cisterns.
The garrison was reduced to eight men. During the First Sino-Japanese War, the lighthouse was damaged by attack and from sabotage by its retreating Qing garrison. After the Treaty of Shimonoseki gave Japan control of the island, colonial officials first repaired the lighthouse in 1898 and installed a stronger light in 1910. During World War II, the lighthouse was again damaged by American bombing; the lighthouse was rebuilt by the Republic of China in 1947. It was refurbished with a powerful Fresnel lens in 1962; the surrounding Eluanbi Park opened to the public on 25 December 1982 and the lighthouse itself welcomed regular visitors ten years later. On the memorial to Eluanbi Lighthouse as one of the 8 Views of Taiwan, the Chinese "Eluanbi" is sculpted into the surface in Wang Xizhi's calligraphic style; the lighthouse is accessible from Provincial Highway 26. List of lighthouses in Taiwan Eluanbi Lighthouse-Directorate General of Customs
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in
The Qimei Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Qimei Township, Penghu County, Taiwan. The lighthouse was built in 1939, it was the last lighthouse built by the Japanese government. It uses acetylene for its power before switching to electricity in 1964; the lighthouse will be opened for public at the end of 2015. The lighthouse has focal plane of 41 meters; the building structure has an 8-meter concrete post sitting atop of 1-story concrete keeper's house. Due to its location at the southern tip of Qimei Island, the lighthouse is used not only for navigation, but for fishery resources. List of tourist attractions in Taiwan List of lighthouses in Taiwan Maritime and Port Bureau MOTC
The Baishajia Lighthouse or Paisha Chia Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Guanyin District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. The lighthouse was established in 1901 as the third lighthouse built in Taiwan under Japanese rule with an original height of 38 meters. However, the upper portion was destroyed during World War II. After the war, the tower was repaired to its current height. In March 2013, it was announced that the lighthouse would be opened for tourists starting September 2013; the lighthouse is a white round brick structure. The focal plane flashes every 10 seconds; the lighthouse is opened from Tuesday to Sunday from 9.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m.. List of tourist attractions in Taiwan List of lighthouses in Taiwan Maritime and Port Bureau MOTC