Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans allowing to brew. There are several methods for doing this, including using a filter, a percolator, a French press. Terms used for the resulting coffee reflect the method used, such as drip brewed coffee, filtered coffee, pour-over coffee, immersion brewed coffee, or coffee. Water seeps through the ground coffee, absorbing its constituent chemical compounds, passes through a filter; the used coffee grounds are retained in the filter, while the brewed coffee is collected in a vessel such as a carafe or pot. Paper coffee filters were invented in Germany by Melitta Bentz in 1908 and are used for drip brew all over the world. In 1954 the Wigomat, invented by Gottlob Widmann, was patented in Germany being the first electrical drip brewer. Drip brew coffee makers replaced the coffee percolator in the 1970s due to the percolators' tendency to over-extract coffee, thereby making it bitter. One benefit of paper filters is that the used grounds and the filter may be disposed of together, without a need to clean the filter.
Permanent filters are now common, made of thin perforated metal sheets or fine plastic mesh that restrain the grounds but allow the coffee to pass, thus eliminating the need to have to purchase separate filters which sometimes cannot be found in some parts of the world. These reduce overall cost and produce less waste. Filter coffee is central to connoisseurship. Drip brewing is a used method of coffee brewing. There are several manual drip-brewing devices on the market, offering a little more control over brewing parameters than automatic machines, which incorporate stopper valves and other innovations that offer greater control over steeping time and the proportion of coffee to water. There exist small, single-serving drip brew makers that only hold the filter and rest on top of a mug or cup. Hot water drips directly into the cup. Brewing with a paper filter produces light-bodied coffee. While free of sediments, such coffee is lacking in some of coffee's essences. Metal filters do not remove these components.
It may be observed when using a tall, narrow carafe, that the coffee at the bottom of the coffeepot is stronger than that at the top. This is because less flavor is available for extraction from the coffee grounds as the brewing process progresses. A mathematical argument has been made that delivering comparable strength in two cups of coffee is nearly achieved using a Thue-Morse sequence of pours; this analysis prompted a whimsical article in the popular press. A less familiar form of drip brewing is the reversible or "flip" pot known as Napoletana. In South India, filter coffee brewed at home is a part of local culture. Most houses have a stainless steel coffee filter and most shops sell freshly roasted and ground coffee beans; some popular filter coffee brands include Mysore café, Hill coffee, Gotha's coffee and Narasu'scoffee. It is common in South India to add an additive called chicory to coffee to give it a unique taste and flavour. Hand Drip Coffee
A shot glass is a small glass designed to hold or measure spirits or liquor, either imbibed straight from the glass or poured into a cocktail. An alcoholic beverage served in a shot glass and consumed in one gulp, may be known as a "shooter". Shot glasses decorated with a wide variety of toasts, humorous pictures, or other decorations and words are popular souvenirs and collectibles as merchandise of a brewery; the word "shot", meaning a drink of alcohol, has been used since at least the 17th century, while reference to a shot as a small drink of spirits is known in the U. S. since at least the 1920s. The phrase "shot glass" has been in use since at least 1940; some of the earliest small whiskey glasses in America from the late 1700s to early 1800s were called "whiskey tasters" or "whiskey tumblers" and were hand blown. They are thick, similar to today's shot glasses, but will show a pontil mark or scar on the bottom, or will show a cupped area on the bottom where the pontil mark was ground and polished off.
Some of these glasses have hand-applied handles and decorations hand cut by a grinding wheel. In the early to mid-1800s, glass blowers began to use molds and several different patterns of "whiskey tasters" in several different colors were being made in molds; these glasses are thick like today's shot glass but they will have rough pontiled bottoms from being hand blown into the mold. By the 1870s to 1890s as glass making technology improved, the rough pontiled bottoms disappeared from glasses and bottles. Just before Prohibition in the U. S. in the late 1800s to early 1900s, thin-sided mass-produced whiskey glasses were common. Many of these glasses feature etched advertising on them. After Prohibition, these were replaced by shot glasses with thick sides; these glasses are for those wary of heavy drinking. Their bottoms are sturdy and thick so they give the illusion of a plain shot glass when in reality they only hold half as much liquid. A basic shot glass with fluting featured on the base of the glass.
