The A52 is a major road in the East Midlands, England. It runs east from a junction with the A53 at Newcastle-under-Lyme near Stoke-on-Trent via Ashbourne, Stapleford, West Bridgford, Grantham and Skegness to the east Lincolnshire coast at Mablethorpe, it is 147 miles long. The dual-carriageway 12.5-mile stretch between The Pentagon Island in Derby and the Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham was named Brian Clough Way in 2005 to honour the late Derby County and Nottingham Forest football manager Brian Clough. The A52 used to start at Nantwich in Cheshire, but was renumbered to become the A500, the A531, the B5500—the A500 sections becoming unclassified; the road starts as Ryecroft from the roundabout with the A34 and B5367. It is dual carriageway until the next roundabout, forming part of the Newcastle ring road, with the A527 and A53, it passes the leisure centre on the right veers right at a junction with the B5045, where it enters the City of Stoke-on-Trent. As Hartshill Road, it passes the Royal Stoke University Hospital and enters the town of Stoke-upon-Trent.
It takes two possible routes around the town centre. It goes under the West Coast Main Line near Stoke-on-Trent railway station and becomes Leek Road, passing one campus of Staffordshire University, it meets the A50 at a roundabout at Joiner's Square near Hanley. It meets the A5009 at crossroads, where it turns right. There is a junction with the A5272; as Werrington Road in Bucknall it passes the former Mitchell High School and enters Staffordshire and the borough of the Staffordshire Moorlands. It passes through Ash Bank and Staffordshire meets the A520 at crossroads overlaps the A522, it passes through the villages of Kingsley and Froghall where it crosses over the Churnet Valley Railway and Cauldon Canal, before meeting the A521 and B5053. It passes through Whiston and meets the B5417, it meets the A523 and passes through Swinscoe briefly enters East Staffordshire. The road enters Derbyshire and the Derbyshire Dales district where it crosses the River Dove over the Hanging Bridge near the junction with the B5032 at Mayfield close to the Queens Arms Hotel.
The £3 million 1.5-mile Ashbourne Relief Road opened in October 1994. There is a roundabout for the exit to Ashbourne and one with the A515; the road climbs up the side of the Dove Valley, there is a central overtaking/crawler lane. The roundabout with the eastern exit to Ashbourne is near an old airfield, now an industrial estate; the area around the next section of road to Derby has links with Bonnie Prince Charlie. It passes through Brailsford and the Rose and Crown and at Kirk Langley, there is a junction with the B5020 for Mickleover, it passes Mackworth, the Munday Arms and Mackworth Hotel, with part of the Mackworth Estate to the south and Markeaton Park. Entering Derby as Ashbourne Road, it meets the busy A38 at a roundabout, Esso Mackworth Service Station, it passes the Shell Friargate garage on the left. From here to the dual-carriageway is a popular pub crawl, with many student residences close by for the University of Derby, such as St Christopher's Court. Close by to the north is the new Markeaton campus of the university.
The road splits into east and west sections, passing St John the Evangelist church on the left, with the easterly section being Agard Street and the westerly section being Friargate. From the traffic lights at the eastern end of both, the road becomes Ford Street, passing the Friargate Studios, it overlaps the £3.5 million, A601 Derby Inner Ring Road, called St Alkmunds Way and was opened on 30 July 1972. It is used by 70,000 motorists. From the Radio Derby building to Nottingham, it is dual-carriageway, it crosses the River Derwent, the A601 leaves to the south, it passes under the Midland Main Line as Eastgate. There is the Pentagon Island Grade Separated Junction with the A61 near Chaddesden and the Texaco Pentagon Service Station; the westbound-direction is not grade-separated and meets the roundabout, thus causing many severe queues at rush-hour. Westbound traffic would be better choosing another route from 8 to 9 am, it passes a large Costco, the next junction is a GSJ for the Wyvern Retail Park, passes a KFC, McDonald's, Pizza Hut and Sainsbury's.
