Book of Numbers
The Book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah. The book has a long and complex history, but its final form is due to a Priestly redaction of a Yahwistic source made some time in the early Persian period; the name of the book comes from the two censuses taken of the Israelites. Numbers begins at Mount Sinai, where the Israelites have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the sanctuary; the task before them is to take possession of the Promised Land. The people are counted and preparations are made for resuming their march; the Israelites begin the journey, but they "murmur" at the hardships along the way, about the authority of Moses and Aaron. For these acts, God destroys 15,000 of them through various means, they send spies into the land. Upon hearing the spies' fearful report concerning the conditions in Canaan, the Israelites refuse to take possession of it. God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up and carry out the task.
The book ends with the new generation of Israelites in the Plain of Moab ready for the crossing of the Jordan River. Numbers is the culmination of the story of Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt and their journey to take possession of the land God promised their fathers; as such it draws to a conclusion the themes introduced in Genesis and played out in Exodus and Leviticus: God has promised the Israelites that they shall become a great nation, that they will have a special relationship with Yahweh their god, that they shall take possession of the land of Canaan. Numbers demonstrates the importance of holiness and trust: despite God's presence and his priests, Israel lacks faith and the possession of the land is left to a new generation. Most commentators divide Numbers into three sections based on locale, linked by two travel sections. God orders Moses, in the wilderness of Sinai, to number those able to bear arms—of all the men "from twenty years old and upward," and to appoint princes over each tribe.
A total of 603,550 Israelites are found to be fit for military service. The tribe of Levi is exempted from military service and therefore not included in the census. Moses consecrates the Levites for the service of the Tabernacle in the place of the first-born sons, who hitherto had performed that service; the Levites are divided into three families, the Gershonites, the Kohathites, the Merarites, each under a chief. The Kohathites were headed by Eleazar, son of Aaron, while the Gershonites and Merarites were headed by Aaron's other son, Ithamar. Preparations are made for resuming the march to the Promised Land. Various ordinances and laws are decreed; the Israelites set out from Sinai. The people are punished by fire. Miriam and Aaron insult Moses at Hazeroth. Twelve spies are come back to report to Moses. Joshua and Caleb, two of the spies, report that the land is abundant and is "flowing with milk and honey", but the other spies say that it is inhabited by giants, the Israelites refuse to enter the land.
Yahweh decrees that the Israelites will be punished for their loss of faith by having to wander in the wilderness for 40 years. Moses is ordered by God to make plates to cover the altar; the children of Israel murmur against Moses and Aaron on account of the destruction of Korah's men and are stricken with the plague, with 14,700 perishing. Aaron and his family are declared by God to be responsible for any iniquity committed in connection with the sanctuary; the Levites are again appointed to help in the keeping of the Tabernacle. The Levites are ordered to surrender to the priests a part of the tithes taken to them. Miriam dies at Kadesh Barnea and the Israelites set out for Moab, on Canaan's eastern border; the Israelites blame Moses for the lack of water. Moses is ordered by God to speak to a rock but disobeys, is punished by the announcement that he shall not enter Canaan; the king of Edom refuses permission to pass through his land and they go around it. Aaron dies on Mount Hor; the Israelites are bitten by Fiery flying serpents for speaking against Moses.
A brazen serpent is made to ward off these serpents. The Israelites arrive on the plains of Moab. A new census gives the total number of males from twenty years and upward as 601,730, the number of the Levites from the age of one month and upward as 23,000; the land shall be divided by lot. The daughters of Zelophehad, who had no sons, are to share in the allotment. Moses is ordered to appoint Joshua as his successor. Prescriptions for the observance of the feasts and the offerings for different occasions are enumerated. Moses orders the Israelites to massacre the people of Midian; the Reubenites and the Gadites request Moses to assign them the land east of the Jordan. Moses grants their request after they promise to help in the conquest of the land west of the Jordan; the land east of the Jordan is divided among the tribes of
Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text, it encompasses the religion and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. Judaism encompasses a wide body of texts, theological positions, forms of organization; the Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, supplemental oral tradition represented by texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth largest religion in the world. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah; this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period.
Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, the significance of the State of Israel. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin and unalterable, that they should be followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism promoting a more traditionalist interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Special courts enforced Jewish law. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and the rabbis and scholars who interpret them.
The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions; the Hebrews and Israelites were referred to as "Jews" in books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel". Judaism's texts and values influenced Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Hebraism was just as important a factor in the ancient era development of Western civilization as Hellenism, Judaism, as the background of Christianity, has shaped Western ideals and morality since Early Christianity. Jews are an ethnoreligious group including those born Jewish, in addition to converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, or 0.2% of the total world population. About 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 43% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, other minority groups spread throughout Latin America, Asia and Australia.
Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as solitary. Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of mankind. According to the Tanakh, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation. Many generations he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God, he commanded the Jewish people to love one another. These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, the substance of Judaism. Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism, Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as "normal mysticism", because it involves everyday personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews; this is played out through the observance of the Halakha and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.
The ordinary, everyday things and occurrences we have, constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry and the shedding of blood; the Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that exp
The Exodus is the founding myth of the Israelites. Spread over the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy, it tells of the enslavement that befell the children of Israel in Egypt, their liberation through the hand of Yahweh and the revelations at Sinai, their wanderings in the wilderness up to borders of Canaan, the land their God has given them, its message is that Israel was delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belongs to him through the Mosaic covenant, the terms of which are that Yahweh will protect his chosen people for all time, so long as they will keep his laws and worship only him. The narrative and its laws remain central to Judaism, recounted daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated in festivals such as Passover, as well as serving as an inspiration and model for non-Jewish groups from early Protestants fleeing persecution in Europe to African-Americans striving for freedom and civil rights. Scholars are broadly agreed that the Exodus story was composed in the 5th century BCE.
The traditions behind it can be traced in the writings of the 8th-century BCE prophets, but it has no historical basis. Instead, archaeology suggests a native Canaanite origin for ancient Israel; the story of the Exodus is told in the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy, the last four of the five books of the Torah. It begins with the Israelites in slavery, their prophet Moses leads them out of Egypt and through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh reveals himself to his people and establishes the Mosaic covenant: they are to keep his torah, in return he will give them the land of Canaan. The Israelites accept the covenant and receive their laws, with Yahweh now present in their midst, journey on from Sinai, towards the promised land, but when told that the land is filled with giants they refuse to go on, Yahweh condemns them to remain in the desert until the generation that left Egypt passes away. After thirty-eight years at the oasis of Kadesh Barnea the next generation travel on to the borders of Canaan, where Moses addresses them for the final time, reviewing their travels and giving them further laws.
The Exodus ends with the death of Moses on Mount Nebo and his burial by Yahweh, while the Israelites prepare for the conquest of the land. The climax of the Exodus is the covenant between God and Israel mediated by Moses at Sinai: Yahweh will protect Israel as his chosen people for all time, Israel will keep Yahweh's laws and worship only him; the covenant is described in stages: at Exodus 24:3–8 the Israelites agree to abide by the "book of the covenant" that Moses has just read to them. The laws are set out in a number of codes: Ethical Decalogue, Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5. Scholars are broadly agreed that the publication of the Torah took place in the mid-Persian period, echoing a traditional Jewish view which gives Ezra, the leader of the Jewish community on its return from Babylon, a pivotal role in its promulgation; the first trace of the traditions behind it appears in the northern prophets Amos and Hosea, both active in the 8th century BCE in northern Israel, but their southern contemporaries Isaiah and Micah show no knowledge of an exodus.
The story may, have originated a few centuries earlier the 9th or 10th BCE, there are signs that it took different forms in Israel, in the Transjordan region, in the southern Kingdom of Judah before being unified in the Persian era. Many theories have been advanced to explain the composition of the Torah, but two have been influential; the first of these, Persian Imperial authorisation, advanced by Peter Frei in 1985, holds that the Persian authorities required the Jews of Jerusalem to present a single body of law as the price of local autonomy. Frei's theory was demolished at an interdisciplinary symposium held in 2000, but the relationship between the Persian authorities and Jerusalem remains a crucial question; the second theory, associated with Joel P. Weinberg and called the "Citizen-Temple Community", proposes that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic Jewish community organised around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it.
The Torah served as an "identity card" defining who belonged to this community, thus reinforcing Israel's unity through its new institutions. The Exodus is at the centre of Jewish identity, it is remembered daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated each year at the feasts of Pesach and Shavuot, the two being known as "the time of our freedom" and "the time our Torah was given". The two are linked, with Pesach announcing that the freedom it introduces is only realised with the giving of the law. A third Jewish festival, the Festival of Booths, commemorates how the Israelites lived in booths following the exodus from their previous homes in Egypt; the Exodus roots Jewish religion in history, in contrast to pagan religions which are oriented towards nature. The festivals now associated with the exodus (Passove
The Karnak Temple Complex known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels and other buildings near Luxor, in Egypt. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period, although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom; the area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes; the Karnak complex gives its name to the nearby, surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor. The complex includes the Karnak Open Air Museum, it is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is open to the general public; the term Karnak is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public.
There are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, the Luxor Temple. The Precinct of Mut is ancient, being dedicated to an Earth and creation deity, but not yet restored; the original temple was destroyed and restored by Hatshepsut, although another pharaoh built around it in order to change the focus or orientation of the sacred area. Many portions of it may have been carried away for use in other buildings; the key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction of temples continued into Ptolemaic times. Thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming; the deities represented range from some of the earliest worshiped to those worshiped much in the history of the Ancient Egyptian culture.
Although destroyed, it contained an early temple built by Amenhotep IV, the pharaoh who would celebrate a near monotheistic religion he established that prompted him to move his court and religious center away from Thebes. It contains evidence of adaptations, using buildings of the Ancient Egyptians by cultures for their own religious purposes. One famous aspect of Karnak is the Hypostyle Hall in the Precinct of Amun-Re, a hall area of 50,000 sq ft with 134 massive columns arranged in 16 rows. 122 of these columns are 10 meters tall, the other 12 are 21 meters tall with a diameter of over three meters. The architraves on top of these columns are estimated to weigh 70 tons; these architraves may have been lifted to these heights using levers. This would be an time-consuming process and would require great balance to get to such great heights. A common alternative theory regarding how they were moved is that large ramps were constructed of sand, brick or stone and that the stones were towed up the ramps.
If stone had been used for the ramps, they would have been able to use much less material. The top of the ramps would have employed either wooden tracks or cobblestones for towing the megaliths. There is an unfinished pillar in an out-of-the-way location that indicates how it would have been finished. Final carving was executed after the drums were put in place so that it was not damaged while being placed. Several experiments moving megaliths with ancient technology were made at other locations – some of them are listed here. In 2009 UCLA launched a website dedicated to virtual reality digital reconstructions of the Karnak complex and other resources; the sun god's shrine has light focused upon it during the winter solstice. The history of the Karnak complex is the history of Thebes and its changing role in the culture. Religious centers varied by region, when a new capital of the unified culture was established, the religious centers in that area gained prominence; the city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the Eleventh dynasty and previous temple building there would have been small, with shrines being dedicated to the early deities of Thebes, the Earth goddess Mut and Montu.
Early building was destroyed by invaders. The earliest known artifact found in the area of the temple is a small, eight-sided column from the Eleventh Dynasty, which mentions Amun-Re. Amun was long the local tutelary deity of Thebes, he was identified with the goose. The Egyptian meaning of Amun is, "hidden" or, the "hidden god". Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the Eighteenth dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt; every pharaoh of that dynasty added something to the temple site. Thutmose I erected an enclosure wall connecting the Fourth and Fifth pylons, which comprise the earliest part of the temple still standing in situ. Hatshepsut had monuments constructed and restored the original Precinct of Mut, the ancient great goddess of Egypt, ravaged by the foreign rulers during the Hyksos occupation, she had at the time the tallest in the world, erected at the entrance to the temple. One still stands, as the tallest surviving ancient obelisk on Earth.
Another of her projects at the site, Karnak's Red C
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, in the mountains of Central America; the highest-known juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 ft in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low-spreading shrubs with long, trailing branches, they are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either dioecious; the female seed cones are distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with one to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species, these "berries" are red-brown or orange; the seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination.
The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with six to 20 scales. In zones 7 through 10, junipers can release pollen several times each year. A few species of junipers bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring. Many junipers have two types of leaves; when juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing'whip' shoots are intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is with no scale leaves. In some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed; the needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Bucculatrix inusitata and juniper carpet, is eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, pine beauty.
Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have no flowers or fruits. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 -- 3 years; the impermeable coat of the seed keeps water from getting in and protects the embryo when being dispersed. It can result in a long dormancy, broken by physically damaging the seed coat. Dispersal can occur from being swallowed whole by mammals; the resistance of the seed coat allows it to be passed down through the digestive system and out without being destroyed along the way. These seeds last a long time, as they can be dispersed long distances over the course of a few years; the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going; the section Juniperus is an obvious monophyletic group though. Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers.
The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, jointed at the base. Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus communis – Common juniper Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina – Alpine juniper Juniperus conferta – Shore juniper Juniperus rigida – Temple juniper or needle juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus brevifolia – Azores juniper Juniperus cedrus – Canary Islands juniper Juniperus deltoides – Eastern prickly juniper Juniperus formosana – Chinese prickly juniper Juniperus lutchuensis – Ryukyu juniper Juniperus navicularis – Portuguese prickly juniper Juniperus oxycedrus – Western prickly juniper or cade juniper Juniperus macrocarpa – Large-berry juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together. Juniperus drupacea – Syrian juniperJuniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers; the adult leaves are scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base.
Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here. Old World species Juniperus chinensis – Chinese juniper Juniperus convallium – Mekong juniper Juniperus excelsa – Greek juniper Juniperus excelsa polycarpos – Persian juniper Juniperus foetidissima – Stinking juniper Juniperus indica – Black juniper Juniperus komarovii – Komarov's juniper Juniperus phoenicea – Phoenicean juniper Juniperus pingii – Ping juniper Juniperus procera – East African juniper Juniperus procumbens – Ibuki juniper Juniperu
Mishnaic Hebrew is a form of the Hebrew language, found in the Talmud. The forms of the Hebrew in the Talmud can be divided into Classical Hebrew for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible, Mishnaic Hebrew can be further sub-divided into Mishnaic Hebrew proper, a spoken language, Amoraic Hebrew, a literary language only; the Mishnaic Hebrew language or Early Rabbinic Hebrew language is one of the direct ancient descendants of Biblical Hebrew as preserved after the Babylonian captivity, definitively recorded by Jewish sages in writing the Mishnah and other contemporary documents. It was not used by the Samaritans, who preserved their own form of Samaritan Hebrew. A transitional form of the language occurs in the other works of Tannaitic literature dating from the century beginning with the completion of the Mishnah; these include the halachic Midrashim and the expanded collection of Mishnah-related material known as the Tosefta. The Talmud contains excerpts from these works, as well as further Tannaitic material not attested elsewhere.
The language of all these works is similar to Mishnaic Hebrew. Mishnaic Hebrew is found from the 1st to the 4th centuries of the Common Era, corresponding to the Roman period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, it developed under the profound influence of spoken Aramaic. Called Tannaitic Hebrew or Early Rabbinic Hebrew, it is represented by the bulk of the Mishnah and the Tosefta within the Talmud, by some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Copper Scroll and the Bar Kokhba Letters. Dead Sea Scrolls archaeologist Yigael Yadin mentions that three Bar Kokhba documents he and his team found at Nahal Hever are written in Mishnaic Hebrew, that it was Bar Kokhba who revived the Hebrew language and made Hebrew the official language of the state during the Bar Kokhba revolt. Yigael Yadin notes the shift from Aramaic to Hebrew during the time of Bar Kokhba revolt in his book "Bar Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Last Jewish Revolt Against Imperial Rome," Yadin notes, "It is interesting that the earlier documents are written in Aramaic while the ones are in Hebrew.
The change was made by a special decree of Bar-Kokhba who wanted to restore Hebrew as the official language of the state". In the book "A Roadmap to the Heavens: An Anthropological Study of Hegemony among Priests and Laymen" by Sigalit Ben-Zion, Yadin remarks: "it seems that this change came as a result of the order, given by Bar Kokhba, who wanted to revive the Hebrew language and make it the official language of the state." However within a century after the publication of the Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew began to fall into disuse as a spoken language. The Babylonian Gemara, as well as the earlier Jerusalem Talmud published between 350 and 400 comment on the Mishnah and Baraitot in Aramaic. Hebrew survived as a liturgical and literary language in the form of Amoraic Hebrew, which sometimes occurs in the Gemara text. Many of the characteristic features of Mishnaic Hebrew pronunciation may well have been found in the period of Late Biblical Hebrew. A notable characteristic distinguishing it from Biblical Hebrew of the classical period is the spirantization of post-vocalic stops, which it has in common with Aramaic.
A new characteristic is that final /m/ is replaced with final /n/ in the Mishna, but only in agreement morphemes. The final nasal consonant in the morphemes was not pronounced, the vowel previous to it was nasalized. Alternatively, the agreement morphemes may have changed under the influence of Aramaic; some surviving manuscripts of the Mishna confuse guttural consonants ʾaleph and ʿayin. That could be a sign. Consonants Vowels Mishnaic Hebrew displays various changes from Biblical Hebrew, some appearing in the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some, but not all, are retained in Modern Hebrew. For the expression of possession, Mishnaic Hebrew replaces the Biblical Hebrew status constructus with analytic constructions involving של'of'. Missing in Mishnaic Hebrew is the waw-consecutive; the past is expressed by using the same form as in Modern Hebrew. For example,: "משה קיבל תורה מסיני". Continuous past is expressed using the present tense of to be unlike Biblical but like Modern Hebrew. For example,: "הוא היה אומר" Present is expressed using the same form as in Modern Hebrew, by using the participle.
For example,: "על שלושה דברים העולם עומד". Future can be expressed using עתיד + infinitive. For example,: "ולפני מי אתה עתיד ליתן דין וחשבון". However, unlike Modern Hebrew but like contemporary Aramaic, the present active participle can express the future, it replaces the imperfect form in that function. The imperfect form, used for the future in modern Hebrew, expresses an imperative, volition or similar meanings in Mishnaic Hebrew. For example,: "הוא היה אומר, אל תהיו כעבדים המשמשין את הרב". In a sense, one could say th
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE