The Victoria quadrangle is a region on Mercury from 0 to 90° longitude and 20 to 70 ° latitude. It is designated the "H-2" quadrangle, is known as Aurora after a large albedo feature. Most of the Victoria quadrangle lies within an area that appears bright on telescopic images of the planet, the bright-albedo feature Aurora, which coincides with the east half of the quadrangle; as is common with most of the imaged portions of Mercury, the Victoria quadrangle is dominated by basins and large craters, with plains materials occupying the areas between them. All the pictures acquired by Mariner 10 that were used for mapping were obtained during the first encounter: those covering the southeast half of the quadrangle are incoming close-encounter images, those covering the north-west corner are outgoing close-encounter images. At the time the pictures were obtained, the terminator was at about long 7° to 8°, within the eastern part of the quadrangle. A large gap in coverage between the incoming and outgoing images appears as a northeast-trending diagonal blank strip on the base map.
A small part of this gap was filled in the southwestern part of the quadrangle by poor second-encounter images. No images provide a vertical view; the high obliquity of the images, the wide range in sun-elevation angles, the complete transection of the quadrangle by the gap in coverage hamper geologic mapping. Only in about 15 percent of the quadrangle, near the southeast corner, do data permit separation of units with the confidence possible in other quadrangles on Mercury. Three widespread units are recognized within the Victoria quadrangle; these are, from oldest to youngest, intercrater plains material, intermediate plains material, smooth plains material. In addition, central peak, floor and ejecta materials related to the numerous craters and basins larger than about 20 km in diameter are mapped; the simplicity of the stratigraphic scheme is at least in part due to deficiencies in the data base. About half of the intercrater area consists of material characterized by a high density of small degraded craters, an irregular to rough surface.
Superposition relations suggest that this unit is about the same age as, or older than, all mappable craters and basins. The origin of intercrater plains material is enigmatic; some of the more plainslike areas included within this unit may well have an origin similar to that of intermediate plains material. Within the 5° overlap area with the Kuiper quadrangle to the south, an area has been mapped that displays moderately rough to rough terrain and a high density of degraded craters; this unit is similar to intercrater plains material, cannot be distinguished from it anywhere else in the Victoria quadrangle. Most of the cratered plains material is volcanic in origin, but some of it may consist of impact breccias. Smooth to moderately irregular plains occupy most of the area between large craters not underlain by intercrater plains material; these plains superficially resemble the plains of the lunar maria. Like the lunar maria, the two younger mercurian plains units have been ascribed to volcanic activity, although this interpretation has been questioned.
A volcanic origin seems most probable, but no compelling evidence exists in the Victoria quadrangle to support this opinion. The elongate ridges, though associated with intermediate plains material, are not restricted to it. Locally, ridges extend into intercrater plains material adjacent to intermediate plains material, large young craters superposed on the intermediate plains material are transected by these ridges. Filling most craters is plains material, smoother and less densely cratered than intermediate plains material; because most areas underlain by this unit are enclosed within craters, contacts between smooth plains and older plains units are rare. Smooth plains material thus is defined entirely by texture and apparent crater density. Few superposition data directly support the inferred age sequence, but the relative youth of the smooth plains unit is indicated by its presence on the floors of craters that are superposed on intermediate plains material; the smooth plains unit includes materials of a wide range in age, but the exposed areas are too small to test this possibility quantitatively.
Although a volcanic origin cannot be ruled out for all or part of the smooth plains material, it is more a mixture of ejecta from small craters and colluvium mass wasted from crater walls. The ridges associated with the intermediate plains unit are best interpreted as tectonic in origin because they extend into adjacent exposures of intercrater plains material and, more because they transect ejecta and floors of craters; the ridges range in length from about 50 km to many hundreds of kilometers, are sinuous to lobate in plan, trend about north-south. Most are asymmetric, with one slope steeper than the other, at places they can be more logically referred to as rounded scarps. An individual ridge changes along trend from symmetric ridge to asymmetric ridge to roun
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbital period around the Sun of 87.97 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the messenger of the gods. Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, never exceeds 28° away from the Sun when viewed from Earth; this proximity to the Sun means the planet can only be seen near the western or eastern horizon during the early evening or early morning. At this time it may appear as a bright star-like object, but is far more difficult to observe than Venus; the planet telescopically displays the complete range of phases, similar to Venus and the Moon, as it moves in its inner orbit relative to Earth, which reoccurs over the so-called synodic period every 116 days. Mercury is tidally locked with the Sun in a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, rotates in a way, unique in the Solar System; as seen relative to the fixed stars, it rotates on its axis three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun.
