Doping in Russia
Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature. Russia has had 41 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations – the most of any country, more than three times the number of the runner-up, more than a quarter of the global total. From 2011 to 2015, more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer and Paralympic sports, benefited from a cover-up. According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with tremendous efforts". On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games not a gold medal winner, not on one sort of drug or another: several kinds; the Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements. The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics. In 2008, seven Russian track and field athletes were suspended ahead of the Summer Olympics in Beijing for manipulating their urine samples. Multiple Russian biathletes were involved in doping offences in run-up to the 2010 Olympics; the president of the International Biathlon Union, Anders Besseberg, said, "We are facing systematic doping on a large scale in one of the strongest teams of the world."Reviewing 7289 blood samples from 2737 athletes from 2001 to 2009, a report found that the number of suspicious samples from "Country A" notably exceeded other countries.
One of the authors said. In October 2009, IAAF general secretary Pierre Weiss wrote to Valentin Balakhnichev that blood samples from Russian athletes "recorded some of the highest values seen since the IAAF started testing" and that tests from the 2009 World Championships "strongly suggest a systematic abuse of blood doping or EPO-related products." In 2010, an employee at the Russian Anti-Doping Agency, Vitaly Stepanov, began sending information to the World Anti-Doping Agency alleging that RUSADA was enabling systemic doping in athletics. He said that he sent fifty letters over the course of three years. In December 2012, Darya Pishchalnikova sent an email to WADA containing details of an alleged state-run doping program in Russia. According to The New York Times, the email reached three top WADA officials but the agency decided not to open an inquiry but instead forwarded her email to Russian sports officials. In April 2013, having failed a doping test for the second time, Pishchalnikova was banned by the Russian Athletics Federation for ten years, in a move, in retaliation.
Her results from May 2012 were annulled. British journalist Nick Harris said that he contacted the IOC with allegations about Grigory Rodchenkov's laboratory in Moscow in early July 2013. According to Stepanov, "Even at WADA there were people who didn't want this story out," but he said that a person at the organization put him in contact with the German broadcaster ARD. WADA's chief investigator Jack Robertson believed that the organization was reluctant to take action and that media attention was necessary, so he obtained the permission of WADA's director-general, David Howman, to approach an investigative reporter called Hajo Seppelt, who had reported on doping in East Germany and other countries. In December 2014, ARD aired Seppelt's documentary, "Geheimsache Doping:'Wie Russland seine Sieger macht'", which uncovered alleged Russian state involvement in systematic doping, describing it as "East German-style". In the documentary and his wife Yuliya Stepanova, claimed that Russian athletics officials had supplied banned substances in exchange for 5% of an athlete's earnings and had falsified tests in cooperation with doping control officers.
It included conversations, secretly recorded by Stepanova, e.g. Russian athlete Mariya Savinova saying that contacts at a Moscow drug-testing laboratory had covered up her doping. Russian long-distance runner Liliya Shobukhova paid 450,000 euros to cover up her positive doping result. According to the allegations, Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture, who stands accused of organising state-sponsored doping in the Soviet Union, dating back to the early 1980s, was involved in the recent Russian doping programme. In January 2015, then-All-Russia Athletic Federation President Valentin Balakhnichev resigned as treasurer of the International Association of Athletics Federations. In response to the ARD documentary, WADA commissioned an investigation headed by former anti-doping agency President Dick Pound, the report of, published on 9 November 2015; the 335-page document, described as "damning" by The Guardian, reported widespread doping and large-scale cover-ups by the Russian authorities.
It stated that the Federal Security Service had visited and questioned laboratory staff and instructed some of them not to cooperate with the WADA investigation. Two staff members said
Gene doping is the hypothetical non-therapeutic use of gene therapy by athletes in order to improve their performance in those sporting events which prohibit such applications of genetic modification technology, for reasons other than the treatment of disease. As of April 2015, there is no evidence that gene doping has been used for athletic performance-enhancement in any sporting events. Gene doping would involve the use of gene transfer to increase or decrease gene expression and protein biosynthesis of a specific human protein; the historical development of interest in gene doping by athletes and concern about the risks of gene doping and how to detect it moved in parallel with the development of the field of gene therapy with the publication in 1998 of work on a transgenic mouse overexpressing insulin-like growth factor 1, much stronger than normal mice in old age, preclinical studies published in 2002 of a way to deliver erythropoietin via gene therapy, publication in 2004 of the creation of a "marathon mouse" with much greater endurance than normal mice, created by delivering the gene expressing PPAR gamma to the mice.
The scientists generating these publications were all contacted directly by athletes and coaches seeking access to the technology. The public became aware of that activity in 2006 when such efforts were part of the evidence presented in the trial of a German coach. Scientists themselves, as well as bodies including the World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, started discussing the risk of gene doping in 2001, by 2003 WADA had added gene doping to the list of banned doping practices, shortly thereafter began funding research on methods to detect gene doping. Genetic enhancement includes manipulation of genes or gene transfer by healthy athletes for the purpose of physically improving their performance. Genetic enhancement includes gene doping and has potential for abuse among athletes, all while opening the door to political and ethical controversy; the history of concern about the potential for gene doping follows the history of gene therapy, the medical use of genes to treat diseases, first clinically tested in the 1990s.
Interest by the athletic community was spurred by the creation in a university lab of a "mighty mouse", created by administering a virus carrying the gene expressing insulin-like growth factor 1 to mice. The lab had been seeking treatments for muscle wasting diseases, but when their work was made public, the lab was inundated with calls from athletes seeking the treatment, with one coach offering his whole team; the scientist told The New York Times in 2007: "I was quite surprised, I must admit. People would try to entice me, saying things like,'It'll help advance your research.' Some offered to pay me." He told the Times that every time similar research is published he gets calls and that he explains that should the treatment became ready for use in people, which would take years, there would be serious risks, including death. In 1999, the field of gene therapy was set back when Jesse Gelsinger died in a gene therapy clinical trial, suffering a massive inflammatory reaction to the drug; this led regulatory authorities in the US and Europe to increase safety requirements in clinical trials beyond the initial restrictions, put in place at the beginning of the biotechnology era to deal with the risks of recombinant DNA.
In June 2001, Theodore Friedmann, one of the pioneers of gene therapy, Johann Olav Koss an Olympic gold medallist in speed skating, published a paper, the first public warning about gene doping. In June 2001, a Gene Therapy Working Group, convened by the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee noted that "we are aware that there is the potential for abuse of gene therapy medicines and we shall begin to establish procedures and state-of-the-art testing methods for identifying athletes who might misuse such technology". Research was published in 2002 about a preclinical gene therapy called Repoxygen, which delivered the gene encoding erythropoietin as a potential treatment for anemia; the scientists from that company received calls from athletes and coaches. In that same year the World Anti-Doping Agency held its first meeting to discuss the risk of gene doping, the US The President's Council on Bioethics discussed gene doping in the context of human enhancement at several sessions.
In 2003, the field of gene therapy took a step back. In 2003 the BALCO scandal became public, in which chemists and athletes conspired to evade doping controls with new and undetectable doping substances. In 2003 the World Doping Agency proactively added gene doping to the list of banned doping practices. In 2003, a symposium convened by the American Association for the Advancement of Science focused on the issue. Research published in 2004 showing that mice given gene therapy coding for a protein called PPAR gamma had about double the endurance of untreated mice and were dubbed "marathon mice". In 2004 the World Anti-Dopi
Doping in sport
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors. The term doping is used by organizations that regulate sporting competitions; the use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unethical, therefore prohibited, by most international sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. Furthermore, athletes taking explicit measures to evade detection exacerbates the ethical violation with overt deception and cheating. Speaking, the origins of doping in sports go back to the creation of sport itself. From ancient usage of substances in chariot racing to more recent controversies in baseball and cycling, popular views among athletes have varied from country to country over the years; the general trend among authorities and sporting organizations over the past several decades has been to regulate the use of drugs in sport. The reasons for the ban are the health risks of performance-enhancing drugs, the equality of opportunity for athletes, the exemplary effect of drug-free sport for the public.
Anti-doping authorities state that using performance-enhancing drugs goes against the "spirit of sport". The use of drugs in sports goes back centuries, about all the way back to the invention of the concept of sports. In ancient times, when the fittest of a nation were selected as athletes or combatants, they were fed diets and given treatments considered beneficial to help increase muscle. For instance, Scandinavian mythology says Berserkers could drink a mixture called "butotens", to increase their physical power at the risk of insanity. One theory is that the mixture was prepared from the Amanita muscaria mushroom, though this has been disputed; the ancient Olympics in Greece have been alleged to have had forms of doping. In ancient Rome, where chariot racing had become a huge part of their culture, athletes drank herbal infusions to strengthen them before chariot races. More a participant in an endurance walking race in Britain, Abraham Wood, said in 1807 that he had used laudanum to keep him awake for 24 hours while competing against Robert Barclay Allardyce.
By April 1877, walking races had stretched to 500 miles and the following year at the Agricultural Hall in Islington, London, to 520 miles. The Illustrated London News chided: It may be an advantage to know that a man can travel 520 miles in 138 hours, manage to live through a week with an infinitesimal amount of rest, though we fail to perceive that anyone could be placed in a position where his ability in this respect would be of any use to him what is to be gained by a constant repetition of the fact; the event proved popular, with 20,000 spectators attending each day. Encouraged, the promoters soon held similar races for cyclists. "...and much more to endure their miseries publicly. That's much more fun"; the fascination with six-day bicycle races spread across the Atlantic and the same appeal brought in the crowds in America as well. And the more spectators paid at the gate, the higher the prizes could be and the greater was the incentive of riders to stay awake—or be kept awake—to ride the greatest distance.
Their exhaustion was countered by helpers akin to seconds in boxing. Among the treatments they supplied was nitroglycerine, a drug used to stimulate the heart after cardiac attacks and, credited with improving riders' breathing. Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and the drugs; the American champion Major Taylor refused to continue the New York race, saying: "I cannot go on with safety, for there is a man chasing me around the ring with a knife in his hand."Public reaction turned against such trials, whether individual races or in teams of two. One report said: An athletic contest in which the participants'go queer' in their heads, strain their powers until their faces become hideous with the tortures that rack them, is not sport, it is brutality, it appears from the reports of this singular performance that some of the bicycle riders have become temporarily insane during the contest... Days and weeks of recuperation will be needed to put the racers in condition, it is that some of them will never recover from the strain.
The father of anabolic steroids in the United States was John Ziegler, a physician for the U. S. weightlifting team in the mid-20th century. In 1954, on his tour to Vienna with his team for the world championship, Ziegler learned from his Russian colleague that the Soviet weightlifting team's success was due to their use of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug. Deciding that U. S. athletes needed chemical assistance to remain competitive, Ziegler worked with the CIBA Pharmaceutical Company to develop an oral anabolic steroid. This resulted in the creation of methandrostenolone, which appeared on the market in 1960. During the Olympics that year, the Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed and died while competing in the 100-kilometer race. An autopsy revealed the presence of amphetamines and a drug called nicotinyl tartrate in his system; the American specialist in doping, Max M. Novich, wrote: "Trainers of the old school who supplied treatments which had cocaine as their base declared with assurance that a rider tired by a six-day race would get his second breath after absorbing these mixtures."
John Hoberman, a professor at the University of Texas in Austin, said six-day races were "de facto experiments investigating the physiology of stress as well as the substances that might all
Blood doping is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. Because such blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, a higher concentration in the blood can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance. Many methods of blood doping are illegal in professional sports. Blood doping is defined as the use of illicit products and methods in order to enhance the O2 transport of the body to the muscles; the body undergoes aerobic respiration in order to provide sufficient delivery of O2 to the exercising skeletal muscles and the main determining factors are shown in figure 1. The rate of maximum O2 uptake depends on O2 extraction and hemoglobin mass; the cardiac output of an athlete is difficult to manipulate during competitions and the distribution of cardiac output is at the maximum rate during competitions. In addition, the O2 extraction is 90% at maximal exercise. Therefore, the only method to enhance the physical performance left is to increase the O2 content in the artery by enhancing the hemoglobin mass.
In other words, hemoglobin concentration and blood volume contribute to hemoglobin mass. Many forms of blood doping stem from the misuse of pharmaceuticals; these drug treatments have been created for clinical use to increase the oxygen delivery when the human body is not able to do so naturally. Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney that signal for erythropoiesis in bone marrow; the increased activity of a Hemocytoblast allows the blood to have a greater carrying capacity for oxygen. EPO was first developed to counteract the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer patients. EPO stimulates increased wound healing; because of its physiological side effects increased hematocrit, EPO has become a drug with abuse potential by professional and amateur cyclists. Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizer is a pharmaceutical used to treat chronic kidney disease. Like most transcription factors, the HIF transcription factor is responsible for the expression of a protein.
The HIF stabilizer activates the activity of EPO due to anemia induced hypoxia, metabolic stress, vasculogenesis—the creation of new blood vessels. HIF stabilizers as used by cyclists in combination with cobalt chloride/desferrioxamine stimulate and de-regulate the natural production of erythropoietin hormone. At physiologically low PaO2 around 40 mmHg, EPO is released from the kidneys to increase hemoglobin transportation; the combination of drugs releases EPO due to increased transcription at the cellular level. The effect wears off when the HIF stabilizers, cobalt chloride/desferrioxamine is excreted and/or decayed by the body. Myo-inositol trispyrophosphate known as compound number OXY111A, is an allosteric effector of hemoglobin which causes a rightward shift in the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve, increasing the amount of oxygen released from red blood cells into surrounding tissue during each passage through the cardiovascular system. ITPP has been a subject of anti-doping research in both racehorses.
Blood transfusions can be traditionally classified as autologous, where the blood donor and transfusion recipient are the same, or as allogeneic/homologous, where the blood is transfused into someone other than the donor. Blood transfusion begins by the withdrawal of 1 to 4 units of blood several weeks before competition; the blood is centrifuged, the plasma components are reinfused, the corpuscular elements, principally red blood cells, are stored refrigerated at 4 °C or frozen at −80 °C. As blood stored by refrigeration displays a steady decline in the number of RBCs, a substantial percentage, up to 40%, of the stored RBCs may not be viable; the freezing process, limits the aging of the cells, allowing the storage of the blood for up to 10 years with a 10% to 15% loss of RBCs. Stored RBCs are reinfused 1 to 7 days before a high-endurance event; as a significant amount of iron is removed by each autologous transfusion, an adequate time for recovery of not less than 3 days from the last donation, appropriate iron supplements, are required for patients undergoing autologous donations.
Nearly 50% of autologous donations are not used by the donor and are discarded, as current standards do not allow transfusion of these units to another patient for safety reasons. Biochemical and biotechnological development has allowed novel approaches to this issue, in the form of engineered O2 carriers known as “blood substitutes.” The blood substitutes available are chiefly polymerized haemoglobin solutions or haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and perfluorocarbons. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers are intra/ inter-molecularly engineered human or animal hemoglobins, only optimized for oxygen delivery and longer intravascular circulation; the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate within erythrocytes maintains the normal affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. HBOCs do not contain erythrocytes and lose this interaction, unmodified human HBOC solutions have a high oxygen affinity which compromises their function. Chemical methods developed to overcome this problem have resulted in carriers that release oxygen at the physiological pO2 of peripheral tissues.