Pony glasses can only hold about an ounce of fluid each but are used while mixing drinks into a larger glass. Tall shot glasses are narrower, they only hold a standard 1.5 ounces of liquid. In a rounded shot glasses the walls of the glass curve is down leaving a 10 centimeter difference between the lip of the glass and the bottom rim of the glass, they are popular in Europe. A jigger or measure is a bartending tool used to measure liquor, then poured into a glass or cocktail shaker; the term jigger in the sense of a small cup or measure of spirits or wine originates in the U. S. in the early 19th century. It was slang for the special cup used for it. Many references from the 1800s describe the "jigger boss" providing jiggers of whiskey to Irish immigrant workers who were digging canals in the U. S. Northeast; the style of double-ended jigger common today, made of stainless steel with two unequal sized opposing cones in an hourglass shape, was patented in 1893 by Cornelius Dungan of Chicago. One cone measures a regulation single shot, the other some fraction or multiple—with the actual sizes depending on local laws and customs.
A contemporary jigger measure in the U. S. holds 1.5 US fluid ounces, while the jiggers used in the U. K. are 25 ml or sometimes 35 ml. Jiggers may hold other amounts and ratios, can vary depending on the region and date of manufacture. In the U. S. up until Prohibition, a jigger was known to be about half a gill, or 2 US fluid ounces, but starting in the latter part of the 20th century, it is interpreted to be 1.5 US fluid ounces. A shot glass graduated in smaller units such as half-ounces, tablespoons, or millilitres, they are useful for precise measurement of cocktail ingredients, as well as in cooking recipes that call for multiples of a smaller unit, allowing the dispensing of the amount in a single measure. Alcoholic spirits measure Alcohol measurements The Shotglass collectors website
Ristretto is traditionally a short shot of espresso coffee made with the normal amount of ground coffee but extracted with about half the amount of water in the same amount of time by using a finer grind. This produces a concentrated shot of coffee per volume. Just pulling a normal shot short could be confused as a Ristretto, however, it is not a Ristretto, only a weaker shot; the opposite of a ristretto is a lungo, double the shot volume. Ristretto means “shortened” or “narrow” in Italian whereas lungo means “long.” The French equivalent of ristretto is café serré. Regardless of whether one uses a hand pressed machine or an automatic, a regular double shot is considered to be around 14–18 grams of ground coffee extracted into 60 ml. Thus, a “double ristretto” consumes the same amount of coffee beans but fills only a single shot glass. Coffee contains over a thousand aroma compounds. A ristretto’s chemical composition and taste differ from those of a full length extraction for three reasons: More concentrated: The first part of any extraction is the most concentrated, its color lying between dark chocolate and umber, whereas the tail end of shots are much lighter, varying from the color of dark pumpkin pie to varying shades of tan.
This is an important factor. Different balance: Different chemical compounds in ground coffee dissolve into hot water at different rates. A ristretto contains a greater relative proportion of faster extracting compounds, proportionally fewer of the compounds characteristic of over-extraction, thus, a different balance. Fewer total extracts: Relative proportions aside, fewer total coffee compounds—caffeine being just one—are extracted into ristrettos versus full length shots; this is an important factor when diluting shots into milk. Straight ristrettos—shots that are traditionally drunk from a demitasse and not diluted into a larger cup containing milk or water—could be described as bolder, with more body and less bitterness; these characteristics are attributed to espresso in general but are more pronounced in a ristretto. Diluted into a cup of water or milk, ristrettos are less bitter and exhibit a more intense “espresso” character. Espresso List of coffee beverages Lungo CoffeeResearch.org: Coffee Science WikiHow: How to Make a Ristretto TooMuchCoffee: The European Coffee and Espresso Resource
Coffea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. Coffea species are small trees native to tropical and southern Africa and tropical Asia; the seeds of some species, called coffee beans, are used to flavor various products. The fruits, like the seeds, contain a large amount of caffeine, have a distinct sweet taste and are juiced; the plant ranks as one of the world's most valuable and traded commodity crops and is an important export product of several countries, including those in Central and South America, the Caribbean and Africa. There are over 120 species of Coffea, grown from seed; the two most popular are Coffea arabica, which accounts for 60–80% of the world's coffee production, Coffea canephora, which accounts for about 20–40%. The trees produce edible red or purple fruits, known sometimes erroneously as "cherries", which are described either as epigynous berries or as indehiscent drupes; these called "coffee beans", though they are not true beans. In about 5–10% of any crop of coffee fruits, only a single bean is found.
Called a peaberry, it is rounder than a normal coffee bean. These are removed from the yield and either sold separately or discarded; when grown in the tropics, coffee is a vigorous bush or small tree that grows to a height of 3–3.5 m. Most cultivated coffee species grow best at high elevations, but do not tolerate freezing temperatures; the tree of Coffea arabica will grow fruits after three to five years, producing for an average of 50 to 60 years, although up to 100 is possible. The white flowers are scented; the fruit takes about 9 months to ripen. The caffeine in coffee "beans" serves as a toxic substance protecting the seeds of the plant, a form of natural plant defense against herbivory. Fruits and leaves contain caffeine, can be used to make a tea; the fruit is used in many brands of soft drink as well as pre-packaged teas. Several insect pests affect coffee production, including the coffee borer beetle and the coffee leafminer. Coffee is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, Dalcera abrasa, turnip moth and some members of the genus Endoclita, including E. damor and E. malabaricus.
New species of Coffea are still being identified in the 2000s. In 2008 and 2009, researchers from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew named seven from the mountains of northern Madagascar, including C. ambongensis, C. boinensis, C. labatii, C. pterocarpa, C. bissetiae, C. namorokensis. In 2008, two new species were discovered in Cameroon. Coffea charrieriana, caffeine-free, Coffea anthonyi. By crossing the new species with other known coffees, two new features might be introduced to cultivated coffee plants: beans without caffeine and self-pollination. In 2014, the coffee genome was published, with more than 25,000 genes identified; this revealed that coffee plants make caffeine using a different set of genes from those found in tea and other such plants. World Checklist of Rubiaceae Coffee & Conservation
S795 is a coffee cultivar important for being one of the first strains of C. arabica found to be resistant to coffee leaf rust. It is a selection of the Balehonnur Coffee Research Station in India and it is believed to have originated as a natural hybrid between C. arabica and C. liberica known as S288 and the Kent variety, a hybrid of Typica and an unknown other type. Both S288 and Kent are known to be resistant to many rust races and the Kent variety is a high-yielding tree; the resultant S795 cultivar exhibits rust resistance, high yield, a good cup profile, making it a desirable cultivar. S795 is planted in India and Indonesia. In India, it represents 25-30% of the acreage of arabica coffee. S795 is a tall and vigorous shrub producing a high number of primary and secondary plagiotropic branches; the fruit are medium in size and oblong in shape and progress from green when young to dark red when ripe. Each node produces around 14 - 16 cherries. New leaves are a light bronze color List of coffee varieties
Fair trade coffee
Fair Trade coffee is coffee, certified as having been produced to fair trade standards. Fair trade organizations create trading partnerships that are based on dialogue and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade; these partnerships contribute to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to coffee bean farmers. Fair trade organizations are engaged in supporting producers and sustainable environmental farming practices. Fair trade practices prohibit forced labor. Prior to fair trade, prices were regulated by the International Coffee Organization according to the regulations set forth by the International Coffee Agreement of 1962; this agreement, negotiated at the United Nations by the Coffee Study Group, set limits on the amount of coffee traded between countries so there would be no excess supply and consequent drop in price. The ICA existed for five years, was renewed in 1968; the agreement was renegotiated in 1976 due to increasing coffee prices a result of a severe frost in Brazil.