As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the orbital motion, it appears to rotate only once every two Mercurian years. An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two Mercurian years. Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System's planets, its orbital eccentricity is the largest of all known planets in the Solar System. Mercury's surface appears cratered and is similar in appearance to the Moon's, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years. Having no atmosphere to retain heat, it has surface temperatures that vary diurnally more than on any other planet in the Solar System, ranging from 100 K at night to 700 K during the day across the equatorial regions; the polar regions are below 180 K. The planet has no known natural satellites. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in 1974 and 1975; the BepiColombo spacecraft is planned to arrive at Mercury in 2025. Mercury appears to have a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid, iron sulfide outer core layer, a deeper liquid core layer, a solid inner core.
Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, is a rocky body like Earth. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2,439.7 kilometres. Mercury is smaller—albeit more massive—than the largest natural satellites in the Solar System and Titan. Mercury consists of 70% metallic and 30% silicate material. Mercury's density is the second highest in the Solar System at 5.427 g/cm3, only less than Earth's density of 5.515 g/cm3. If the effect of gravitational compression were to be factored out from both planets, the materials of which Mercury is made would be denser than those of Earth, with an uncompressed density of 5.3 g/cm3 versus Earth's 4.4 g/cm3. Mercury's density can be used to infer details of its inner structure. Although Earth's high density results appreciably from gravitational compression at the core, Mercury is much smaller and its inner regions are not as compressed. Therefore, for it to have such a high density, its core must be rich in iron.
Geologists estimate. Research published in 2007 suggests. Surrounding the core is a 500–700 km mantle consisting of silicates. Based on data from the Mariner 10 mission and Earth-based observation, Mercury's crust is estimated to be 35 km thick.. One distinctive feature of Mercury's surface is the presence of numerous narrow ridges, extending up to several hundred kilometers in length, it is thought that these were formed as Mercury's core and mantle cooled and contracted at a time when the crust had solidified. Mercury's core has a higher iron content than that of any other major planet in the Solar System, several theories have been proposed to explain this; the most accepted theory is that Mercury had a metal–silicate ratio similar to common chondrite meteorites, thought to be typical of the Solar System's rocky matter, a mass 2.25 times its current mass. Early in the Solar System's history, Mercury may have been struck by a planetesimal of 1/6 that mass and several thousand kilometers across.
The impact would have stripped away much of the original crust and mantle, leaving the core behind as a major component. A similar process, known as the giant impact hypothesis, has been proposed to explain the formation of the Moon. Alternatively, Mercury may have formed from the solar nebula before the Sun's energy output had stabilized, it would have had twice its present mass, but as the protosun contracted, temperatures near Mercury could have been between 2,500 and 3,500 K and even as high as 10,000 K. Much of Mercury's surface rock could have been vaporized at such temperatures, forming an atmosphere of "rock vapor" that could have been carried away by the solar wind. A third hypothesis proposes that the solar nebula caused drag on the particles from which Mercury was accreting, which meant that lighter particles were lost from the accreting material and not gathered by Mercury; each hypothesis predicts a different surface composition, there are two space missions set to make observations.
Adventure Rupes is an escarpment on Mercury 270 kilometres long located in the southern hemisphere of Mercury. Discovered by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974, it was formed by a thrust fault, thought to have occurred due to the shrinkage of the planet's core as it cooled over time. Adventure Rupes has an arcuate shape with the scarp face on convex side of the arc, it has a relief of about 1.3 km and is a continuation of Resolution Rupes and Discovery Rupes along a rough arc, which extends for more than 1000 km. Adventure Rupes is separated from Resolution Rupes by a high relief ridge informally named Rabelais Dorsum, which crosscuts the scarps; this means that Resolution Rupes and Adventure Rupes may be parts of one large structure similar in length to Discovery Rupes. The scarp is named after HMS Adventure, one of James Cook's ships on his second voyage to the Pacific, 1772–1775
Beagle Rupes is an escarpment on Mercury, one of the highest and longest yet seen. It was discovered in 2008, it is about 600 km long. The scarp is a surface manifestation of a thrust fault, which formed when the planet contracted as its interior cooled. Beagle Rupes consists of three segments; the central segment trends in the north–south direction and crosscuts the elliptically shaped Sveinsdóttir crater. The dimensions of the latter are 220 × 120 km; the floor of Sveinsdóttir was flooded by the smooth plains material and deformed by wrinkle-ridges before the appearance of Beagle Rupes. The maximum relief within the crater is about 0.8 km. To the south of Sveinsdóttir the scarp turns to the south–east. A 27 km diameter crater is superposed on this segment. To the north of Sveinsdóttir the scarp turns to north–east completing a large arc; this segment of Beagle Rupes deforms a small 17 km diameter crater. The relief in this places reaches 1.5 km. The scarp appears to be a young feature, which postdates the emplacement of the smooth plans and formation of the majority of impact craters.
Beagle Rupes is named after HMS Beagle, a ship made famous through association with Charles Darwin
Discovery Rupes is an escarpment on Mercury 650 kilometers long and 2 kilometres high, located at latitude 56.3 S and longitude 38.3 W. It was formed by a thrust fault, thought to have occurred due to the shrinkage of the planet's core as it cooled over time; the scarp cuts through Rameau crater. It was discovered by Mariner 10; the rupes are named after the ship used by explorer James Cook on his third voyage. "Discovery Rupes Discovery Region, Mercury". The Solar System in 3-D. Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2006-10-25
John Donne was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets, his works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, elegies, songs and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor compared to that of his contemporaries. Donne's style is characterised by abrupt openings and various paradoxes and dislocations; these features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques. His early career was marked by poetry that bore immense knowledge of English society and he met that knowledge with sharp criticism. Another important theme in Donne's poetry is the idea of true religion, something that he spent much time considering and about which he theorized.
He wrote secular poems as well as love poems. He is famous for his mastery of metaphysical conceits. Despite his great education and poetic talents, Donne lived in poverty for several years, relying on wealthy friends, he spent much of the money he inherited during and after his education on womanising, literature and travel. In 1601, Donne secretly married Anne More, with. In 1615 he was ordained deacon and Anglican priest, although he did not want to take Holy Orders and only did so because the king ordered it. In 1621, he was appointed the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral in London, he served as a member of Parliament in 1601 and in 1614. Donne was born in London, into a recusant Roman Catholic family when practice of that religion was illegal in England. Donne was the third of six children, his father named John Donne, was of Welsh descent and a warden of the Ironmongers Company in the City of London. However, he avoided unwelcome government attention out of fear of persecution, his father died in 1576, when Donne was four years old, leaving his mother, Elizabeth Heywood, with the responsibility of raising the children alone.
Heywood was from a recusant Roman Catholic family, the daughter of John Heywood, the playwright, sister of the Reverend Jasper Heywood, a Jesuit priest and translator. She was a great-niece of the Roman Catholic martyr Thomas More. A few months after her husband died, Donne's mother married Dr. John Syminges, a wealthy widower with three children of his own. Donne thus acquired a stepfather. Donne was educated privately. In 1583, at the age of 11, he began studies at Hart Hall, now Hertford College, Oxford. After three years of studies there, Donne was admitted to the University of Cambridge, where he studied for another three years. However, Donne could not obtain a degree from either institution because of his Catholicism, since he refused to take the Oath of Supremacy required to graduate. In 1591 he was accepted as a student at the Thavies Inn legal school, one of the Inns of Chancery in London. On 6 May 1592 he was admitted to one of the Inns of Court. In 1593, five years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada and during the intermittent Anglo-Spanish War, Queen Elizabeth issued the first English statute against sectarian dissent from the Church of England, titled "An Act for restraining Popish recusants".
It defined "Popish recusants" as those "convicted for not repairing to some Church, Chapel, or usual place of Common Prayer to hear Divine Service there, but forbearing the same contrary to the tenor of the laws and statutes heretofore made and provided in that behalf". Donne's brother Henry was a university student prior to his arrest in 1593 for harbouring a Catholic priest, William Harrington, died in Newgate Prison of bubonic plague, leading Donne to begin questioning his Catholic faith. During and after his education, Donne spent much of his considerable inheritance on women, literature and travel. Although no record details where Donne travelled, he did cross Europe and fought with the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh against the Spanish at Cadiz and the Azores, witnessed the loss of the Spanish flagship, the San Felipe. According to his earliest biographer... he returned not back into England till he had stayed some years, first in Italy, in Spain, where he made many useful observations of those countries, their laws and manner of government, returned perfect in their languages.
By the age of 25 he was well prepared for the diplomatic career he appeared to be seeking. He was appointed chief secretary to the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Thomas Egerton, was established at Egerton's London home, York House, Strand close to the Palace of Whitehall the most influential social centre in England. During the next four years Donne fell in love with Egerton's niece Anne More, they were secretly married just before Christmas in 1601, against the wishes of both Egerton and George More, Lieutenant of the Tower and Anne's father. Upon discovery, this wedding ruined Donne's career, getting him dismissed and put in Fleet Prison, along with the Church of England priest Samuel Brooke, who married them, the man who acted as a witness to the wedding. Donne was released shortly thereafter when the marriage was proven valid, he soon secured the release of the other two. Walton tells us that when Donne wrote to his wife to tell her about losing his post, he wrote after his name: John Donne, Anne Donne, Un-done.
