Pottinger Street is a street in Central, Hong Kong. It is known as the Stone Slabs Street since the street is paved unevenly by granite stone steps, it was named in 1858 after Henry Pottinger, the first Governor of Hong Kong, serving from 1843 to 1844. The street was on the slope between Queen's Road Central and Hollywood Road; this section is covered by stone slabs. It crosses Stanley Street and Wellington Street and ends at the western end of Hollywood Road, just after it meets Wyndham Street. Central District underwent several reclamation projects, extended the street north from Queen's Road Central to Connaught Road Central, junctioning Des Voeux Road Central. Buildings like Man Yee Building, Wing On House, Chinachem Tower and Hong Kong Chinese Bank Building are located at this section; this is the only section that allows vehicular traffic and not being paved by stone slabs. The first Roman Catholic cathedral of Hong Kong was built in 1843 at the junction of Pottinger Street and Wellington Street and was destroyed in a fire in 1859.
It was rebuilt, but subsequently a different site was selected and the current Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception at Caine Road was completed 1888. In the 19th century and European residents used to live separately in different neighbourhoods; the street once acts as a rough boundary between the two groups. The Chinese used to live west of the street and westerners to the east. An Air-Raid Precaution Tunnel was built beneath the street in 1940-41 but was abandoned after the Second World War and was filled back in the 1980s. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Media related to Pottinger Street at Wikimedia Commons Article at gwulo.com
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Des Voeux Road
Des Voeux Road Central and Des Voeux Road West are two roads on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. They were named after the 10th Governor of Sir William Des Vœux; the name was sometimes spelt with the ligature œ in pre-war documents but is nowadays spelt as Des Voeux Road. Beginning in 1857, the northern shore of Hong Kong Island underwent a series of reclamations under then-Governor Sir John Bowring; the first phase of the Praya Reclamation Scheme had a direct effect on this current street, which used to be known as Praya Central during the Colonial Hong Kong era. Bowring's plans were opposed by British merchants who held lands in the Central area, in response, the government instead commenced work in land reclamation in the Chinese-populated Western District. By the time the reclamation was extended to Central, the newly reclaimed land in Western had been settled, there was a discontinuity between the two roads running along the western and middle portions of the reclaimed shoreline.
Upon completion, the roads were named Bowring Praya Central respectively. Another series of extensive reclamation projects began in 1887 under then-Governor Des Voeux. Upon completion in 1904, Bowring Praya West and Bowring Praya Central were renamed Des Voeux Road West and Des Voeux Road Central per the orders of then-Colonial Secretary and acting Governor Francis Fleming during the Duke of Connaught's visit to Hong Kong in 1890. From 1942 to 1945, the road was renamed Shōwa-dori by the Japanese occupation government. Des Voeux Road Central runs from Western to Central, it begins at the intersection with On Tai Street in Western and merges with Queen's Road Central where it becomes Queensway. Landmarks along Des Voeux Road Central include: 9 Queen's Road Central Alexandra House Bank of China Building, which houses the China Club Central Market Hang Seng Bank Headquarters Building HSBC Main Building, Hong Kong Man Yee Building Prince's Building Standard Chartered Bank Building Statue Square The Landmark Western Market Wing On House World-Wide House Des Voeux Road West runs from Western Shek Tong Tsui.
It reaches an alignment several blocks down at the junction with Connaught Road West and becomes Kennedy Town Praya in Shek Tong Tsui. Various groups have long proposed pedestrianising a section of Des Voeux Road Central; the idea was first proposed in 2000 by the Hong Kong Institute of Planners as a transport improvement scheme. The scheme was not implemented by the government at that time. A further study was done in 2014 in collaboration with the MTR and MVA, the leading traffic engineering firm in Hong Kong, to explore how the environment can be enhanced with the transport improvement scheme; the plan involves converting a 1.4 km section of Des Voeux Road Central, between Pedder Street and the Western Market, from a thoroughfare for motorised traffic to a pedestrian zone. The tramway would be maintained in situ and the cross-streets would remain open to traffic. Bus routes would be diverted onto Connaught Road; the pedestrian zone would remain open to delivery vehicles and emergency services.