The new agreement allowed for the suspension of price quotas if the supply of coffee could not meet the demand, enabling them if prices dropped too low. In 1984, the agreement was again redrawn, this time creating a database on coffee trade, implementing stricter import and export regulations. Fair trade certification was introduced in 1988 following a coffee crisis in which the supply of coffee was greater than the demand. Launched in the Netherlands, fair trade certification aimed to artificially raise coffee prices in order to ensure growers sufficient wages to turn a profit; the original name of the organization was "Max Havelaar", after a fictional Dutch character who opposed the exploitation of coffee farmers by Dutch colonialists in the East Indies. The organization created a label for products. Quotas remained a part of the agreement until 1989, when the organization was unable to negotiate a new agreement in time for the next year, it was decided that the 1983 agreement would be extended, but without the quotas because they had not yet been determined.
A new agreement could not be negotiated until 1992. From 1990 to 1992, without the quotas in place, coffee prices reached an all-time low because coffee price quotas could not be decided; the agreements of 2001 and 2007 aimed to stabilize the coffee economy by promoting coffee consumption, raising the standard of living of growers by providing economic counselling, expanding research to include niche markets and quality relating to geographic area, conducting studies of sustainability, principles similar to fair trade. Following the inception of fair trade certification, the "Transfair" label was launched in Germany, within ten years three other labeling organizations commenced: The Fairtrade Foundation, TransFair USA, Rättvisemärkt. In 1997, these four organizations jointly created Fairtrade International, which continues to set Fairtrade standards and certifying growers; the fair trade labeling organizations having most of the market share and who sell through supermarkets refer to a definition developed by FINE, an association of four international fair trade networks.
The standards developed by Fairtrade Labelling Organization are the most used. The certification scheme is run by Fairtrade International. Coffee packers pay Fairtrade a fee for the right to use the Fairtrade logo, which gives consumers an assurance that the coffee meets Fairtrade criteria; the coffee with this certification mark must be produced by farmers and cooperatives that meet these criteria. Coffee retailers are not restricted by Fairtrade to sell Fairtrade coffee as a premium product and charge as much as they like for the coffee. Importers of Fairtrade coffee have to pay a fee. Under the Fairtrade International standards they are obliged to pay a minimum price to the exporting organization $1.40c/lb New York Board of Trade “C” contract, F. O. B. Origin for Arabica, $1.05 for Robusta London “EURONEXT LIFFE” contract, F. O. B origin with 30c/lb extra for organic; when the world price is above this level, they are obliged to pay 20c/lb above the world price. Certified Fairtrade coffee is exported by secondary or tertiary cooperatives, marketing this coffee on behalf of the cooperatives the farmers belong to with arrangements that may be complex.
There is not enough demand to take all the certified coffee produced, so most has to be sold as uncertified. In 2001 only 13.6% could be sold as certified so limits were placed on new cooperatives joining the scheme. This plus an increased demand put up sales of certified to around 50% in 2003 with a figure of 37% cited in recent years; some exporting cooperatives do not manage to sell any of their output as certified, others sell as little as 8%. The exporting cooperatives incur costs including certification and inspection fees, additional marketing costs, costs of conforming to standards, additional costs of cooperative operation, costs which are incurred on all coffee production if little or none is marketed as certified, with a higher price, so the cooperatives may make a loss on Fairtrade membership. Weber reports cooperatives not able to cover the extra costs of a marketing team for Fairtrade, with one covering only 70% of these costs after six years of Fairtrade membership. Any deficit after paying these costs means a lower price
An espresso machine brews coffee by forcing pressurized water near boiling point through a "puck" of ground coffee and a filter in order to produce a thick, concentrated coffee called espresso. The first machine for making espresso was built and patented in 1884 by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy. An improved design was patented on April 1903, by Luigi Bezzera; the founder of the La Pavoni company bought the patent and from 1905 produced espresso machines commercially on a small scale in Milan. Multiple machine designs have been created to produce espresso. Several machines share some common elements, such as a portafilter. An espresso machine may have a steam wand, used to steam and froth liquids for coffee drinks such as cappuccino and caffe latte. Espresso machines may be piston-driven, pump-driven, or air-pump-driven. Machines may be manual or automatic; the first machine for making espresso was built and patented by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, who demonstrated a working example at the Turin General Exposition of 1884.
He was granted patent no. 33/256 dated 16 May 1884. A certificate of industrial title was awarded to Mr. Moriondo Angelo, of Turin, for an invention called "New steam machinery for the economic and instantaneous confection of coffee beverage, method'A. Moriondo', Plate CXL". In 1901, Luigi Bezzera of Milan patented improvements to the machine. Bezzera was not a mechanic, he patented a number of improvements to the existing machine, the first of, applied for on the 19th of December 1901. It was titled "Innovations in the machinery to prepare and serve coffee beverage". In 1905 the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni who founded the La Pavoni company and began to produce the machine commercially in a small workshop in Via Parini in Milan. Multiple machine designs have been created to produce espresso. Several machines share some common elements. Varying the fineness of the grind, the amount of pressure used to tamp the grinds, or the pressure itself can be used to vary the taste of the espresso; some baristas pull espresso shots directly into a pre-heated demitasse cup or shot glass, to maintain a higher temperature of the espresso.
The piston-driven, or lever-driven, machine was developed in Italy in 1945 by Achille Gaggia, founder of espresso machine manufacturer Gaggia. The design generically uses a lever, pumped by the operator, to pressurize hot water and send it through the coffee grinds; the act of producing a shot of espresso is colloquially termed pulling a shot, because these lever-driven espresso machines required pulling a long handle to produce a shot. Lever-driven espresso machines are sometimes called manual espresso machines because of this. There are two types of lever machines. With the manual piston, the operator directly pushes the water through the grounds. In the spring piston design, the operator works to tension a spring, which delivers the pressure for the espresso. A steam-driven unit operates by forcing water through the coffee by using steam pressure; the first espresso machines were steam types, produced when a common boiler was piped to four group heads so that multiple types of coffee could be made at the same time.
This design is still used today in lower-cost consumer machines, as it does not need to contain moving parts. Steam-driven machines do not produce as high of a pressure for extraction compared to pump-driven; this results in a hallmark of an espresso, being of lower quality. A refinement of the piston machine is the pump-driven machine, introduced in the Faema E61 in 1961, has become the most popular design in commercial espresso bars. Instead of using manual force, a motor-driven pump provides the force necessary for espresso brewing. Espresso machines are made to accept water directly from a cold water line supply, common in commercial installations, or from a separate tank that must be filled with water by hand; the latter is more common with domestic espresso machines. Due to the required high pumping pressure and precision flow control needed, the particular type of electric pumps used are known as solenoid-piston pumps; these pumps are classified as a positive displacement type of pump. Four variants exist depending on how brew water and steam are boiled.
Single boiler These machines can brew only, not steam, requiring only a single boiler. They are uncommon, with steam wands being a simple and valued addition. Single boiler, dual use Some home pump espresso machines use a single chamber both to heat water to brewing temperature and to boil water for steaming milk. However, they can perform only one operation at a time, requiring a warm up period between the execution of espresso pull and the milk frothing process. Since the temperature for brewing is less than the temperature for creating steam the machine requires time to make the transition from one mode to the other. Moreover, after the brewing process, a single boiler will expel quantities of water through the steam wand that were left over from brewing, which can cause the steam heated milk to have a watered down taste. To avoid this, the leftover water needs to be collected from the steam wand before steaming of the milk should begin. SB/DUs are found within the lower tiers of enthusiast home models, with steam wands being a