It was not until 160
The Kuiper quadrangle, located in a cratered region of Mercury, includes the young, 55-km-diameter crater Kuiper, which has the highest albedo recorded on the planet, the small crater Hun Kal, the principal reference point for Mercurian longitude. Impact craters and basins, their numerous secondary craters, to cratered plains are the characteristic landforms of the region. At least six multiringed basins ranging from 150 km to 440 km in diameter are present. Inasmuch as multiringed basins occur on that part of Mercury photographed by Mariner 10, as well as on the Moon and Mars, they offer a valuable basis for comparison between these planetary bodies. Basic information about the planetary surface of the Kuiper quadrangle is provided by three sequences of high-quality photographs designated Mercury I, II, III, obtained during the incoming phases of three encounters of the Mariner 10 spacecraft with Mercury. Mercury I includes 75 whole-frame photographs of the Kuiper quadrangle; the photographs include 19 stereopairs in the southern part of the quadrangle.
The most distant of the photographs was taken at an altitude of 89,879 km, the closest at an altitude of 7,546 km. Resolution, varies but ranges from about 1.5 to 2.0 km over most of the area. A wide range of both viewing and solar illumination angles precludes a high degree of mapping consistency; the easternmost 10° of the quadrangle is beyond the evening terminator. A low angle of solar illumination and a high viewing angle make possible discrimination of topographic detail near the terminator. Higher angles of solar illumination and lower viewing angles make it difficult to discern topographic variations to the west. Many geologic units cannot be identified because of unfavourable viewing geometry west of 55 deg. Thus, mapping reliability decreases westward. Mapping methods and principles are adapted from those developed for lunar photogeologic mapping. Map units are distinguished on the basis of topography and albedo and are ranked in relative age on the basis of superposition and transection relations, density of superposed craters, sharpness of topography.
Because of the lack of a widespread identifiable stratigraphic datum on this part of Mercury, a morphologic classification of crater and basin materials was the basis for determining relative ages of many materials. A photomosaic map of the best available photographs aided in geologic interpretation and mapping; the rock units are subdivided into three major groups: plains materials, terra materials, crater and basin materials. The plains and smooth terra units are considered to be volcanic in part, thus may have a different origin from the impact breccias and churned regolith forming the rough terra and crater deposits; the oldest rocks exposed in the quadrangle are the intercrater plains material and the rims of the oldest craters and basins. Collectively, these rocks form a subdued terrain of moderate relief, they are similar to some of the rolling and hilly terra and hilly and pitted materials in the southern lunar highlands in the Purbach and Tycho quadrangles. The intercrater plains unit is marked by the soft outlines of numerous overlapping secondary craters producing a subdued hummocky texture.
It is gradational in places with cratered plains material, which forms flat, densely cratered surfaces similar to pre-Imbrian plains on the Moon Although both the cratered and intercrater plains deposits are interpreted to be volcanic, the latter has been degraded by repeated impacts over a longer period of time. Much of its surface is covered by a thick regolith of reworked impact breccias; the cratered plains material is flat with broad ridges and lobate scarps that in places resemble those of some of the lunar maria. It is difficult to obtain reliable crater counts on this unit because many secondary craters cannot be distinguished from primary craters. Cratered plains materials embay craters in classes c1 to c3; the albedo of the cratered plains is intermediate compared to that of other mercurian units, but higher than that of the lunar maria, may reflect lower iron and titanium content. The youngest rock units consist of rough terra and smooth plains materials. Rough terra occurs as overlapping and intermixed ejecta blankets around dusters of large young craters in the eastern part of the quadrangle.
The relief here appears to be higher than elsewhere in the map area, the occurrence of dense arrays of fresh secondary craters produces a coarsely textured, hummocky surface at a scale of about 10–20 km. The effect of roughness is highlighted by the low sun illumination angle. Ordinarily, rough terra material would be subdivided and mapped as individual ejecta blankets around and belonging to particular craters. In this eastern region, the grouped craters have about the same age, it has not been possible to distinguish the boundaries between their aprons in many places. Smooth plains material covers the floors of numerous craters in all age classifications, its surface is scoured by secondary craters from classes c4 and c5 craters at many places in the eastern part of the quadrangle and, within the crater Homer, by secondaries from the class c3 craters Titian and Handel. Thus the smooth plains unit may have a wide a