With huge support from different stakeholder groups, the Very DVRC Event was launched on 25 September 2016 to raise people's awareness of walkability and open space issues in Hong Kong. The successful one-day trial demonstrated that the closure of DVRC to most traffic can, indeed, be accomplished without adverse impact on traffic and businesses. In January 2017, Walk DVRC Ltd, an NGO, was set up to take this initiative forward. Des Voeux Road Central is shared between motor traffic and the tram line, with tracks and reserved lanes for the trams laid in the middle of the road. A bus lane runs along the road for most of its length. Part of the MTR Island Line runs underneath Des Voeux Road. Due to the discontinuity between Des Voeux Roads Central and West, the tram line takes a detour along Connaught Road West and continues along Des Voeux Road West towards Kennedy Town; the Central-Mid-Levels escalators link Des Voeux Road Central with Conduit Road in the Mid-levels, passing through narrow streets.
A street called. The street no longer exists following extensive re-development of the area. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Li Yuen Street East Leung, To. Origins of Hong Kong Street Names. Urban Council. Hong Kong Place: Hong Kong streets named after colonial governors Des Voeux Road Central Inititative
The Hongkong Hotel was Hong Kong's first luxury hotel modelled after sumptuous London hotels. It opened on Queen's Road and Pedder Street in 1868 expanding into the Victoria Harbour waterfront of Victoria City in 1893; the original hotel stood on the site of the present Central Building at Queen's Road Central and Pedder Street. It was owned by The Hongkong Hotel Company, which became The Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels, current owner of The Peninsula Hotels chain. In the late 1880s the six-storey north wing extension was built on the waterfront, with entrances on Pedder Street, Queen's Road and Praya Central. Competing in all respects with the Peak Hotel, owned by The Star Ferry Company, the management provided a special launch to meet arriving passengers on incoming P&O mail steamers and ferry them direct to the hotel's pier. A shop of Kuhn & Komor was located along Queen's Road. After the north wing burned down in 1929, the original part of the hotel the large Gripps Restaurant, continued to be popular with the public, but the hotel closed in 1952.
The hotel building was bought by the owner of the 1949 Hong Kong Derby Champion and lead investor of a company, renamed Central Development Limited. Extensive renovation was done, but the part which once housed the popular Gripps Restaurant was torn down. In 1958, Central Building opened as a modern retail and office building, as it has remained at the present day; the six-storey north wing of the hotel facing the waterfront opened in 1893. It replaced the Melcher's Building, which itself was owned by Dent & Co. where the west wing of its "princely hong" headquarters was located. The north wing of the hotel burned down on New Year's Day, 1926 and in 1928 the site was acquired by Hong Kong Land and Gloucester Tower constructed in 1932, it was redeveloped into The Landmark in 1979
British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong denotes the period during which Hong Kong was governed as a colony and British Dependent Territory of the United Kingdom. Excluding the Japanese occupation during the Second World War, Hong Kong was under British rule from 1841 to 1997; the colonial period began with the occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841 during the First Opium War. The island was ceded by Qing China in the aftermath of the war in 1842 and established as a Crown colony in 1843; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Although Hong Kong Island and Kowloon were ceded in perpetuity, the leased area, which comprised 92 per cent of the territory, was vital to the integrity of Hong Kong that Britain agreed to transfer the entire colony to China upon the expiration of that lease in 1997; the transfer has been considered by many as marking the end of the British Empire. In 1836, the Manchu Qing government undertook a major policy review of the opium trade.
Lin Zexu volunteered to take on the task of suppressing opium. In March 1839, he became Special Imperial Commissioner in Canton, where he ordered the foreign traders to surrender their opium stock, he cut off their supplies. Chief Superintendent of Trade, Charles Elliot, complied with Lin's demands to secure a safe exit for the British, with the costs involved to be resolved between the two governments; when Elliot promised that the British government would pay for their opium stock, the merchants surrendered their 20,283 chests of opium, which were destroyed in public. In September 1839, the British Cabinet decided that the Chinese should be made to pay for the destruction of British property, either by the threat or use of force. An expeditionary force was placed under Elliot and his cousin, Rear-Admiral George Elliot, as joint plenipotentiaries in 1840. Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston stressed to the Chinese government that the British government did not question China's right to prohibit opium, but it objected to the way this was handled.
