Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Beynac-et-Cazenac is a village located in the Dordogne department in southwestern France. The medieval Château de Beynac is located in the commune; the village is classified as one of beaux villages de France. The commune lies on the banks of the Dordogne River 10 km southwest of Sarlat-la-Canéda; the first mention of Beynac dates to 1115 when Maynard de Beynac made a gift to the sisters at Fontevrault Abbey. Simon de Montfort seized the château at the end of the 12th century, but the people of Beynac recovered their château thanks to the intervention of Philippe Auguste in 1217; the château stayed in possession of the family de Beynac until 1753 when the de Beynac family became extinct in male line with Pierre last marquis of Beynac who married in 1727 Anne-Marie Boucher and had two daughters: Julie de Beynac married to the marquis de Castelnau and Claude-Marie de Beynac married in 1761 to Christophe Marie de Beaumont du Repaire. The family de Beaumont du Repaire added "Beynac" to its name and took the courtesy title of "marquis de Beaumont-Beynac" One of the descendants sold the château in 1961.
In 1827, the communes of Beynac and Cazenac were merged under the current name. Communes of the Dordogne département INSEE Beynac-et-Cazenac website, in English Beynac-et-Cazenac on the site of Les Plus Beaux Villages de France, in English
Limousin is a former administrative region of France. On 1 January 2016, it became part of the new region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it comprised three departments: Corrèze, Haute-Vienne. Situated in the south central French Massif Central, Limousin had 742,770 inhabitants spread out on nearly 17,000 km², making it the least populated region of metropolitan France. Forming part of the southwest of the country, Limousin is bordered by the regions of Centre-Val de Loire to the north, Poitou-Charentes and Aquitaine to the west, Midi-Pyrénées to the south and Auvergne to the east. Limousin is part of the larger Occitania region; the modern region of Limousin is composed of two historical French provinces: Limousin: the department of Corrèze in its entirety and the central and southeastern part of Haute-Vienne. The entire old province of Limousin is contained within the modern Limousin. Marche: most of the department of Creuse and the north of Haute-Vienne; the old province of Marche is entirely contained within the modern region of Limousin, with only a small part of Marche now belonging to the region of Centre.
Beside these two main provinces, Limousin is composed of small parts of other former provinces: Angoumois: extreme south-west of Haute-Vienne Poitou: extreme west of Haute-Vienne Auvergne: extreme east of Creuse Berry: extreme north of CreuseToday the province of Limousin is the most populous part of the Limousin region. Limoges, the historical capital and largest city of the province of Limousin, is the capital of the Limousin administrative region. With a rising population of just under 750,000, Limousin is the second-least populous region in Metropolitan France after Corsica; the population of Limousin is aging and, until 1999, was declining. The department of Creuse has the oldest population of any in France. Between 1999 and 2004 the population of Limousin increased reversing a decline for the first time in decades. Brive-la-Gaillarde Guéret Limoges Panazol Saint-Junien Tulle Ussel Limousin is an rural region. Famed for some of the best beef farming in the world, herds of Limousin cattle—a distinctive chestnut red—are a common sight in the region.
The region is a major timber producing area. Due to its rural locality, it is famed for its groves of French Oak, so prized for its distinct characters and flavors in wine fermentation that vintner Rémy Martin has exclusive rights to its oak groves, it is a partnership, over 100 years old. The regional capital, was once an industrial power base, world-renowned for its porcelain and still a leader and innovator in electric equipment factories. However, large factories are now few in number. Limousin is the poorest region in Metropolitan France; some of the rivers belonging to the Loire basin run through the north and east of the region, waterways belonging to that of the Dordogne through the south. The region is crossed by three major rivers: the Dordogne and the Charente; the region is well known for offering first-rate fishing. The Limousin region is entirely an upland area; the lowest land is in the northwest of the region and the highest land is in the southeast. However, the greater part of the region is above 350 m.
Limousin is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its name is derived from the name of a Celtic tribe, the Lemovices which capital was in Saint-Denis-des-Murs and which main sanctuary was found in Tintignac, a site which became a major site for the Celtics studies thanks to unique objects which were found such as the carnyces, unique in the whole Celtic world. Aimar V of Limoges was a notable ruler of the region; until the 1970s, Occitan was the primary language of rural areas. There remain several different Occitan dialects in use in Limousin, although their use is declining; these are: Limousin dialect Auvergnat dialect in the East/North-East Languedocien in the Southern fringe of Corrèze in the North, the Crescent transition area between Occitan and French is sometimes considered as a separate dialect called Marchois. Pâté aux pommes de terre is one of the specialties of Limousin, as well as of the neighbouring department of Allier. Clafoutis is a local dessert. Due to its rural character, Limousin has maintained a strong tradition of traditional music, with ancient instruments such as the bagpipe and hurdy-gurdy remaining popular.
Festival 1001 Notes, music festival in Haute-Vienne, August Festival de La Vezere, music festival in Corrèze July–August Festival du Haut Limousin, music festival in Haute-Vienne, July–August La Borie en Limousin, foundation of music in Haute-Vienne Limousin, a breed of beef cattle bred in the Limousin region and recognisable by their chestnut red coloring. Limousin, the Occitan dialect of the region. TER Limousin Limousin: the “château d'eau” - Official French website Limousin regional council website, with a presentation video in English. Art in the Limousin region History and Geography
La Bourboule is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France. Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department INSEE commune file INSEE, 2013 census
Lot is a department in the Occitanie region of France. Named after the Lot River, it lies in the southwestern part of the country and had a population of 173,758 in 2013. Lot is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the province of Quercy. In 1808 some of the original southeastern cantons were separated from it to form the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, it extended much farther to the south and included the city of Montauban. Lot is part of the region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Corrèze, Aveyron, Tarn-et-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne, Dordogne. For a full list, see Communes of the Lot department. Settlements in the Lot include: Cahors - The prefecture of the department, Cahors is a medieval cathedral town known internationally for its production of Cahors wine, it is famous for its medieval bridge, the Pont Valentre. Figeac - a medieval town where Champollion, the first translator of Egyptian hieroglyphics, was born.
Figeac is a sub-prefecture of the department. Gourdon - a medieval hilltop town with a well preserved centre. There are many prehistoric painted caves nearby, notably the Grottes de Cougnac. Gourdon is a sub-prefecture of the department. Cantons of the Lot department Communes of the Lot department Grottes de Presque French singer-songwriter Léo Ferré lived in the Lot for a while. At Home in France, by Ann Barry.
Creysse is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France. Communes of the Lot department
Dordogne is a department in Southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux. The department is located in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine between the Loire Valley and the Pyrenees and is named after the river Dordogne that runs through it, it corresponds with the ancient county of Périgord. It had a population of 416,909 in 2013; the county of Périgord dates back to. It was home to four tribes; the name for "four tribes" in the Gaulish language was "Petrocore". The area became known as the county of Le Périgord and its inhabitants became known as the Périgordins. There are four Périgords in the Dordogne; the "Périgord Vert", with its main town of Nontron, consists of verdant valleys in a region crossed by many rivers and streams. The "Périgord Blanc", situated around the department's capital of Périgueux, is a region of limestone plateaux, wide valleys, meadows; the "Périgord Pourpre" with its capital of Bergerac, is a wine region. The "Périgord Noir" surrounding the administrative center of Sarlat, overlooks the valleys of the Vézère and the Dordogne, where the woods of oak and pine give it its name.
The Petrocores took part in the resistance against Rome. Concentrated in a few major sites are the vestiges of the Gallo-Roman period-–the gigantic ruined tower and arenas in Périgueux, the Périgord museum's archaeological collections, villa remains in Montcaret, the Roman tower of La Rigale Castle in Villetoureix; the earliest cluzeaux can be found throughout the Dordogne. These subterranean refuges and lookout huts were large enough to shelter entire local populations. According to Julius Caesar, the Gauls took refuge in these caves during the resistance. After Guienne province was transferred to the English Crown under the Plantagenets following the remarriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, Périgord passed by right to English suzerainty. Being situated at the boundaries of influence of the monarchies of France and England, it oscillated between the two dynasties for more than three hundred years of struggle until the end of the Hundred Years' War in 1453; the county had been torn apart and, as a consequence, that modeled its physiognomy.
During the calmer periods of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the Castillon plain on the banks of the Dordogne saw a development in urban architecture. The finest Gothic and Renaissance residences were built in Périgueux and Sarlat. In the countryside, the nobility erected the majority of the more than 1200 chateaux and country houses. In the second half of the 16th century, the terrors of war again visited the area, as the attacks and fires of the Wars of Religion reached a rare degree of violence in Périgord. At the time, Bergerac was one of the most powerful Huguenot strongholds, along with La Rochelle. Following these wars, Périgord, fief of Henry of Navarre, was to return to the Crown for good and would continue to suffer from the sudden political changes of the French nation, from the Revolution to the tragic hours of the Resistance. We encounter the memory of the region's most important literary figures: Arnaut Daniel, Bertran de Born, Michel de Montaigne, Étienne de La Boétie, Brantôme, Maine de Biran, Eugene Le Roy, André Maurois.
A number of ruins have retained the memory of the tragedies. Several of the castles and châteaux are open to visitors. In addition to its castles, churches and cave fortresses, the Périgord region has preserved since centuries past a number of villages that still have their market halls, bories, churches and castles. Saint-Léon-sur-Vézère, Saint-Jean-de-Côle, La Roque-Gageac, many others contain important and visually interesting architectural examples; the old quarters of Périgueux or Bergerac have been developed into pedestrian areas. A number of small towns, such as Brantôme, Issigeac and Mareuil, have withstood the changes of modern times. A special mention should be made in this respect to its Black Périgord area. Dordogne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution, it was created from the former province of the county of Périgord. Its borders continued to change over subsequent decades. In 1793 the communes of Boisseuilh, Coubjours, Génis, Saint-Cyr-les-Champagnes, Saint-Mesmin, Savignac, Saint-Trié and Teillots were transferred from Corrèze to Dordogne.
In 1794 Dordogne ceded Cavarc to Lot-et-Garonne. In 1794, Dordogne gained Parcoul from Charente-Inférieure. Following the restoration, in 1819, the commune of Bonrepos was suppressed and merged with the adjacent commune of Souillac in Lot. In 1870, shortly after France fought against Prussia in a war that the enemy was winning, a young aristocrat called Alain de Monéys was savagely tortured and burned by a crowd of between 300 and 800 people for two hours on 16 August in a public square in the village of Hautefaye in the north-west of the department. Details of the incident remain unclear: the leading participants appear to have been drunk, before the introduction of mass education most of the witnesses would have been unable to write down