A common feature of all HBOCs is their resistance to dissociate when dissolved in media, which contrasts hemoglobin of natural dissociation under non-physiological conditions
Boosting is a method of inducing autonomic dysreflexia with the intention of enhancing performance in sport. It can be used by an athlete with a spinal cord injury to increase their blood pressure and is performed by causing a painful stimulus in the lower part of the body; the International Paralympic Committee banned the practice in 1994, but many competitors with spinal injuries are still thought to be using it as a performance enhancer. Athletes with spinal injuries can have difficulties with autonomic functions and their bodies may be unable to control blood pressure and heart rate; because of this their bodies do not adapt to the increased demand of physical activity. Without these changes the athlete can suffer from a lower level of endurance. Boosting works by tricking the body into a state of high blood pressure and heart rate, with an increased utilization of oxygen improving the athlete's performance. Athletes who perform boosting before or during an event will self-harm with some taking extreme measures to achieve the desired boost level.
Techniques include: Clamping the catheter to ensure that the bladder becomes overly full Overly tightening leg straps Electric shocks or stress to the feet, scrotum, or testicles Breaking a bone in the toe. Boosting has been shown in simulated races to give noticeable improvements in the performance of wheelchair marathon athletes. In the 1994 study the athletes attained an average 9.7 percent improvement after their bladder had been over-distended or after sitting in the racing chair for 1–2 hours prior to competing. It is believed to be capable of enhancing performance by up to 15 percent. There are many possible side effects of boosting, including the occurrence of a cerebrovascular or cardiovascular event such as a stroke or heart attack. Other complications include: aphasia bradycardia cerebral haemorrhage epilepsy hypertension hyperthermia neurological abnormalities visual disturbances The IPC conducted a survey during the 2008 Games with 99 responses. 16.7 percent of the participants indicated that they had tried boosting in training or during a competition, with more than half of them being competitors in wheelchair rugby.
The use of boosting continues in athletes but is difficult to detect. During the Games 20 athletes were tested just before their event for evidence of boosting but there were no positive results; the IPC made boosting illegal in 1994. Their handbook states in Chapter 4.3: An athlete with a systolic blood pressure of 180mm Hg or above will be re-examined ten minutes after the first examination. If on the second examination the systolic blood pressure remains above 180mm Hg the person in charge of the examination shall inform the Technical Delegate to withdraw the athlete from the particular competition in question. Any deliberate attempt to induce Autonomic Dysreflexia is forbidden and will be reported to the Technical Delegate; the athlete will be disqualified from the particular competition regardless of the systolic blood pressure. Cheating at the Paralympic Games Legg, David. "Autonomic Dysreflexia in Wheelchair Sport: A New Game in the Legal Arena?". Marquette Sports Law Review
Aircraft dope is a plasticised lacquer, applied to fabric-covered aircraft. It tightens and stiffens fabric stretched over airframes, which renders them airtight and weatherproof. Typical doping agents include cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate. Liquid dopes are flammable. Dopes include colouring pigments to facilitate application, are available in a wide range of colors. Dope has been applied to various aircraft fabrics, including madapolam, but more on polyester and other fabrics with similar fine weave and absorbent qualities. Accidents have occurred when dope is not used for example when mixed with other chemicals, used on the wrong fabrics, or applied to contaminated or improperly prepared surfaces. In the 1930 R101 disaster, improper doping caused the fabric of the airship to become brittle and torn. On 27 April 1995 91-year-old aircraft designer and significant figure in the homebuilt aircraft movement, Steve Wittman and his wife were killed when their Wittman O&O Special broke up in flight due to delamination and separation of the wing fabric, resulting in wing aeroelastic flutter.
The US National Transportation Safety Board investigation determined that the layers and types of doping they used did not have "the best adhesive qualities" and referred to "the Poly-Fiber Covering and Painting Manual" for proper processes to use