New England Patriots
The New England Patriots are a professional American football team based in the Greater Boston area. The Patriots compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at Gillette Stadium in the town of Foxborough, located 21 miles southwest of downtown Boston, Massachusetts and 20 miles northeast of downtown Providence, Rhode Island. The Patriots are headquartered at Gillette Stadium. An original member of the American Football League, the Patriots joined the NFL in the 1970 merger of the two leagues; the team changed its name from the original Boston Patriots after relocating to Foxborough in 1971. The Patriots played their home games at Foxboro Stadium from 1971 to 2001 moved to Gillette Stadium at the start of the 2002 season; the Patriots' rivalry with the New York Jets is considered one of the most bitter rivalries in the NFL. Since the arrival of head coach Bill Belichick and quarterback Tom Brady in 2000, the Patriots have since become one of the most successful teams in NFL history, winning 16 AFC East titles in 18 seasons since 2001, without a losing season in that period.
The franchise has since set numerous notable records, including most wins in a ten-year period, an undefeated 16-game regular season in 2007, the longest winning streak consisting of regular season and playoff games in NFL history, the most consecutive division titles won by a team in NFL history. The team owns the record for most Super Bowls reached and won by a head coach–quarterback tandem, most Super Bowl appearances overall, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers for the most Super Bowl wins, tied with the Denver Broncos for the most Super Bowl losses. On November 16, 1959, Boston business executive Billy Sullivan was awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League; the following winter, locals were allowed to submit ideas for the Boston football team's official name. The most popular choice – and the one that Sullivan selected – was the "Boston Patriots," with "Patriots" referring to those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation.
Thereafter, artist Phil Bissell of The Boston Globe developed the "Pat Patriot" logo. The Patriots struggled for most of their years in the AFL, they never had a regular home stadium. Nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, Alumni Stadium all served as home fields during their time in the American Football League, they played in only one AFL championship game, following the 1963 season, in which they lost to the San Diego Chargers 51–10. They did not appear again in an NFL post-season game for another 13 years; when the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the American Football Conference East division, where they still play today. The following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, which would serve as their home for the next 30 years; as a result of the move, they announced they would change their name from the Boston Patriots to the Bay State Patriots. The name was rejected by the NFL and on March 22, 1971, the team announced they would change its geographic name to New England.
During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card team—and in 1978—as AFC East champions. They lost in the first round both times. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, which they lost to the Chicago Bears 46–10. Following their Super Bowl loss, they lost in the first round; the team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years. During the 1990 season, the Patriots went 1–15, they changed ownership three times in the ensuing 14 years, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992. Though Orthwein's period as owner was short and controversial, he did oversee major changes to the team, first with the hiring of former New York Giants coach Bill Parcells in 1993. Orthwein and his marketing team commissioned the NFL to develop a new visual identity and logo, changed their primary colors from the traditional red and blue to blue and silver for the team uniforms.
Orthwein intended to move the team to his native St. Louis, but instead sold the team in 1994 for $175 million to its current owner, Robert Kraft. Since the Patriots have sold out every home game in both Foxboro Stadium and Gillette Stadium. By 2009, the value of the franchise had increased by over $1 billion, to a Forbes magazine estimated value of $1.361 billion, third highest in the NFL only behind the Dallas Cowboys and Washington Redskins. As of July 2018, the Patriots are the sixth most valuable sports franchise in the world according to Forbes magazine with a value of $3.7 billion. Continuing on as head coach under Kraft's ownership, Parcells would bring the Patriots to two playoff appearances, including Super Bowl XXXI, which they lost to the Green Bay Packers by a score of 35–21. Pete Carroll, Parcells's successor, would take the team to the playoffs twice in 1997 and 1998 before being dismissed as head coach after the 1999 season; the Patriots hired current head coach Bill Belichick, who had served as defensive coordinator under Parcells including during Super Bowl XXXI, in 2000.
Their new home field, Gillette Stadium, opened in 2002 to
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the Browns play their home games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea, Ohio. The Browns' official colors are brown and white, they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B. McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference; the Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the league's four seasons and winning its championship in each. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers and the original Baltimore Colts; the Browns won a championship in their inaugural NFL season, as well as in the 1954, 1955, 1964 seasons, in a feat unequaled in any of the North American major professional sports, played in their league championship game in each of the Browns' first ten years of existence.
From 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl during that period. In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore. After threats of legal action from the city of Cleveland and fans, a compromise was reached in early 1996 that allowed Modell to establish the Baltimore Ravens as a new franchise while retaining the contracts of all Browns personnel; the Browns' intellectual property, including team name, training facility, history, were kept in trust and the franchise was regarded by the NFL as suspended, with a new team to be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation. The Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success, they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, no playoff wins. The franchise has been noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks, having started 30 players in the position since 1999.
Through the end of the 2018 season, the Browns' win–loss record since returning to the NFL in 1999 is 95–224–1. In 2017, the Browns became only the second team in league history to finish a season 0–16, joining the 2008 Detroit Lions. Through the 2018 season, the Browns hold the longest active playoff drought in the NFL, at 16 seasons; the history of the Cleveland Browns American football team began in 1944 when taxi-cab magnate Arthur B. "Mickey" McBride secured a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. Paul Brown was the team's namesake and first coach; the Browns began play in 1946 in the AAFC. The Browns won each of the league's four championship games before the league dissolved in 1949; the team moved to the more established National Football League, where it continued to dominate. Between 1950 and 1955, Cleveland reached the NFL championship game every year. McBride and his partners sold the team to a group of Cleveland businessmen in 1953 for a then-unheard-of $600,000.
Eight years the team was sold again, this time to a group led by New York advertising executive Art Modell. Modell fired Brown before the 1963 season, but the team continued to win behind running back Jim Brown; the Browns won the championship in 1964 and reached the title game the following season, losing to the Green Bay Packers. When the AFL and NFL merged before the 1970 season, Cleveland became part of the new American Football Conference. While the Browns made it back to the playoffs in 1971 and 1972, they fell into mediocrity through the mid-1970s. A revival of sorts took place in 1979 and 1980, when quarterback Brian Sipe engineered a series of last-minute wins and the Browns came to be called the "Kardiac Kids". Under Sipe, the Browns did not make it past the first round of the playoffs. Quarterback Bernie Kosar, who the Browns drafted in 1985, led the team to three AFC Championship games in the late 1980s but lost each time to the Denver Broncos. In 1995, Modell announced he was relocating the Browns to Baltimore, sowing a mix of outrage and bitterness among Cleveland's dedicated fan base.
Negotiations and legal battles led to an agreement where Modell was allowed to move the team, but Cleveland kept the Browns' name and history. After three years of suspension while Cleveland Stadium was demolished and FirstEnergy Stadium built on its site, the Browns started play again in 1999 under new owner Al Lerner; the Browns struggled throughout the 2000s and 2010s, posting a record of 95–224–1 since their 1999 return. The Browns have only posted two winning seasons and one playoff appearance since returning to the NFL; the team's struggles have been magnified since 2012, when the Lerner family sold the team to businessman Jimmy Haslam. In six seasons under the Haslam ownership, the Browns went through four head coaches and four general managers, none of whom had found success. In 2016 and 2017 under head coach Hue Jackson, the Browns went 1–31, the worst two-year stretch in NFL history, received the number one overall draft pick in both of those years; the Browns are the only National Football League team without a helmet logo.
The logoless helmet serves as the Browns' official logo. The organization has used several promotional logos throughout the years.
Union City, California
Union City is a city in the San Francisco Bay Area in Alameda County, United States located 19 miles south of Oakland, 30 miles southeast of San Francisco, 20 miles north of San Jose. Incorporated in 1959, combining the communities of Alvarado, New Haven, Decoto, the city has 73,877 residents and diverse population. Alvarado is a California Historical Landmark; the city celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 2009. The cities of Fremont and Newark,make up the Tri-City Area to the south; the city of Hayward surrounds the city to the north. In 2017, Union City got a new city seal. Union City opened a new Teen Center for the youth in 2018. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19 square miles, all land with no bay frontage; the Niles Cone aquifer, managed by the Alameda County Water District, supplies much of the water consumed by Union City. The 2010 United States Census reported that Union City had a population of 69,516; the population density was 3,570.6 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Union City was 16,640 White, 4,402 Black, 329 Native American, 35,363 Asian, 892 Pacific Islander, 7,253 from other races, 4,637 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15,895 persons; the Census reported that 68,998 people lived in households, 422 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 96 were institutionalized. There were 20,433 households, out of which 9,066 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 12,734 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,761 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,182 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 856 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 128 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,740 households were made up of individuals and 1,002 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.38. There were 16,677 families; the population was spread out with 16,847 people under the age of 18, 6,453 people aged 18 to 24, 20,360 people aged 25 to 44, 18,146 people aged 45 to 64, 7,710 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males. There were 21,258 housing units at an average density of 1,091.9 per square mile, of which 20,433 were occupied, of which 13,580 were owner-occupied, 6,853 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%. 46,272 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 22,726 people lived in rental housing units. As of 2019 the median price of a house in Union City is from $800,000 to 1 million. Union city population in 2019 was 73,877; as of 2000 the population was 66,869 and 15,696 families residing in Union City and a total of 17,130 jobs and 32,700 employed residents in 2000. The population density was 3,473.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,877 housing units at an average density of 980.4 per square mile. There were 18,642 households out of which 45.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.6% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.8% were non-families.
11.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.57 and the average family size was 3.83. The median price of a house in Union City is about $400,000. In the city, the population varied in age, with 27.8% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $84,384, the median income for a family was $87,114. Males had a median income of $45,212 versus $35,085 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,890. About 4.8% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over. The first community in what is now Union City was founded in 1850 by John and William Horner called "Union City," after their Sacramento River Steamship, "The Union."
In 1854, it merged with the nearby community of New Haven to form the town of Alvarado on the western side of town, named after the former Mexican governor, Juan Bautista Alvarado. Alvarado was the first county seat of a designation it soon lost to San Leandro. Further east, the town of Decoto was founded in 1870, it became a railroad hub, with the Transcontinental Railroad running through it. Alvarado-Niles Road, one of the city's largest streets, connects the historical Fremont district of Niles with the historical Union City district of Alvarado. Union City is Steel Town with an extensive industrial heritage; the Pacific States Steel Company occupied the land behind Union City Station, now being redeveloped into the Union City Station District Downtown. Relatives and descendants of former Pacific States steel workers receive compensation and preference when purchasing new Station District housing; the Alvarado and
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
University of the Pacific (United States)
The University of the Pacific is a private university in Stockton, California. It is the oldest chartered university in California, the first independent co-educational campus in California, both the first conservatory of music and first medical school on the West Coast, it was first chartered on July 10, 1851, in Santa Clara, under the name California Wesleyan College. The school moved to San Jose in 1871 and to Stockton 96 years ago in 1923. Pacific is accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. In addition to its liberal arts college, Pacific has schools of business, education, international studies, law and pharmacy and health sciences, it has extensive collections pertaining to jazz musician and alumnus Dave Brubeck, who in 1953 released the live album Jazz at the College of the Pacific. It is home to the papers of environmental pioneer John Muir. Pacific was founded on July 1851, in Santa Clara, it was named California Wesleyan College, but one month it petitioned to have its name changed to the University of the Pacific.
In 1858, the college opened the first medical school on the West Coast. The medical school was affiliated with University College under the name Cooper Medical College, in 1908 it was taken over by Stanford University and became the Stanford University School of Medicine. In 1871, the campus was moved to the College Park neighborhood of San Jose and the college opened its doors to women, becoming the first independent co-educational campus in California. In 1878, the Conservatory of Music was established at Pacific, making it the first of its kind west of the Mississippi River. In 1896, Napa College merged with the college. In 1911, the name was changed to College of the Pacific. In 1923, the campus relocated from the Bay Area to the city of Stockton becoming the first institution of higher education in the Central Valley. In 1925 the San Jose campus was sold to Santa Clara College which moved its Santa Clara Prep to the campus and renamed it Bellarmine College Preparatory. In 1962, Pacific merged with the San Francisco College of Physicians and Surgeons, in 1966, with the McGeorge School of Law.
In the late 1960s, when "... federal law about public funding of church-related institutions became an issue..." the university stopped receiving funding from the United Methodist Church, but maintains its affiliation with the church while operating as a non-denominational school. On October 17, 2013, the university announced an estate gift from Robert and Jeanette Powell of $125 million, it is the largest gift in the university's 162-year history. In the previous year, Pacific awarded its highest honor, the Order of Pacific, posthumously to the Powells; this gift increased Pacific's endowment to $334 million. In the fall of 2018, the university announced budget cuts; this was the third consecutive year of such plans. In response to these financial plans and the perceived secrecy with which they had been developed, faculty voted "no confidence" in the university's president and students protested; the Stockton Campus, featuring a tower, rose gardens, architectural columns, brick-faced buildings, numerous trees, has been used in Hollywood films, due to its aesthetic likeness to East Coast Ivy League universities: High Time, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, The Sure Thing, Dead Man on Campus, Dreamscape, among others.
Part of Disney's 1973 film The World's Greatest Athlete was shot at Pacific. The Stockton Campus is home to three main residential halls: Grace Covell Hall, Southwest Hall, the Quad Buildings; the Quads are composed of several separate smaller residence halls in proximity to each other. Grace Covell is the largest residence hall on campus holding more than 350 students while Southwest and the Quads hold a lower number of students. Upperclassmen can find housing in the University Townhouses on the northwest side of campus, McCaffrey Center Apartments located in the center of campus or in the two apartment buildings known as Monagan and Brookside Hall, renamed Chan Family Hall. There are fraternity and sorority houses located on campus. In 2008, the university opened a new University Center, at a cost of $38 million, to centralize all campus student-centered activities; the Don & Karen DeRosa University Center houses a new central dining hall, student cafe, pub and conference centers, replacing the McCaffrey Center.
It built a new $20 million Biological Sciences Center in 2008 that provides advanced classroom and laboratory facilities for students studying the natural sciences and the health sciences. In 2018, the university opened; this facility was intended to modernize living quarters for students and allow for more housing spaces for second-year and upper-division students. The building was named after the river that flows through the Calaveras River; the campus is home to a non-denominational church with simple architecture. Pacific's 13-acre Sacramento Campus houses graduate and professional programs and a degree completion program in the Oak Park neighborhood, south of downtown, it consists of 24 buildings, including academic facilities, four residential facilities, a fitness center/pool The campus is anchored by McGeorge School of Law, the only law school approved by the American Bar Association in Sacramento County. In 2015, Pacific began a transformation of its Sacramento Campus in
Safety (gridiron football position)
Safety known as a safetyman, is a position in American and Canadian football played by a member of the defense. The safeties are defensive backs who line up from ten to fifteen yards in front of the line of scrimmage. There are two variations of the position in a typical American formation: the free safety and the strong safety, their duties depend on the defensive scheme. The defensive responsibilities of the safety and cornerback involve pass coverage towards the middle and sidelines of the field, respectively. While American formations use two safeties, Canadian formations have one safety and two defensive halfbacks, a position not used in the American game; as professional and college football have become more focused on the passing game, safeties have become more involved in covering the eligible pass receivers. Safeties are the last line of defense. Safety positions can be converted cornerbacks, either by design or as a cornerback ages. In the era of the one-platoon system, the safety was known as the defensive fullback or goaltender.
The free safety tends to watch the play unfold and follow the ball as well as be the “defensive quarterback” of the backfield. The free safety is assigned to the quarterback in man coverage, but as the quarterback remains in the pocket, the free safety is "free" to double cover another player. On pass plays, the free safety is expected to assist the cornerback on his side and to close the distance to the receiver by the time the ball reaches him. Offenses tend to use the play-action pass to make the free safety expect a run play, which would draw him closer to the line of scrimmage, reduce his effectiveness as a pass defender. Furthermore, quarterbacks use a technique to "look off" a free safety, by looking away from the intended target receiver's side of the field during a pass play, with the intention to lure the free safety away from that side of the field; this phenomenon tests how effective a free safety's wit and athleticism are at defending long pass plays. If the offense puts a receiver in the slot the free safety may be called upon to cover that receiver.
Free safeties blitz as well. When this happens, the pressure on the quarterback is very severe since a blitz by a defensive back is not anticipated; because of their speed and deep coverage, free safeties are likely to make interceptions. Current examples of free safeties active in the NFL include Earl Thomas III, Eric Weddle, Kurt Coleman, Harrison Smith, Devin McCourty, Tyrann Mathieu, Kevin Byard, Eddie Jackson; the strong safety tends to be stronger than the free safety. However, the word strong is used because he is assigned to cover the "strong side" of the offense, the side on which the tight end, a big, powerful receiver-type player lines up on offensive plays; the strong safety tends to play closer to the line than the free safety does, assists in stopping the run. He may cover a player, such as a running back or fullback or H-back, who comes out of the backfield to receive a pass. A strong safety's duties are a hybrid of those belonging to a linebacker in a 46 or 3–4 defense and those of the other defensive backs, in that he both covers the pass and stops the run.
Strong safeties are not seen in the Canadian game, where the role is filled by the two defensive halfbacks. Current examples of strong safeties active in the NFL include Jordan Poyer, Jamal Adams, Patrick Chung, Landon Collins, Malcolm Jenkins, Harrison Smith, Keanu Neal, Karl Joseph, Eric Berry, Tony Jefferson. PhillyBurbs.com Football 101: The Free Safety
A linebacker is a playing position in American football and Canadian football. Linebackers are members of the defensive team, line up three to five yards behind the line of scrimmage, behind the defensive linemen, therefore "back up the line". Linebackers align themselves before the ball is snapped by standing upright in a "two-point stance"; the goal of the linebacker is to provide either extra run protection or extra pass protection based on the particular defensive play being executed. Another key play of the linebacker position is blitzing. A blitz occurs; when a blitz is called by the defense, it is to sack or hurry the opposing offense's quarterback. Linebackers are regarded as the most important position in defense, due to their versatility in providing hard hits on running plays or an additional layer of pass protection, when required. Similar to the "free safety" position, linebackers are required to use their judgment on every snap, to determine their role during that particular play.
Before the advent of the two-platoon system with separate units for offense and defense, the player, the team's center on offense was though not always, the team's linebacker on defense. Hence today one sees four defensive linemen to the offense's five or more. Most sources claim coach Fielding H. Yost and center Germany Schulz of the University of Michigan invented the position. Schulz was Yost's first linebacker in 1904. Yost came to see the wisdom in Schulz's innovation. William Dunn of Penn St. was another Western linebacker soon after Schulz. However, there are various historical claims tied to the linebacker position, including some before 1904. For example, Percy Given of Georgetown is another center with a claim to the title "first linebacker," standing up behind the line well before Schulz in a game against Navy in 1902. Despite Given, most sources have the first linebacker in the South as Frank Juhan of Sewanee. In the East, Ernest Cozens of Penn was "one of the first of the roving centers," another, archaic term for the position coined by Hank Ketcham of Yale.
Walter E. Bachman of Lafayette was said to be "the developer of the "roving center" concept". Edgar Garbisch of Army was credited with developing the "roving center method" of playing defensive football in 1921. In professional football, Cal Hubbard is credited with pioneering the linebacker position, he starred as a tackle and end, playing off the line in a style similar to that of a modern linebacker. The middle or inside linebacker, sometimes called the "Mike" or "Mack", is referred to as the "quarterback of the defense", it is the middle linebacker who receives the defensive play calls from the sideline and relays that play to the rest of the team, in the NFL he is the defensive player with the electronic sideline communicator. A jack-of-all-trades, the middle linebacker can be asked to blitz, spy the quarterback, or have a deep middle-of-the-field responsibility in the Tampa 2 defense. In standard defenses, middle linebackers lead the team in tackles; the terms middle and inside linebacker are used interchangeably.
In a 3–4 defense, the larger, more run-stopping-oriented linebacker is still called "Mike", while the smaller, more pass protection/route coverage-oriented player is called "Will". "Mikes" line up towards the strong side or on the side the offense is more to run on while "Wills" may line up on the other side or a little farther back between the defensive line and the secondary. The outside linebacker, sometimes called the "Buck and Rebel" is responsible for outside containment; this includes the weakside designations below. They are responsible for blitzing the quarterback. Only is the OLB responsible for outside containment and blitzing the Quarter Back they have pass coverage in the flats sometimes call A drop. Outside linebackers pass; the "flats" are the edge of the field closest to the sideline, from the line of scrimmage down about ten yards. The strongside linebacker is nicknamed the "Sam" for purposes of calling a blitz. Since the strong side of the offensive team, is the side on which the tight end lines up, or whichever side contains the most personnel, the strongside linebacker lines up across from the tight end.
The strongside linebacker will be called upon to tackle the running back on a play because the back will be following the tight end's block. He is most the strongest linebacker; the linebacker should have strong safety abilities in pass situation to cover the tight end in man on man situations. He should have considerable quickness to read and get into coverage in zone situations; the strongside linebacker is commonly known as the left outside linebacker. The weakside linebacker, or the "Will" in 4–3 Defense, sometimes called the backside linebacker, or "Buck", as well as other names like Jack or Bandit, must be the fastest of the three, because he