Donkey Kong is an arcade game released by Nintendo in 1981. An early example of the platform game genre, the gameplay focuses on maneuvering the main character across a series of platforms while dodging and jumping over obstacles. In the game, Mario must rescue a damsel in distress named Pauline, from a giant ape named Donkey Kong; the hero and ape became two of Nintendo's most popular and recognizable characters. Donkey Kong is one of the most important games from the golden age of arcade video games as well as one of the most popular and greatest arcade games of all time; the game was the latest in a series of efforts by Nintendo to break into the North American market. Hiroshi Yamauchi, Nintendo's president at the time, assigned the project to a first-time video game designer named Shigeru Miyamoto. Drawing from a wide range of inspirations, including Popeye and the Beast, King Kong, Miyamoto developed the scenario and designed the game alongside Nintendo's chief engineer, Gunpei Yokoi; the two men broke new ground by using graphics as a means of characterization, including cutscenes to advance the game's plot and integrating multiple stages into the gameplay.
Although Nintendo's American staff was apprehensive, Donkey Kong succeeded commercially and critically in North America and Japan. Nintendo licensed the game to Coleco. Other companies avoided royalties altogether. Miyamoto's characters appeared on cereal boxes, television cartoons, dozens of other places. A lawsuit brought by Universal City Studios, alleging Donkey Kong violated its trademark of King Kong failed; the success of Donkey Kong and Nintendo's victory in the courtroom helped to position the company for video-game market dominance from its release in 1981 until the late 1990s. Following 1980's Space Panic, Donkey Kong is one of the earliest examples of the platform game genre prior to the term being coined. S. gaming press used climbing game for games with ladders. As the first platform game to feature jumping, Donkey Kong requires the player to jump between gaps and over obstacles or approaching enemies, setting the template for the future of the platform genre. With its four unique stages, Donkey Kong was the most complex arcade game at the time of its release, one of the first arcade games to feature multiple stages, following 1980's Phoenix and 1981's Gorf and ScrambleCompetitive video gamers and referees stress the game's high level of difficulty compared to other classic arcade games.
Winning the game requires patience and the ability to time Mario's ascent. In addition to presenting the goal of saving Pauline, the game gives the player a score. Points are awarded for the following: leaping over obstacles; the player receives three lives with a bonus awarded for 7,000 points, although this can be modified via the game's built-in DIP switches. One life is lost whenever Mario touches Donkey Kong or any enemy object, falls too far through a gap or off the end of a platform, or lets the bonus counter reach zero; the game is divided into four different single-screen stages. Each represents 25 meters of the structure Donkey Kong has climbed, one stage being 25 meters higher than the previous; the final stage occurs at 100 meters. Stage one involves Mario scaling a construction site made of crooked girders and ladders while jumping over or hammering barrels and oil drums tossed by Donkey Kong. Stage two involves climbing a five-story structure of conveyor belts, each of which transport cement pans.
The third stage involves the player riding elevators while avoiding bouncing springs. The fourth and final stage requires Mario to remove eight rivets from the platforms supporting Donkey Kong; these four stages combine to form a level. Upon completion of the fourth stage, the level increments, the game repeats the stages with progressive difficulty. For example, Donkey Kong begins to hurl barrels faster and sometimes diagonally, fireballs speed up; the victory music alternates between levels 1 and 2. The fourth level, consists of 5 stages with the final stage at 125 meters; the 22nd level is colloquially known as the kill screen, due to an error in the game's programming that kills Mario after a few seconds ending the game. Donkey Kong is considered to be the earliest video game with a storyline that visually unfolds on screen; the eponymous Donkey Kong character is the game's de facto villain. The hero is a carpenter unnamed in the Japanese arcade release named Jumpman and Mario. Donkey Kong kidnaps Mario's girlfriend known as Lady, but renamed Pauline.
The player must rescue her. This is the first occurrence of the damsel in distress scenario that provided the template for countless video games to come; the game uses graphics and animation for characterization. Donkey Kong smirks upon Mario's demise. Pauline has a pink dress and long hair, a speech balloon crying "HELP!" Appears beside her. Mario, depicted in red overalls and a red cap, is a type common in Japan. Graphical limitations and the low pixel resolution of the small sprites prompted his design: drawing a mouth with so few pixels was infeasible, so the character was given a mustache.
Pye Min was king of Toungoo dynasty from 1661 to 1672. Pye Min was a son of King Thalun. During the reign of his brother Pindale, the Prince of Pyay led the Burmese resistance against Southern Ming and Qing incursions. King Pindale, lost his popularity and Pye was urged to take the throne. Pye staged a coup in 1661, crowning himself King of Ava. Pye was determined to reduce the power of Yongli Emperor of Southern Ming at Sagaing and held a conference of Chinese officials. Yongli suspected this as an assassination trick and instead ordered his armies to clash with the Burmese. However, the Chinese were decimated. In 1662, the Qing armies invaded Burma and Pye Min decided to leave the last Ming Emperor to the Qing. Yongli Emperor was carried out of Burma. There was a Mon rebellion around Martaban in 1661 and in 1662 Lan Na was invaded by the Siamese armies under King Narai who held the city temporarily; the rest of his reign were uneventful and Pye Min died in 1672, succeeded by his son Narawara. The future king was born to King Thalun and a minor queen Khin Myat Hset of Pinya on 26 May 1619.