Near Spondon, there is a large GSJ with the A5111 Derby outer ring road near a large Asda. The £4.6 million, 0.5-mile Borrowash Bypass Extension, from Raynesway to Megaloughton Lane opened on 29 May 1980 as well the £6 million, Nottingham Road Diversion, from the Pentagon Island to Raynesway. Both sections totalled 2.5 miles. 0.5 miles before Borrowash, it enters the Borough of Erewash. Further east, it is the main east-west route from Derby to Nottingham, connecting the two cities via the busy junction 25 of the M1 at Sandiacre, passing the Shell Ockbrook garage on the left near Ockbrook; the £250,000 3-mile Borrowash Bypass opened in 1957, although the bridge at Ockbrook opened in 1969, from a roundabout with the A6005 to Hopwell Firs. The former route is the A6005; the 5-mile £2 million,Sandiacre Stapleford Bypass opened in December 1964, being built two years before junction 25 of the M1 had been opened although all the bridges and roundabout were part of the bypass. It was the first
Captain Matthew Flinders was an English navigator and cartographer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the southern ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed. In the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders' vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France. Although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. In captivity, he recorded details of his voyages for future publication, put forward his rationale for naming the new continent'Australia', as an umbrella term for New Holland and New South Wales – a suggestion taken up by Governor Macquarie. Flinders' health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the success of his praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis.
The location of his grave was lost by the mid-19th century but archaeologists excavating a former burial ground near London's Euston railway station for the High Speed 2 project, announced in January 2019 that his remains had been identified. Matthew Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, his wife Susannah, née Ward, he was educated at Cowley's Charity School, from 1780 and at the Reverend John Shinglar's Grammar School at Horbling in Lincolnshire. In his own words, he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe", in 1790, at the age of fifteen, he joined the Royal Navy. Serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasley's recommendation, he joined Captain Bligh's expedition on HMS Providence, transporting breadfruit from Tahiti to Jamaica; this was Bligh's second "Breadfruit Voyage" following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty.
Flinders' first voyage to New South Wales, first trip to Port Jackson, was in 1795 as a midshipman aboard HMS Reliance, carrying the newly appointed governor of New South Wales Captain John Hunter. On this voyage he established himself as a fine navigator and cartographer, became friends with the ship's surgeon George Bass, three years his senior and had been born 11 miles from Donington. Not long after their arrival in Port Jackson and Flinders made two expeditions in two small open boats, named Tom Thumb and Tom Thumb II respectively: the first to Botany Bay and Georges River, the second, in the larger Tom Thumb II, south from Port Jackson to Lake Illawarra, during which expedition they had to seek shelter at Wattamolla. In 1798, Matthew Flinders, now a lieutenant, was given command of the sloop Norfolk with orders "to sail beyond Furneaux's Islands, should a strait be found, pass through it, return by the south end of Van Diemen's Land"; the passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, was named Bass Strait, after his close friend.
In honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass' discovery of that bay and port on 4 January 1798. Flinders never entered Western Port, passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799, he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs. In March 1800, Flinders set sail for England. Flinders' work had come to the attention of many of the scientists of the day, in particular the influential Sir Joseph Banks, to whom Flinders dedicated his Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait, etc.. Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland; as a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of HMS Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, promoted to commander the following month.
Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition were the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, landscape artist William Westall, gardener Peter Good, geological assistant John Allen, John Crosley as astronomer. Vallance et al. comment that compared to the Baudin expedition this was a'modest contingent of scientific gentlemen', which reflects'British parsimony' in scientific endeavour. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson; however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and he was chastised for his bad judgement and told he must remove her from the ship; this is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his chief benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, in May 1801: I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, published in the Lincoln paper, has reached me.
The Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you; this I was sorry to hear, if, the case I beg to give you my
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Spalding is a market town with a population of 28,722 at the 2011 census, on the River Welland in the South Holland district of Lincolnshire, England. Little London is a hamlet directly south of Spalding on the B1172, whilst Pinchbeck, a village to the north, is part of the built-up area; the town was well known for the annual Spalding Flower Parade, held from 1959 to 2013. The parade celebrated the region's vast tulip production and the cultural links between the Fens and the landscape and people of South Holland. At one time, it attracted crowds of more than 100,000. Since 2002 the town has held an annual Pumpkin Festival in October. Archeological excavations at Wygate Park in Spalding have shown that there has been occupation in this area from at least the Roman period, when this part of Lincolnshire was used for the production of salt, it was a coastal siltland. At Wygate Park salt making seems to have come to an end by the mid-3rd century AD; the settlement's name is derived from an Anglian tribe, the Spaldingas, who settled in the area during the 6th century.
