Val Veny is a lateral valley of the Mont Blanc massif, lying to the south-west of Courmayeur. The valley head is at the Seigne Pass, val Veny was formed by two glaciers, the Miage Glacier and the Brenva Glacier. On the opposite side you can see Mont Blanc, the Dent du Géant, at the entrance of the valley lies the shrine of Our Lady of Healing. Val Veny is the point of the normal Italian route on Mont Blanc via the Miage Glacier
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning White Mountain, is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia after the Caucasus peaks. It rises 4,808 m above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence, the mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, skiing, the three towns and their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley and Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics, a cable car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The 11.6 km Mont Blanc Tunnel, constructed between 1957 and 1965, runs beneath the mountain and is a major transport route.
The first recorded ascent of Mont Blanc was on 8 August 1786 by Jacques Balmat and this climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering. The first woman to reach the summit was Marie Paradis in 1808, nowadays the summit is ascended by an average of 20,000 mountaineer-tourists each year. It could be considered an easy, yet arduous, ascent for someone who is well-trained and acclimatized to the altitude, from lAiguille du Midi, Mont Blanc seems quite close, being 1,000 m higher. Some routes require knowledge of mountaineering, a guide. All routes are long and arduous, involving delicate passages and the hazard of rock-fall or avalanche, climbers may suffer altitude sickness, occasionally life threatening, particularly if they do not acclimatize to it. Since the French Revolution, the issue of the ownership of the summit has been debated, from 1416 to 1792, the entire mountain was within the Duchy of Savoy.
In 1723 the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, acquired the Kingdom of Sardinia, the resulting state of Sardinia was to become preeminent in the Italian unification. In September 1792, the French revolutionary Army of the Alps under Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac seized Savoy without much resistance, in a treaty of 15 May 1796, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to cede Savoy and Nice to France. This act further states that the border should be visible from the town of Chamonix, neither the peak of the Mont Blanc is visible from Courmayeur nor the peak of the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur is visible from Chamonix because part of the mountains lower down obscure them. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna restored the King of Sardinia in Savoy and Piedmont, his traditional territories, forty-five years later, after the Second Italian War of Independence, it was replaced by a new legal act. This act was signed in Turin on 24 March 1860 by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, a demarcation agreement, signed on 7 March 1861, defined the new border.
With the formation of Italy, for the first time Mont Blanc was located on the border of France, the 1860 act and attached maps are still legally valid for both the French and Italian governments
The Miage Glacier is a debris-covered glacier in the upper Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy. It is situated on the southwest flank of the Mont Blanc massif and this descends for 2.5 km below the Col Infranchissible turns south-east to merge with other glaciers, thence continuing as the Glacier du Miage. At around 10 km in length, the Miage Glacier is Italys longest glacier, approximately 5 km2 of its total area of ~11 km2 is covered in debris originating primarily in rockfall from surrounding walls and avalanching in accumulation areas of its four tributaries. Debris carried along within the glacier is being exposed at increased rates due to accelerating thinning of the glacier tongue, patchy areas can occur, where crevasses or moulins occur. Miage Lake is a lake near the southern end of the Miage Glacier. It is a popular tourist attraction due to the ice cliffs rising up to one side. The colours reflect varying sediment concentrations in the water which arise as a result of the effect of the debris.
Huge ice blocks have been known to break off the glacier and fall into the lake, on August 7,1996, a particularly large block, estimated to have had a volume of 7000-16000m3, fell into the lake causing an abnormally large wave that seriously injured several people
The Po is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy. The Po flows either 652 km or 682 km – considering the length of the Maira, the headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. The Po ends at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice and it has a drainage area of 74,000 km² in all,70,000 in Italy, of which 41,000 is in montane environments and 29,000 on the plain. The Po is the longest river in Italy, at its widest point its width is 503 m, the Po extends along the 45th parallel north. The river flows through many important Italian cities, including Turin, Piacenza and it is connected to Milan through a net of channels called navigli, which Leonardo da Vinci helped design. Near the end of its course, it creates a delta at the southern part of which is Comacchio. The Po valley was the territory of the Roman Cisalpine Gaul, divided into Cispadane Gaul, the Po begins in the Alps, and is in Italy, and flows eastward.
The river is subject to heavy flooding, over half its length is controlled with argini, or dikes. The slope of the valley decreases from 0. 35% in the west to 0. 14% in the east and it is characterized by its large discharge. The vast valley around the Po is called the Po Basin or Po Valley, in 2002, more than 16 million people lived there, at the time nearly ⅓ of the population of Italy. The two main uses of the valley are for industry and for agriculture, both major uses. The industrial centres, such as Turin and Milan, are located on higher terrain and they rely for power on the numerous hydroelectric stations in or on the flanks of the Alps, and on the coal/oil power stations which use the water of the Po basin as coolant. Drainage from the north is mediated through several large, scenic lakes, the streams are now controlled by so many dams as to slow the rivers sedimentation rate, causing geologic problems. The main products of the farms around the river are cereals including – unusually for Europe – rice, the latter method is the chief consumer of surface water, while industrial and human consumption use underground water.
The Po Delta wetlands have been protected by the institution of two parks in the regions in which it is situated and Emilia-Romagna. The Po Delta Regional Park in Emilia-Romagna, the largest, consists of four parcels of land on the bank of the Po. Executive authority resides in an assembly of the presidents of the provinces, the mayors of the comuni and they employ a Technical-Scientific Committee and a Park Council to carry out directives. In 1999 the park was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and was added to Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, the 53,653 ha of the park contain wetlands, forest and salt pans
Courmayeur is a town and comune in northern Italy, in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley. Courmayeur shares administration of Mont Blanc with its neighboring commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains in France, Courmayeur shares access to the glacial ski run of the Vallée Blanche with another French town, which sits at the opposite, side of the Mont Blanc massif. The ancient Curia Maior was always a popular tourist destination, thanks to its spa, during World War II, under the fascist regime and its italianist rule, the town was briefly renamed Cormaiore. Courmayeur’s picturesque mountain scenery make it an attractive year-round destination and it is cited as Italys best all-round ski resort, and contains the Giardino Botanico Alpino Saussurea, which describes itself as Europes highest botanical garden. The Church of Saint-Pantaléon dates to the 18th century, in the summer months Courmayeur is a popular destination for hikers. The nearby village of La Palud is the station of the Skyway Monte Bianco.
This links to the Vallée Blanche Aerial Tramway going to the Aiguille du Midi, which connects to the Téléphérique de lAiguille du Midi, the Courmayeur Noir in festival, an annual film and literature event, was introduced in 1991 and takes place in December. Chamonix, France Courmayeur travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Courmayeur Noir in festival Sci Club Courmayeur Monte Bianco
Ivrea is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy. Situated on the leading to the Aosta Valley, it straddles the Dora Baltea and is regarded as the centre of the Canavese area. Ivrea lies in a basin that in prehistoric times formed a large lake, today five smaller lakes — Sirio, San Michele, Pistono and Campagna — are found in the area around the town. Ivrea and its surroundings have been inhabited since the Neolithic era, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ivrea became the seat of a duchy under the Lombards. Under the Franks, Ivrea was a county capital, in the year 1001, after a period of disputes with bishop Warmund, ruler of the city, Arduin conquered the March of Ivrea. Later he became King of Italy and began a dynasty that lasted until the 11th century, in the 12th century Ivrea became a free commune, but succumbed in the first decades of the following century to the rule of Emperor Frederick II. Later Ivrea was disputed between the bishops, the marquisate of Monferrato and the House of Savoy, in 1356 Ivrea was acquired by Amadeus VI of Savoy.
With the exception of the brief French conquest at the end of the 16th century and it was a subsidiary title of the king of Sardinia, although the only Marquis of Ivrea was Benedetto of Savoy. On May 26,1800 Napoleon Bonaparte entered the city along with his victorious troops, during the 20th century its primary claim to fame was as the base of operations for Olivetti, a manufacturer of typewriters, mechanical calculators and, computers. The Olivetti company no longer has an independent existence, though its name appears as a registered trademark on office equipment manufactured by others. In 1970 about 90,000 people lived and worked in the Ivrea Area, the Arduino electronic platform was created in Ivrea, and takes its name from the historical figure of Arduin of Italy. Castle of Ivrea, built during the reign of Amadeus VI of Savoy and it has a quadrangular plan in brick with four round towers at the corners. In 1676, a tower, used as an ammunition store, once a prison, the castle today houses exhibitions.
Cathedral of Ivrea, which originated from a church built in 4th century at the site of a pagan temple. Around 1000 AD, it was reconstructed by bishop Warmondus in Romanesque-style, the latter houses an ancient Roman sarcophagus which according to tradition, preserves the relics of St. Bessus. In 1785, it was again in a Baroque style. The current neo-classical façade was built in the 19th century, one of the old frescoes of the interior is the A Miracle of the Blessed Pierre de Luxembourg. The sacristy has two altarpieces by Defendente Ferrari, the cathedral houses the tomb of Blessed Thaddeus McCarthy
Canavese is a subalpine geographical and historical area of North-West Italy which lies today within the Metropolitan City of Turin in Piedmont. Its main town is Ivrea and it is famous for its castles, to the North it borders on the Aosta Valley and to the East on the provinces of Biella and Vercelli. To the South and West the borders have varied over time but might be taken as being the rivers Stura di Lanzo, the valley of the river Orco and the area around Corio fall within the Canavese. The main centres, in addition to Ivrea, are Caluso, Cirié, Cuorgnè, the first inhabitants of Canavese were the Salassi, a tribe of Celto-Ligurian roots, the Romans arrived in 22 BCE. When the Roman Empire fell, Canavese fell under the domination of Byzantium and it was conquered by Lombards and by Franks. After the death of Arduino, marquis of Ivrea and the first to bear the title of king of Italy and this was the beginning of the big families of Canavese, San Martino, Valperga, de Candia and the Biandrate family from Novara.
The House of Savoy started its expansion in Canavese in the 14th century. In the 16th century, Canavese came under French domination, Spanish domination, napoleons defeat in 1814 returned Canavese under the House of Savoy. Media related to Canavese at Wikimedia Commons CORSAC Official web site for European Sacred Mounts