The young prince received the title of Minye Kyawkhaung. He was appointed governor of Prome on 13 September 1650 by King Pindale. Kala, U. Maha Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. Royal Historical Commission of Burma. Hmannan Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar
Eddie "Among Ed" Tongol Panlilio is a Kapampangan Filipino Roman Catholic priest and Governor of Pampanga. He was suspended from his priestly duties upon announcing his intention to run as governor, he was elected governor in May 2007 in a three-way race against incumbent governor Mark Lapid and provincial board member Lilia Pineda. In February 2010, following a recount of votes due to an election protest, the Comelec ruled that Lilia Pineda had won the 2007 election over Panlilio. Panlilio was named "Filipino of the Year" for 2007 by the Philippine Daily Inquirer. Eddie Panlilio was born in Minalin, Pampanga on December 6, 1953, he is the sixth of seven children of Gervacio Cunanan Catalina Tongol. He is afflicted with a rare skin disease. After finishing elementary school at the Minalin Central Elementary School, Panlilio enrolled the Don Bosco Academy, Pampanga his sophomore year after spending a year at the Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades. Panlilio was in and out of several seminaries as he went through a long discernment process, after finishing his theology at the St. Augustine Major Seminary was ordained priest on December 13, 1981.
For fifteen years, Panlilio was the director of the Social Action Center of Pampanga, which worked with communities displaced by lahar following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. He established the micro-lending program Talete Panyulung ning Kapampangan Inc. based on the Grameen Bank-approach. Now on its 20th year, TPKI released P2 billion in loans to small entrepreneurs in Central Luzon. Panlilio was suspended from the priesthood by his superior, San Fernando archbishop Paciano Aniceto, for running for governor of Pampanga in 2007; this means that he is forbidden by the Catholic Church to act like a priest or perform any of the sacraments reserved to priests. The Code of Canon Law Canon 285.3, forbids priests from occupying political posts. Bishop Leonardo Medroso, chairman of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines Episcopal Commission on Canon Law cited a conflict between a role in politics and in the church. Panlilio ran for the position of governor of Pampanga province in the 2007 Philippine general election.
Panlilio defended his controversial decision to enter politics as a logical continuation of his ministry for the poor, whom he sees as having been exploited and neglected for too long by successive administrations of corrupt and uncaring politicians. Without any political party, he won over his two competitors, provincial board member Lilia Pineda and re-electionist governor Mark Lapid, he defeated Pineda by a slim margin of 1,147 votes out of over 600,000 votes cast. Panlilio was inaugurated as the 26th governor of the province of Pampanga on June 30, 2007. Supreme Court Associate Justice Consuelo Ynares-Santiago administered the oath of office. During the inauguration, the new governor vowed to stop corruption and to make the province an example of a “new dawn in Philippine politics”. On July 4, 2007 Among Ed began serving his term amid the province's hope to erase its reputation of being the country's Vatican of "jueteng" or illegal gambling. Pampanga has had a long history of corruption. One of Panlilio's achievements in office was to increase the province's revenue from quarry taxes.
It is suspected that under previous governors, notably Mark Lapid and Lito Lapid, the large quarry industry was riddled with corruption and graft. The increased tax base has led to fighting among mayors over the new revenue. On August 27, 2007, Panlilio campaigned to bring his government closer to the Kapangpangans by leading the caravan "Pamisaupan" in Pampanga. Panlilio and his team delivered bags of cement, toilet bowls, boxes of floor tiles and cans of paint to San Luis Hospital which had only 2 doctors, 8 nurses and 10 midwives to serve 140,000 residents of San Luis, San Simon and Candaba, Pampanga. Panlilio further vowed to improve the facilities and conditions in the province's 9 district hospitals including the Diosdado Macapagal Provincial Hospital from funds and private groups' contributions. Panlilio stated, What we are doing is bringing the provincial government's services to the people to make health and livelihood assistance accessible to them; the capitol's P37-million special education fund would be utilized for the SEFs of towns.
Panlilio, launched the White Ribbon campaign on October 1, 2007 to engage the people of Pampanga to get involved in the crusade for good governance and good citizenship. Some 70 people gathered and white ribbons marked with words "Good Governance" and handbills with messages were distributed. Panlilio stated: "I believe that the spirit of the white ribbon is still much alive; this campaign is a call and for a response to people to be involved in good governance and good citizenship." On October 13, 2007, Panlilio admitted that a palace staff gave him a brown paper gift bag with 500,000 Philippine pesos. Panlilio confessed that money changed hands after the meeting "because as a priest and a public officer, I should not lie. I believe that since the money came from Malacanang, I believe it is public money. So I should be accountable for it and transparent about it." Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo called the meeting with 200 officers of the Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines, an organization of governors and other local officials.
It was held after Mrs. Arroyo met 190 congressmen, where envelopes of P200,000 and P500,000 were distributed. Cebu Rep. Antonio Cuenco confirmed he was given P200,000 as "Christmas gift."Panlilio on June 23, 2008 filed a