They may have retained their administrative independence within the Kingdom of Mercia into the late 9th century, when Stamford became one of the Five Boroughs of the East Midlands under Danish control after years of invasion and occupation. In John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles, Spalding was described as a: "market town and par. With ry. sta. Lincolnshire, on River Welland, 14 m. SW. of Boston, 12,070 ac. pop. 9260. O. T. O. three Banks, two newspapers. Market-day, Tuesday. Spalding is an important railway centre, while the river has been made navigable to the town for vessels of from 50 to 70 tons, it is situated in a rich agricultural district, has a large trade, by river and by rail, in corn, wool and timber. It has flour and saw mills and coach works. There are remains of a priory of 1501, a fine old church, a grammar school, a corn exchange, a spacious market place." The River Welland flows north from Crowland, through Spalding and passing the village and port of Fosdyke before leading out to the Wash, bisecting Spalding from east to west.
Land had been reclaimed from the wetlands in the area since mediaeval times, Spalding was subject to frequent flooding. The Coronation Channel, opened in 1953, diverted the excess waters around Spalding and ended the flooding; the area around the banks has been developed for residential and business use. Although this area has become built up, there is much recreational use of the river and fishing is still popular. In July 2005 a "Spalding Water Taxi" service was launched, its route is from just off Spalding's High Street, upstream along the river, turning into the Coronation Channel, to Springfields Outlet Shopping & Festival Gardens, back. It is used as a recreational tourist attraction. Around the north-west of Spalding is a large waterway called Vernatt's Drain, named after one of the Adventurers who drained the Fens in the 17th century. Philibert Vernatti was made a baronet on 7 June 1643. A South Holland council nature reserve is situated on part of the old Boston railway line at Vernatts Drain.
The Drain runs from the pumping station at Pode Hole to Surfleet Seas End. Fulney Lock is the point. Spalding falls within the drainage area of Deepings Internal Drainage Board; the town has a population of about 28,000. The population is growing fast, with increases due to retired people settling here, as well as migrant workers from eastern Europe coming to work in the many food processing factories or in agriculture; the Johnson Hospital, named after prominent local figures, the Johnson family of Ayscoughfee Hall, is in Spalding. The maternity ward was closed in the 1990s, it now serves as a casualty hospital; the elderly and care-patients are cared for at the Welland Hospital. Limits on expansion due to the historic nature of the building and space limitations and lack of funding are causing financial trouble for the hospital. A new nurse-led hospital was built in 2009 off Pinchbeck Road in the north of the town, near the Pinchbeck Industrial Estate; the hospital is known as "The Johnson Community Hospital," keeping the historic connection with the Johnson Family.
The Princess Royal opened the new Hospital in January 2010. This has drawn facilities from existing scattered sites into a modern central unit; the nearest major hospitals to Spalding are at Peterborough. The Johnson Hospital has 32 in-patient beds in the Welland Ward, including the four beds of the Tulip Suite for palliative care. There are two major local doctors' surgeries, Munro Medical Centre, West Elloe Avenue, the relocated Church Street Surgery at Beechfield Medical Centre in Beechfield Gardens. Smaller surgeries are located in surrounding villages. Ayscoughfee Hall - a private school, situated near the river Spalding Parish Church of England Day School- Clay Lake St John the Baptist School - Hawthorn Bank St Norbert's Roman Catholic Primary School - Tollgate Monkshouse Primary - Pennygate St Paul's Primary - Queen's Road Spalding Primary School - Woolram Wygate Wygate Park Academy - Witham Road Spalding's two secondary modern schools were the Gleed Boys' School and the Gleed Girls' Technology College.
In 2012 they were combined as the Sir John Gleed School. On leaving Sir John Gleed School, many pupils transfer to nearby sixth forms or attend Boston College or New Colleg
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Co-op Food trading as The Co-operative Food, is a brand devised for the food retail business of the consumer co-operative movement in the United Kingdom. The brand is used by over 15 different co-operative societies which operate over 4,000 shops, does not represent one single food retail business; the successor to Co-op Welcome and a range of regional formats, the latest version of the brand was introduced in 2016 with a significant advertising campaign. Customers of many of the larger UK co-operative societies can earn an annual share of the profits at any "Co-operative" branded shop in proportion to purchases through The Co-operative Membership scheme. In 2016, The Co-operative Food accounted for 6.6% of the UK groceries market and was the winner of "convenience retailer of the year" at the 2016 Retail Industry Awards. The Cooperative Retail Group is expanding and will create 1,500 new jobs and open 100 new shops in 2017. Whilst the UK co-operative sector's market share of food retail has diminished from a peak of 30% in the 1950s to just 6.4% today, the largest business in the UK co-operative movement - The Co-operative Group - remains the fifth largest food retailer in the United Kingdom.
The "Co-op" brand is used by over 3,500 shops owned by the various societies which make up the co-operative movement, including the Central England Co-operative and the Midcounties Co-operative, but the brand is most associated with The Co-operative Group as it operates the largest number of shops. A number of co-operative societies including Scotmid and the Lincolnshire Co-operative do not use the standard brand, preferring instead to use the 1992'cloverleaf version' of The Co-operative brand. In 2016, The Co-operative Group reverted to the use of its 1968 Co-op cloverleaf branding. Co-op shops are of various sizes incorporating convenience shops and supermarkets, the brand has the biggest geographical spread of any retailer, with a shop in every postal region of the UK; the vast majority of products sold in "Co-op Food" shops are sourced collectively through the Co-operative Retail Trading Group although stocking decisions and pricing are determined by the individual businesses. The Co-operative Group, which manages the'Retail Trading Group' took the decision not to compete head-on with the Big Four supermarket multiples purely on price in a market, becoming more competitive.
The co-operative movement has decided to concentrate instead on smaller convenience shops in local communities and to market the "co-operative difference" and the ethical stance that the Retail Trading Group has taken on sourcing, having long been a supporter of Fairtrade, renewable energy and higher animal welfare standards. Though considered to be one supermarket business, The Co-operative Food is a network of supermarkets and convenience shops owned and operated by over 15 independent co-operative societies, many of which have adopted the 2008 version of The Co-operative brand. In total there are over 4,000 co-operative food shops in the UK, more outlets than any other grocer; the table below indicates. Shop numbers for year 2016-2017:Shop numbers for the year 2015-16: Shop numbers for the year 2014-15 The Co-operative Food is recognised for its commitment to responsible and ethical trading for championing fairtrade in the UK; these commitments and its mutual structure led to The Co-operative Food being awarded Ethical Consumer Magazine's'Best Buy' status in 2011 and 2014.
This section only refers to sourcing initiatives for food sold through the Co-operative Retail Trading Group and more information on the commitments of individual co-operative societies can be found on their respective pages. The Co-operative Food was the first major UK retailer to stock Fairtrade products and was the first UK supermarket to sell fairtrade coffee, own-brand chocolate, own-brand wine and blueberries. Since all own brand block chocolate, sugar, winter blueberries has been converted to fairtrade; the Co-operative Food is the largest UK retailer of traded wine and has the largest range of fairtrade products in the UK. The business has been recognised for working with many co-operative and smallholder farmers, including providing investment funding to enable farming co-operatives who supply them to convert to fairtrade certification. In 2014 its fairtrade sales were £133m; the Co-operative Food is one of the leading retailers of responsible fish in the UK having launched its Responsible Fish Sourcing Policy in 2008 after commissioning research in association with NGOs, academics and its suppliers.
The Co-operative Food was commended by the Marine Conservation Society with a'gold award' and a'silver award' and, for its sourcing policy, The Co-operative was one of five organisations accredited with the 2010 Seafood Champion Award. Their fish sourcing policy specifies that no fish sold by The Co-op can be found on the Marine Stewardship Council's'Fish To Avoid' list, all own brand tuna must be pole and line caught and own brand farmed salmon is certified by the RSPCA. In 2015 the co-op became one of the first retails to join the'Ocean Disclosure Project' which requires the business to report transparently on the geographic locations, fishing methods and sustainability characteristics of all of the fisheries from which they source; this move confirmed an ongoing commitment by The Co-operative Food in promoting transparent and responsible fishing in the UK. All Co-operative own-brand health and household products are marked with an "approved by BUAV" rabbit symbol to show that neither the product nor its ingredients have been tested
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri