Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
Education in Delhi
Education is based on three-tier model which includes primary schools, followed by secondary schools and tertiary education at universities or other institutes of same level. Education Department of the Government of Delhi is a premier body which looks into the educational affairs.the RTE right to education describes children from the age of 6 to 14 have to cumpulsolarily need to be educated. 25% of the schools are reserved for the low privileged children. Tertiary education is administrated by the Directorate of Higher Education. Delhi has to its credit some of the premier institutions in India like the Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology Delhi, the School of Planning and Architecture, the Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, the Delhi Technological University, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,for accountancy education The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India set up by an Act of Parliament in 1949, University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University, the National Law University, AJK, Mass Communication Research Centre under Jamia Millia Islamia University, indian statistical institute and the Indian Institute of Mass Communication.
As per the 2011 census, Delhi has a literacy rate of 86.3 % with 80.9 % of females. In 1860-61, the North-Western Provinces education system was abolished in Delhi, Punjab education system was introduced with opening of schools at Narela, Najafgarh and their suburbs. There are about 500,000 university students in Delhi NCR attending around more than 165 universities and colleges. Delhi has twelve major universities: University of Delhi: Central university Indian Institute of Foreign Trade: One of the leading Business schools of India, established by Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Jamia Millia Islamia: Central university Delhi Technological University: State university Netaji Subhas University of Technology: State University Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women: State university Jawaharlal Nehru University: Central university Ambedkar University Delhi: State university Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University: State university National Law University: State law university Indira Gandhi National Open University: World's largest national university.
Jamia Hamdard: Deemed university indian statistical institute: Deemed university Delhi boasts of being home to some of the top engineering colleges in India — IIT Delhi, NIT Delhi, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, NSIT, Delhi Technological University and Jamia. Delhi boasts several private and few government engineering institutions like Ambedkar Institute of Advanced Communication Technologies and Research and G. B. Pant Engineering College, New Delhi, which are affiliated to the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and a Faculty of Engineering under Jamia Millia Islamia University. Industrial training institute and industrial training centres, constituted under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, provide diploma in technical fields. There are several ITIs in Delhi NCR. A person who has passed 10 standard is eligible for admission to an ITI; the objective of opening of ITI is provide "technical manpower to industries". School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi Faculty of Architecture and Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia All India Institute of Medical Sciences is considered amongst the best medical research and treatment centres in India.
Delhi has eight medical institutes, out of which six provide both undergraduate and postgraduate education in medicine while other two are researched based. These medical institutes are either affiliated to the University of Delhi or GGSIPU, only AIIMS is central based. Faculty of Dentistry and Maulana Azad Dental College are some of the dental schools. Schools in Delhi are run either by government or private sector, they are affiliated to one of three education boards: the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, the Central Board for Secondary Education and the National Institute of Open Schooling. As per the survey conducted in 2001, Delhi had some 2416 primary, 715 middle and 1576 secondary schools. In 2004–05 1.5 million students were enrolled in primary schools, 822,000 in middle schools and 669,000 in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment; the same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.
Students can opt for two compulsory languages and an optional third language from the list of Scheduled languages or Foreign languages. There are several libraries in Delhi, which are either maintained by the government bodies or private organisations; some of the major libraries in Delhi region are: American Centre Library British Council Library Delhi Public Library Delhi University Library Ramakrishna Mission Library IARI Library Indian Council of Historical Research Indian Council of Social Science Research Maharaja Fatehsinhrao Gaekwad Library and Documentation Centre Max Mueller Bhavan National Archives of India National Science Library Russian Centre Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute Zakir Hussain Central Library, Jamia Millia Islamia University Industrial training institute List of educational institutions in Delhi List of colleges under Delhi University Ajay Kumar Sharma. A History of Educational Institutions in Delhi. Sanbun Publishers. ISBN 93-8021-314-X. Delhi Government Polytechnic Colleges in Delhi Delhi Directorate of Education Education in Delhi Top 10 Engineering College of Delhi
Education in India
Education in India is provided by public schools and private schools. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14; the approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5. India has made progress in increasing the attainment rate of primary education. In 2011, Approximately 75% of the population, aged between 7 to 10 years, was literate. India's improved education system is cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013, there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations, a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.
At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group. Certain post-secondary technical schools are private; the private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market. As per the Annual Status of Education Report 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 229 million students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, a 19% increase in girl's enrollment. While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned in its government run school system. While more than 95 percent of children attend primary school, just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school.
Since 2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day. States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools. Although there are private schools in India, they are regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading. In January 2019, India had over 40,000 colleges. In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. In universities and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, the highest percentage of reservations in India.
The central board and most of the state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education. In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges, 3 years of study for a bachelor's degree; the first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges. This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66. Education Policy is prepared by the Centre Government and State Governments at national and state levels respectively; the National Policy on Education, 1986, has provided for environment awareness and technology education, introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system. A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing.
A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan. School boards set the curriculum, conduct board level exams at 10th and 12th level to award the school diplomas. Exams at the remaining levels are conducted by the schools. National Council of Educational Research and Training: The NCERT is the apex body located at New Delhi, Capital City of India, it makes. The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. There are other curriculum bodies governing school education system specially at state level. State Government Boards of Education: Most of the state governments have at least one "State board of secondary school education". However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more than one; the union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh and Nagar Haveli and Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services with a larger state.
The boards set curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and the
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P
Central Board of Secondary Education
The Central Board of Secondary Education is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools and managed by Union Government of India. CBSE has asked all schools affiliated to follow only NCERT curriculum. There are 19,316 schools in India and 211 schools in 28 foreign countries affiliated to the CBSE; the first education board to be set up in India was the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education in 1921, under jurisdiction of Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. In 1929, the government of India set up a joint Board named "Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana"; this included Ajmer, Central India and Gwalior. It was confined to Ajmer and Vindhya Pradesh. In 1952, it became the "Central Board of Secondary Education". CBSE affiliates all Kendriya Vidyalayas, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, private schools and most of the schools approved by central government of India. CBSE conducts Class 12 every year in the month of March; the results are announced by the end of May.
The board earlier conducted the AIEEE Examination for admission to undergraduate courses in engineering and architecture in colleges across India. However the AIEEE exam was merged with the IIT-Joint Entrance Exam in 2013; the common examination is henceforth conducted by National Testing Agency. CBSE conducts AIPMT for admission to major medical colleges in India. In 2014, the conduct of the National Eligibility Test for grant of junior research fellowship and eligibility for assistant professor in institutions of higher learning was outsourced to CBSE. Apart from these tests, CBSE conducts the central teachers eligibility test and the Class X optional proficiency test. With the addition of NET in 2014, the CBSE has become the largest exam conducting body in the world. On 10 November 2017, Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, cleared a proposal for creation of a National Testing Agency which will conduct various entrance examinations. Central Board of Secondary Education conducts National Eligibility cum Entrance Test, Central Teacher Eligibility Test UGC's National Eligibility Test and the entrance test for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas.
For promotion from Secondary to Senior Secondary, a student must obtain, for all subjects, 33% overall, without any minimum theory mark requirement. The passing criteria was set such that a student had to get 33% in both the theory and practical components. However, an exemption was granted for students writing the exam in 2018 as they went through the old CCE system in the previous year. However, CBSE extended this relief for students writing the exam from 2019 and as well. For a student who does not manage to pass up to two subjects, he/she can write the compartment in those subjects in July. For those who fail the compartment, or those who fail in three subjects or more, he/she must rewrite all the subjects taken in the next year. For class 12 students the promotion criteria is 33% overall, with 33% in both theory and practical examinations. For a student who does not manage to pass in one subject, he/she can write the compartment for that subject in July. For those who fail the compartment, or those who fail in two subjects or more, he/she must rewrite all the subjects taken in the next year.
For the Class 10 and Class 12 exams, CBSE includes the positional grade obtained by the student, dependent on the average performance of the students in that subject. The cutoffs required to obtain a particular grade vary every year; the cutoffs required to obtain a particular grade in 2018 are listed below: During 2010-2017, when CBSE implemented a CCE for grade 10 students, only the grades obtained by the student were mentioned in the report card in a 9-point grading scale, which translates as below: It is the practice adopted by CBSE of'tweaking' candidates' marks to account for paper difficulties and variations. This has been criticized in the past for inflating students' marks in a hyper-competitive society where one mark counts, CBSE is in the process of ending it. In 2017, CBSE informed that it would end moderation but its decision was challenged by a court case at the Delhi High Court, which ruled that moderation should continue for that year. With the exception of 2018, moderation was applied to account for variations in region sets.
In 2018, when everyone around the world answered the same questions, this practice was renamed as standardisation, with the CBSE phasing out the practice with the reduction on subjects which were given the offset. In 2018, Physics and Accountancy were given offset of +9, Business Studies given +6, English given a +3 offset; the total mark obtained by a student through moderation cannot exceed 95. This is the reason a mark of 95 is common for such subjects, why it is much tougher to get 96 than to get a 95. Moderation was applied in the infamous CBSE Class 12 mathematics papers of 2015 and 2016, wherein the paper created a huge furore as students and teachers complained that the paper was too tough. Despite a heavy offset of +16, students' marks reduced, as while the A1 cutoff was stable, the A2 cutoff reduced to 77, with other grades expe
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle