A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, was referencing light fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries; the yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660. Today's yachts differ from other vessels by their leisure purpose. A yacht is any power vessel used for pleasure, cruising or racing. A yacht does not have to have luxury accommodations to be a yacht, in fact many racing yachts are stripped out vessels with the minimum of accommodations; the term'sailboat' is sometimes used in America to differentiate sail from powerboat. See also'yachting'. There are about 6,500 yacht over 24m on the market. Charter yachts are a subset of yachts used for pleasure, cruising or racing, but run as a business for profit. Ownership can be corporate; the paid crews of these vessels call themselves'yachties'.
Yacht lengths range from 7 metres up to dozens of meters. A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more called a cabin cruiser or a cruiser. A superyacht refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht refers to any yacht over 50 metres. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, which indicates the nationality of the ship. Although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question; the US yacht ensign for example, has a circle of 13 stars and a fouled anchor in the canton instead of the 50 stars, being quite different from the ensign of the United States, the flag of the United States. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration. Carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions; until the 1950s all yachts were made of wood or steel, but a much wider range of materials is used today.
Although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, but include modern products such as plywood, skinned balsa and epoxy resins. Wood is used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in overall length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres, where the distinction between a yacht and a ship becomes blurred. Most owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size.
Many modern racing sail yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig, that allow them to sail close to the wind. This capability is the result of a hull design oriented towards this capability. Day sailing yachts are small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they have a retractable keel, centreboard, or daggerboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys, they may have a'cuddy' cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray. Weekender yachts are larger, at under 9.5 metres in length. They may have twin keels or lifting keels such as in trailer sailers; this allows them to operate in shallow waters, if needed "dry out"—become beached as the tide falls. This is important in UK waters; the hull shape allows the boat to sit upright. Such boats are designed to undertake short journeys lasting more than 2 or 3 days.
In coastal areas, long trips may be undertaken in a series of short hops. Weekenders have only a simple cabin consisting of a single "saloon" with bedspace for two to four people. Clever use of ergonomics allows space in the saloon for a galley and navigation equipment. There is limited space for stores of food. Most are single-masted "Bermuda sloops", with a single foresail of the jib or genoa type and a single mainsail; some are gaff rigged. The smallest of this type called pocket yachts or pocket cruisers, trailer sailers can be transported on special trailers. Cruising yachts are by far the most common yacht in private use, making up most of the 7–14-metre range; these vessels can be quite complex in design, as they need a balance between docile handling qualities, interior space, good light-wind performance and on-board comfort. The huge range of such craft, from dozens of builders worldwide, makes it hard to give a single illustrative description. However, most favor a teardrop-planform hull, with a fine bow, a wide, flat bottom and deep single-fin keel with ample beam to give good stability.
Most are single-masted Bermuda rigged sloops, with a single fo
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is 1,070 km east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; the capital city is Hamilton. Bermuda is self-governing, with its own constitution and its own government, which enacts local laws, while the United Kingdom retains responsibility for defence and foreign relations; as of July 2018, its population is the highest of the British overseas territories. Bermuda's two largest economic sectors are offshore insurance and reinsurance, tourism. Bermuda had one of the world's highest GDP per capita for most of the 20th century; the islands have a subtropical climate and lies in the hurricane belt and thus is prone to related severe weather. The first European known to have reached Bermuda was the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez in 1505, after whom the islands are named, he claimed the islands for the Spanish Empire. Unusually, Bermuda had no indigenous population at the time of its discovery, nor at the time of the initial British settlement a century later.
Bermúdez never landed on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago, of which he created a recognisable map. Shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on Portuguese Rock. Subsequent Spanish or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there, which had become feral and abundant on the island by the time European settlement began. In 1609, the English Virginia Company permanently settled Bermuda in the aftermath of a hurricane, when the crew and passengers of the Sea Venture steered the ship onto the surrounding reef to prevent its sinking landed ashore; the island was administered as an extension of Virginia by the Company until 1614. Its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, took over in 1615 and managed the colony until 1684. At that time, the company's charter was revoked, the English Crown took over administration; the islands became a British colony following the 1707 unification of the parliaments of Scotland and England, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
After 1949, when Newfoundland became part of Canada, Bermuda became the oldest remaining British overseas territory. After the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, Bermuda became the most populous remaining dependent territory, its first capital, St. George's, was established in 1612. Bermuda was discovered in 1505 by Spanish explorer Juan de Bermúdez, it is mentioned in Legatio Babylonica, published in 1511 by historian Pedro Mártir de Anglería, was included on Spanish charts of that year. Both Spanish and Portuguese ships used the islands as a replenishment spot to take on fresh meat and water. Legends arose of spirits and devils, now thought to have stemmed from the calls of raucous birds and the loud noise heard at night from wild hogs. Combined with the frequent storm-wracked conditions and the dangerous reefs, the archipelago became known as the Isle of Devils. Neither Spain nor Portugal attempted to settle it. For the next century, the island is believed to have been visited but not settled.
After the failure of the first two English colonies in Virginia, a more determined effort was initiated by King James I of England, who granted a Royal Charter to the Virginia Company. It established a colony at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Two years a flotilla of seven ships left England under the Company's Admiral, Sir George Somers, the new Governor of Jamestown, Sir Thomas Gates, with several hundred settlers and supplies to relieve the colony of Jamestown. Somers had previous experience sailing with both Sir Francis Sir Walter Raleigh; the flotilla was broken up by a storm. As the flagship, Sea Venture, was taking on water, Somers drove it onto Bermuda's reef and gained the shores safely with smaller boats – all 150 passengers and a dog survived, they stayed ten months, building two small ships to sail to Jamestown. The group of islands were claimed for the English Crown, the charter of the Virginia Company was extended to include them. In 1610, all but three of the survivors of Sea Venture sailed on to Jamestown.
Among them was John Rolfe, whose wife and child died and were buried in Bermuda. In Jamestown he married Pocahontas, a daughter of the powerful Powhatan, leader of a large confederation of about 30 Algonquian-speaking tribes in coastal Virginia. In 1612, the English began intentional settlement of Bermuda with the arrival of the ship Plough. St. George's was designated as Bermuda's first capital, it is the oldest continually inhabited English town in the New World. In 1615, the colony was passed to a new company, the Somers Isles Company, named after the admiral who saved his passengers from Sea Venture. Many Virginian place names refer to the archipelago, such as Bermuda City, Bermuda Hundred; the first English coins to circulate in North America were struck in Bermuda. The archipelago's limited land area and resources led to the creation of what may be the earliest conservation laws of the New World. In 1616 and 1620 acts were passed banning the hunting of young tortoises. In 1
Round the Island Race
The Round the Island Race is an annual yacht race around the Isle of Wight. It starts and finishes in Cowes, is organised by the Island Sailing Club; the course is about 50 nautical miles long. It since 2005 has been sponsored by JP Morgan Asset Management; the race is chosen to be the Saturday in June with the most favourable tides. The race was the idea of Major Cyril Windeler, who commissioned a gold Roman-style bowl as prize for the winner; the first race, in 1931, had 25 entries. The silver bowl second prize was introduced a few years when Chris Ratsey impressed Windeler with his good sportsmanship; the last race before World War II, in 1939, attracted 80 entries. In 2005 JP Morgan Asset Management began sponsorship of the event in a deal lasting until 2010; this sponsorship was extended to 2014. In 2008 a total of 1750 boats took part; the course runs all the way with a total distance of 50.1 nmi. The course has varied with buoys tried at the Needles and a requirement to leave No Man's Land Fort to port.
It was in 1961 that multihulls first entered the round the island race and the record has since fallen considerably. The outright record as recognised by the World Speed Sailing Record Council on behalf of International Sailing Federation has in the past been the race record. Official website
Transpacific Yacht Race
The Transpacific Yacht Race is an offshore yacht race starting off the Pt. Fermin buoy in San Pedro and ending off Diamond Head in Hawaii, a distance of around 2,225 nautical miles. Started in 1906 by Clarence W. Macfarlane and hosted by Los Angeles Yacht Club, it is one of yachting's premier offshore races and attracts entrants from all over the world; the race is organized by the Transpacific Yacht Club. The race is famous for fast downwind sailing under spinnaker in the trade winds. Crewed Multihull Elapsed time: Mighty Merloe, 2017 of 4 days, 6 hours, 32 minutes, 30 seconds. Crewed Monohull Elapsed time: Comanche, 2017 of 5 days, 1 hours, 55 minutes, 26 seconds. Double Handed: Pegasus 50, 2009, sailed by Philippe Kahn and Mark Christensen, set a new record of 7 days, 19 hours, 38 minutes and 35 seconds. In 1969, French sailing legend Eric Tabarly shadowed the race with his Pen Duick IV, one of the world's first trimarans competitive in all wind conditions, he intended to enter the race but was unaware that multihulls were not invited.
Having started with all other participants and his crew set an unofficial record of 8 days and 13 hours a day ahead of official winner and record-setter Blackfin. In 2013, the crewed monohull, won first overall, making it the oldest boat in the fleet to win and a 2-time winner, having won the Transpac in 1936, 77 years prior. Ragtime finished first in 1973 and again in 1975. In 1977, the yacht Merlin, designed by Bill Lee, set an elapsed time record of 8 days, 11 hours, 1 minute; this record would stand for 20 years. Ending Merlin's record, in the 1997 race a new monohull elapsed time record of 7 days, 11 hours, 41 minutes, 27 seconds was set by Roy E. Disney's Pyewacket, a Santa Cruz 70 ultralight designed by Bill Lee; the record fell once again with Hasso Plattner's Morning Glory, a maxZ86 from Germany. Morning Glory was the scratch boat, she finished the race in 6 days, 16 hours, 4 minutes, 11 seconds to win "the Barn Door" trophy, a slab of carved koa wood traditionally awarded to the monohull with the fastest elapsed time.
In 1995, multihulls were invited to participate for the first time, but not eligible for the Barn Door trophy. Steve Fosset set a new race record in 1995 on his 60' trimaran Lakota, of 6 days 16 hours 7 minutes 16 seconds. Two years in 1997, this record was broken by the 86' catamaran Explorer with a time of 5 days 9 hours 18 minutes 26 seconds. 2017 saw Howard Enloe and his boat the Mighty Merloe smash the record by over 25 hours making the trip in just over 4 days. On July 7, 2009, Alfa Romeo II beat the Morning Glory record for best day's run set in the 2005 race, by sailing 399 nautical miles in 24 hours; the next two days she broke her own best-day record by sailing 420 nautical miles and 431 nautical miles. First to finish the 2009 Transpac, Alfa Romeo II set a Transpac race elapsed-time record of 5 days, 14 hours, 36 minutes, 20 seconds; this represents a new race record for monohulls. However, because she must use "stored power" to move, Alfa Romeo II, sailing in the "unlimited" class, was not eligible for the traditional "Barn Door" trophy, but instead was the inaugural winner of a new trophy dedicated by Trisha Steele, called the "Merlin Trophy".
In the double-handed division, Pegasus 50, sailed by Philippe Kahn and Mark Christensen, set a new record of 7 days, 19 hours, 38 minutes and 35 seconds. They pioneered use of an iPhone, with Fullpower-MotionX GPS technology. In the 1975 movie Jaws, the character Matt Hooper, played by Richard Dreyfuss, claims that he has "crewed three Transpacs" as a means of establishing his seamanship credentials with Quint; the 2008 documentary Morning Light is a film about the 2007 Disney-sponsored competitors in the race. The Transpac Honolulu Race Elapsed Time Record Trophy is awarded to the Record Holder for the fastest elapsed time by a monohull yacht in the race; the list of Los Angeles to Honolulu Record Holders is: 1906 Lurline H. H. Sinclair 12:09:59 1926 Invader Don M. Lee 12:02:48:03 1949 Morning Star Richard S. Rheem 10:10:13:09 1955 Morning Star Richard S. Rheem 9:15:05:10 1965 Ticonderoga Robert Johnson 9:13:51:02 1969 Blackfin Kenneth DeMeuse 9:10:21:00 1971 Windward Passage Mark Johnson 9:09:06:48 1977 Merlin Bill Lee 8:11:01:45 1997 Pyewacket Roy P. Disney 7:15:24:40 1999 Pyewacket Roy E. Disney 7:11:41:27 2005 Morning Glory Hasso Plattner 6:16:04:11 2009 Alfa Romeo Neville Crichton 5:14:36:20 2017 Comanche Ken Read 5:01:55:26 The Barn Door Trophy is awarded each race for the Fastest Monohull Elapsed Time in the race.
It was called the "First to Finish" Trophy. Since 2009, it has been restricted to manual power only sailing yachts. Barn Door Winners Year Boat Owner/Skipper Time 1906 Lurline H. H. Sinclair 12:09:59 * 1908 Lurline H. H. Sinclair 13:21:31 1910 Hawaii Hawaii Syndicate 14:03:23 1912 Lurline A. E. Davis 13:17:03 1923 Mariner L. A. Norris 11:14:46 1926 Invader Don M. Lee 12:02:48:03 * 1928 Talayha L. Lippman 13:04:58:30 1930 Enchantress Morgan Adams 12:13:22:52 1932 Fayth William S. McNutt 14:14:33:00 1934 Vileehi H. T. Horton 13:03:42:26 1936 Dorade James Flood 13:07:20:04 1939 Contender Richard R. Loynes 14:07:50:00 1941 Stella Maris II Dr. A. Steele 13:21:03:55 1947 Chubasco W. L. Stewart Jr. 12:15:51:18 1949 Morning Star Richard S. Rheem 10:10:13:09 * 1951 Morning Star Richard S. Rheem 10:16:44:33 1953 Goodwill R. E. Larrabee 11:02:17:24 1955 Morning Star Richard S. Rheem 9:15:05:10 * 1957 Barlovento Frank Hooykaas 11:13:02:44 1959 Good
Perkins Engines, a subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc, is a diesel engine manufacturer for several markets including agricultural, material handling, power generation and industrial. It was established in Peterborough, England, in 1932. Over the years Perkins has expanded its engine ranges and produces thousands of different engine specifications including diesel and petrol engines. F. Perkins Limited, established on 7 June 1932, was founded in Queen Street, Peterborough, to design and manufacture high-speed diesel engines by Frank Perkins and Charles Wallace Chapman. Chapman had a ten percent shareholding, he was to remain with the business for more than a decade before re-joining the Royal Navy Reserve though remaining a consultant to the company. Frank Perkins obtained further initial support from directors Alan J M Richardson and George Dodds Perks. Before Chapman and Perkins the diesel engine was a heavy and slow revving workhorse, lacking performance. Chapman's concept was the high-speed diesel – an engine that could challenge gasoline as the primary motive power.
The company’s first high-speed diesel engine was Perkins' four-cylinder Vixen, which made its debut in 1932: in October 1935 Perkins became the first company to hold six world diesel speed records for a variety of distances set at the Brooklands race track in Surrey. Sales were strong and by the time of World War II the company made two series of engines, P4 and P6. Soon after the war, the company went public, established a number of licensees for local manufacturing and sale. F. Perkins Ltd was purchased by its largest customer, Massey Ferguson, in 1959. Keeping its separate identity, the business continued under the name of Perkins Engines and in 1994 became a subsidiary of LucasVarity. Development continued and Perkins updated its engines to meet stricter emissions rules while developing new series for power generation and forklift trucks. Brands such as Dodge, Ford and Ranquel for all their diesel lines, fitted Perkins engines for more than two decades. Others like GEMA, Araus and Rotania used their impellers for harvesters at length.
In mid-2010 Pertrak closed its motor production line, the history of the last independent factory - which does not belong to any automotive terminal - in the national territory is finished. It was created as licensee of Perkins Engines of England, his best moment was in the 1970s. He was dedicated to the manufacture of engines for pick ups and tractors. There are more than 200,000 engines. A supplier to Caterpillar Inc since the 1970s, Perkins was bought by Caterpillar in 1998 for US$1.325 billion, creating what they claimed was the world's largest diesel engine manufacturer. Perkins now has manufacturing facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, China, India and a joint venture with Ishikawajima-Shibaura-Machinery company in Japan. On 1 January 2009 Gwenne Henricks became President of Perkins Engines replacing Hans Haefeli, after having worked in Caterpillar’s Electronics and Connected Worksite Division in North America. Henricks is a vice-president of Caterpillar. Various Perkins diesel engines have been made for industrial, construction, material handling and power generation markets, Perkins Gas-based engines are used for continuous power generation.
Perkins' 4.99 1.6 litre and the P4C engine, producing 45 or 60 hp, were popular in Europe and Israel for taxis and commercially driven cars during the 1950s and early 1960s. Perkins engines were used as standard factory equipment in Jeeps and Dodge trucks in the United States in the 1960s, they continued to be popular in European trucks from their original customer and other companies. The Perkins 6.354 medium duty engine was designed to be compact enough to replace petrol/gasoline V8 engines in trucks, despite its in-line six-cylinder design. Producing 112 horsepower in early years, it had a small jackshaft driven by the timing gears for the auxiliary drive, with the oil pump driven by a quill shaft so it could run auxiliary equipment at engine speed with simple couplings. After acquiring Rolls-Royce Diesels of Shrewsbury in 1984, Perkins continued to supply British Rail with engines for its diesel multiple units. Perkins went on to purchase L Gardner & Sons in the summer of 1986 to complement their line of lighter diesel engines.
Global product support is provided by 4,000 distribution and service centres. In 2015, Perkins Engines Company consolidated its U. S. distribution from six to three master distributors. Serving Washington, Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, Hawaii, New Mexico and Texas. Has 5 full-service locations in Ridgefield, WA, Oklahoma City, OK, Surprise, AZ, Santa Fe Springs, CA, Galt, CA. North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, New Jersey, Maryland, West Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York. Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana and Arkansas in the U. S. Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Belize in Central America. Kalmar's RT022 - The RT022 Light Capacity Rough Terrain Forklift is built to move materials at sites where there
A sailing yacht is a leisure craft that uses sails as its primary means of propulsion. Sailing yachts are used in sport and are a category of classes recognized by the World Sailing; the length overall of sailing yachts ranges from 6 metres to over 70 metres, with a majority measuring about 10 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size. Modern yachts have efficient sail-plans like the Bermuda rig, which together with an appendage providing lateral resistance allow them to sail toward the wind; these are the 9 yacht classes of the International Sailing Federation: Class40 Farr 30 Farr 40 International Maxi Association J/111 IMOCA 60 Soto 40 Swan 45 Swan 60 TP 52 X-35 X-41 Media related to Sailing yachts at Wikimedia Commons Dinghy sailing International class List of large sailing yachts Sailing skiff
Uffa Fox, CBE was an English boat designer and sailing enthusiast. Uffa Fox was raised in East Cowes, he lived for a while in Puckaster on the Isle of Wight. He was responsible for many of the developments which have contributed to the modern popularity of Dinghy sailing, he first introduced the technique of planing to dinghy racing, was influential in the introduction of trapezing. In about 1943 he designed a 27 ft lifeboat to be dropped from Vickers Warwick aircraft when rescuing downed aircrew or mariners. An example of this craft and of others built and/or designed by Fox are in the collections of the Classic Boat Museum at East Cowes, Isle of Wight; these boats could be released from under the aeroplane retarded by six 32 ft diameter parachutes. Although adapted for the Warwick, the lifeboat was subsequently carried by Air-Sea Rescue Lancasters and B-17 Flying Fortresses; the museum holds a large collection of photographs by and about Fox. He became a friend of the Duke of Edinburgh in 1949 and they raced together at Cowes Week on many occasions.
They raced on Fox's Dragon "Fresh Breeze" or the Duke's'Royal' Dragon "Bluebottle" He took the Royal children sailing at Cowes. Apart from having a successful racing and sailing career, he ran successful boat design and boatbuilding businesses in the south of England, he designed many of the significant classes of boats around today, including the planing International 14, the Foxcub and Super Foxcub, the Flying Fifteen, the Flying Ten, the National 12, the National 18, the Albacore, the Firefly, the Javelin, the Pegasus Dinghy, the Jollyboat and the Day Sailer. Many of his designs exploited the wartime developments of moulded plywood, extruded aluminium, Tufnol etc.. In addition to dinghies he designed several keel boats all loosely based on the same concept as the flying fifteen, with separate fin keel and rudder, they were light weight compared with other boats of the era. Huff of Arklow for Douglas Heard was 30'-0" on the waterline and Flying Fox for Fred Brownlee was 35'-0" waterline length.
Uffa Fox designed the Britannia rowboat, used by John Fairfax, used for the first solo-rowing expedition across the Atlantic Ocean in 1969. The Britannia was described as "the Rolls-Royce of rowboats, made of mahogany." It was self-righting, self-bailing and covered. He designed Britannia II, used by John Fairfax and Sylvia Cook to row across the Pacific Ocean in 1971 through 1972, his character is best indicated by an escapade whereby he led a group of Sea Scouts, without their parents' consent, across the English Channel and up the Seine to within a few kilometres of Paris in a 25 ft open boat. He was the subject of This Is Your Life in January 1963 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews at the Colston Hall in Bristol, he was among the crew of the Typhoon, an account of, written and published by William Washburn Nutting in In the Track of Typhoon. Fox joined the crew in England for her transatlantic return via France and the Azores into NYC. Fox is said to have been the instigator in the 1950s of the "quintessentially English" annual cricket match on Bramble Bank in the central Solent.
Uffa Fox Website A picture of an Airborne Lifeboat being released LIFE magazine photos of Fox and the Duke of Edinburgh St. Mildred's Churchyard Uffa Fox's appearance on This Is Your Life