He viewed the sudden strict enforcement as laying a trap for the foreign traders, the confinement of the British with supplies cut off was tantamount to starving them into submission or death. He instructed the Elliot cousins to occupy one of the Chusan islands, to present a letter from himself to a Chinese official for the Emperor to proceed to the Gulf of Bohai for a treaty, if the Chinese resisted, blockade the key ports of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. Palmerston demanded a territorial base in Chusan for trade so that British merchants "may not be subject to the arbitrary caprice either of the Government of Peking, or its local Authorities at the Sea-Ports of the Empire". In 1841, Elliot negotiated with Lin's successor, Qishan, in the Convention of Chuenpi during the First Opium War. On 20 January, Elliot announced "the conclusion of preliminary arrangements", which included the cession of Hong Kong Island and its harbour to the British Crown. Elliot chose Hong Kong instead of Chusan because he believed a settlement further east would cause an "indefinite protraction of hostilities", whereas Hong Kong's harbour was a valuable base for the British trading community in Canton.
British rule began with the occupation of the island on 26 January. Commodore Gordon Bremer, commander-in-chief of British forces in China, took formal possession of the island at Possession Point, where the Union Jack was raised under a feu de joie from the marines and a royal salute from the warships. Hong Kong was ceded in the Treaty of Nanking on 29 August 1842 and established as a Crown colony after ratification was exchanged on 26 June 1843; the treaty failed to satisfy British expectations of a major expansion of trade and profit, which led to increasing pressure for a revision of the terms. In October 1856, Chinese authorities in Canton detained the Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong to enjoy protection of the British flag; the Consul in Canton, Harry Parkes, claimed the hauling down of the flag and arrest of the crew were "an insult of grave character". Parkes and Sir John Bowring, the 4th Governor of Hong Kong, seized the incident to pursue a forward policy. In March 1857, Palmerston appointed Lord Elgin as Plenipotentiary with the aim of securing a new and satisfactory treaty.
A French expeditionary force joined the British to avenge the execution of a French missionary in 1856. In 1860, the capture of the Taku Forts and occupation of Beijing led to the Treaty of Tientsin and Convention of Peking. In the Treaty of Tientsin, the Chinese accepted British demands to open more ports, navigate the Yangtze River, legalise the opium trade and have diplomatic representation in Beijing. During the conflict, the British occupied the Kowloon Peninsula, where the flat land was valuable training and resting ground; the area in what is now south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island was ceded in the Convention of Peking. In 1898, the British sought to extend Hong Kong for defence. After negotiations began in April 1898, with the British Minister in Beijing, Sir Claude MacDonald, representing Britain, diplomat Li Hongzhang leading the Chinese, the Second Convention of Peking was signed on 9 June. Since the foreign powers had agreed by the late 19th century that it was no longer permissible to acquire outright sovereignty over any parcel of Chinese territory, in keeping with the other territorial cessions China made to Russia and France that same year, the extension of Hong Kong took the form of a 99-year lease.
The lease consisted of the rest of Kowloon south of the Shenzhen River and 230 islands, which became known as the New Territories. The British formally took possession on 16 April 1899. In 1941, duri
The Star Ferry is a passenger ferry service operator and tourist attraction in Hong Kong. Its principal routes carry passengers across Victoria Harbour, between Hong Kong Island, Kowloon; the service is operated by the Star Ferry Company, founded in 1888 as the Kowloon Ferry Company, adopted its present name in 1898. With a fleet of twelve ferries, the company operates two routes across the harbour, carrying over 70,000 passengers per day, or 26 million per year. Though the harbour is crossed by railway and road tunnels, the Star Ferry continues to provide an inexpensive mode of harbour crossing; the company's main route runs between Tsim Sha Tsui. It has been rated first in the “Top 10 Most Exciting Ferry Rides” poll by the Society of American Travel Writers in February 2009. Before the steam ferry service was first established, people would cross the harbour in sampans. In 1870, a man named Grant Smith brought a twin-screw wooden-hulled boat from England and started running it across the harbour at irregular intervals.
In July 1873, an attempt was made to run steam ferries between Hong Kowloon. This was stopped at the request of the British consul in Canton, who feared it would enable visits to gambling houses in Kowloon, it is thought that a service to the public was established in the mid-to-late 1870s, after the cession of Kowloon to the British in 1860. The company was founded by Parsee merchant Dorabjee Naorojee Mithaiwala as the "Kowloon Ferry Company" in 1888. Naorojee bought Smith's boat, acquired the steam vessels Morning Star and Evening Star from a Mr Buxoo; the popularity of this means of transport enabled him to increase his fleet to four vessels within 10 years: the Morning Star, Evening Star, Rising Star and Guiding Star. Each boat had a capacity of 100 passengers, the boats averaged 147 crossings each day, he incorporated the business into the "Star Ferry Co Ltd" in 1898, prior to his retirement to India. The company name was inspired by his love of Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem "Crossing the Bar", of which the first line reads "Sunset and evening star, one clear call for me!".
At the time regular service was initiated, ships were moored by having a sailor on the vessel toss the rope to another on the pier, who would catch it with a long billhook. This is still done today. On his retirement in 1898, Naorojee sold the company to The Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited, at that time owned by Jardine, Matheson & Co. and Sir Paul Chater. A pier constructed on the western end of Salisbury Road opened in 1906, it was a fine massive structure at that time and it had a separate compartment for the first and second class. However, it was destroyed by a typhoon in September 1906. In the early 1950s, construction of the present twin-piered terminal commenced on both sides of Victoria Harbour, designed to handle 55 million passenger trips a year; the structure was completed in 1957, concurrent with the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier built on the island side. At the turn of the century, Hong Kong currency and Canton currency were both accepted as legal tender in Hong Kong.
In the autumn of 1912, following a devaluation, the Star Ferry caused a controversy by insisting, together with the tramways, that payment had to be made in Hong Kong currency only. Canton coinage would no longer be accepted. In 1924 the Yaumati Ferry operated the route to Kowloon in a duopoly. In 1933 the Star Ferry made history by building the Electric Star, the first diesel electric passenger ferry of its kind. By 1941, the company had six vessels. During the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong, the competing Yaumati Ferry was allowed to continue, while the Japanese commandeered the Star Ferry for their own purposes; the Golden Star and the Meridian Star were used to transport prisoners of war from Sham Shui Po to Kai Tak Airport. In 1943, the Golden Star was bombed and sunk in the Canton River by the Americans, the Electric Star was sunk in the harbour. After the war, the ferries were returned to service; the Star Ferry accepted the request by the government of operating the Hung Hom route in 1963, it failed to operate as the company thinks it cannot make profit from it.
But with the reconsideration by the Star Ferry, the route were confirmed to be started operating starting from March 1965. Until the opening of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in 1972, the Star Ferry remained the main means of public transportation between Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon side; the Star Ferry operates on a franchise from the Government, last renewed in March 2018. In 1966, a fare increase of 5 cents of the ferry was a political milestone, as it caused a 27-year-old student to go on hunger strike in protest at the Edinburgh Place terminal, his arrest sparked the 1966 Hong Kong Riots. On 11 November 2006, the end of an era was marked when the third generation pier in Central, the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, ended its mission, along with the big clock tower; the pier was demolished to make way for reclamation, amidst great controversy and important protests. The Star Ferry operates the following cross-harbour routes: Central to Tsim Sha Tsui. For lower deck, it costs $2.20 on Mondays to Fridays.
For upper deck, $2.70 on Mondays to Fridays. Wan Chai to Tsim Sha Tsui for $2.70 on Mondays to Fridays. Harbour Tour: a tourist cruise, making an indirect, circular route to all the stops, namely Tsim Sha Tsui and Wan Chai. Passengers may use tokens to pay for the ride. Tokens are available in the vending machines at the piers. Direct payment by coins at turnstile is no longer accepted; the Tsim Sha