Orchomenus, the setting for many early Greek myths, is best known as a rich archaeological site in Boeotia, that was inhabited from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic periods. Orchomenus is referenced as the Minyean Orchomenus in order to distinguish the city from the Arcadian Orchomenus, according to the founding myth of Orchomenos, its royal dynasty had been established by the Minyans, who had followed their eponymous leader Minyas from coastal Thessaly to settle the site. In the Bronze Age, during the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries, Orchomenos became a rich and important centre of civilisation in Mycenaean Greece, the palace with its frescoed walls and the great tholos tomb show the power of Orchomenos in Mycenaean times. A massive hydraulic undertaking drained the marshes of Lake Copaïs making it an agricultural area. Like many sites around the Aegean, Orchomenos was burned and its palace destroyed in ca.1200 BC, Orchomenos seems to have been one of the city-states that joined the Calaurian maritime League in the seventh century BC.
Although their rivals Thebes confirmed their supremacy by the end of the century reflected bu inscriptions, the Agrionia, a festival of the god Dionysus, involved the ritual pursuit of women by a man representing Dionysus. Orchomenos struck its coinage from the mid-sixth century, in 480–479 BC, the Orchomenians joined their neighbouring rivals the Thebans to turn back the invading forces of Xerxes in the Greco-Persian Wars. In mid-century, Orchomenos sheltered the oligarchic exiles who freed Boeotia from Athenian control, in the fourth century the traditional rivalry with Thebes made Orchomenos an ally of Agesilaus II and Sparta against Thebes, in 395 and again in 394 BC. The Theban revenge after their defeat of Sparta in the battle of Leuctra was delayed by the tolerant policies of Epaminondas, although the Phocians rebuilt the city in 355 BC, the Thebans destroyed it again in 349. The broad plain between Orchomenos and the acropolis of Chaeronea witnessed two battles of importance in Classical antiquity.
During Alexanders campaign against Thebes in 335 BC, Orchomenos took the side of the Macedonians, in recompense and Alexander rebuilt Orchomenos, when the theatre and the fortification walls, visible today, were constructed. The Second Battle of Chaeronea occurred when Roman forces under Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeated those of King Mithridates VI of Pontus near Chaeronea and this Second Battle of Chaeronea was followed by the Battle of Orchomenus, when Archelaus forces were completely destroyed. Orchomenos remained a town until Late Roman times, when the theatre was still in use. Most excavations have focussed on the early and Mycenean areas of the lower town, in 1880–86, Heinrich Schliemanns excavations revealed the tholos tomb he called the Tomb of Minyas, a Mycenaean monument that equalled the Tomb of Atreus at Mycenae itself. In 1893, A. de Ridder excavated the temple of Asklepios, in 1903–05, a Bavarian archaeological mission under Heinrich Bulle and Adolf Furtwängler conducted successful excavations at the site.
Research continued in 1970–73 by the Archaeological Service under Theodore Spyropoulos, uncovering the Mycenaean palace, a prehistoric cemetery, the Tomb of Minyas is one of the greatest burial monuments of the Mycenaean period. The tomb was built for the members of the royal family of Orchomenos in 1250 BC and was plundered in antiquity. The monument was visible for centuries after its original use
Molos-Agios Konstantinos is a municipality in the region of Central Greece, in Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town of Kamena Vourla, the municipality belongs to the regional unit of Phthiotis. The municipality has an area of 337.298 km2, a municipality is a collection of towns and settlements in Greece. Molos-Agios Konstantinos was formed after the 2011 administrative division reforms by the combination of 3 towns, the towns are, Agios Konstantinos Kamena Vourla Molos
Makrakomi is a town and a municipality in the western part of the Phthiotis regional unit, in Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Spercheiada, Makrakomi is built on the southern slopes of Western Othrys at an altitude of 280 m. It overlooks the river Spercheios and its valley, Makrakomi is located east of Karpenisi, ENE of Agrinio, south of Karditsa, west of Lamia and the GR-1/E65 and the E75 as well as the GR-3 and WNW of Amfissa. Makrakomi is linked with the GR-38.564 km2, the municipal unit 271.298 km2, in 2011 the population of Makrakomi municipal unit was assessed as 5,617. Makrakomi, This market town bears the name of the ancient Aenian town Makra Kome whose ruins can be seen on the small hill Profitis Ilias, Makra Kome is mentioned by the historian Livy in his description of the destruction of Sperchias by the Aetolians. The little church of Agia Paraskevi, the Acropolis of Makrakomi, Platistomo, A picturesque bath town with natural springs. The waters of springs are recommended for stomach and skin ailments.
This place is set in lush vegetation where the traveller can find peace and Palea Gianitsou - Papas, There are traces of two ancient castles in this location. Makri, It features a beautiful square and the superb plane-tree wood of the River Spercheios. The only station for nursing and protecting animals in Phthiotis is located in Makri, the Greek Army general Ioannis Zisis was born at Makri in 1888. Archani, A place where we can wander off down the ravine with its springs, asvestis, It has a vaulted bridge made of stone. Trilofo, It features a religious museum I Vivlos, Kastri, It has a splendid plane-tree forest on both sides of the Spercheios. The Castle is the most prominent building at the village centre, The porch of Western Phthiotis. It features a fountain in the chalkia gourna while there are oak trees at Agios Giannis. Litosselo, There is a Folklore Museum and a settlement called Afentika, There are beautiful ancient fir-trees, chestnut-tree woods and oak-tree woods, as well as, a superb Folklore Museum.
Local meat from free range animals and delicious sausages traditionally produced and raki from the mountainous vineyards of Makrakomi and Platistomo. Famous local produce includes kiwi berries from Kastri and shelled peanuts from Makri, the taverns and restaurants in Makrakomi and the surrounding villages serve kokoretsi, splinantero and other local specialities. Organized events in commemoration of the Battle of Makrakomi, three-day Carnival festivities in Makrakomi, traditional festivals in Makrakomi and all the other villages
Doris, is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locrians, and Phocis, the original homeland of the Dorian Greeks. It lies between Mounts Oeta and Parnassus, and consists of the valley of the river Pindus, a tributary of the Cephissus, the Pindus is now called the Apostoliá. This valley is open towards Phocis, but it lies higher than the valley of the Cephissus, rising above the towns of Drymaea and Amphicaea, which are the last towns in Phocis. Doris is described by Herodotus as lying between Malis and Phocis, and being only 30 stadia in breadth, which agrees nearly with the extent of the valley of the Apostoliá in its widest part. In this valley there were four towns forming the Doric tetrapolis, Erineus, Cytinium, Erineus, as the most important, appears to have been called Dorium. The Dorians, did not confine themselves within these narrow limits, but occupied other places along Mount Oeta. Thus Strabo describes the Dorians of the tetrapolis as the part of the nation, and the Scholiast on Pindar speaks of six Doric towns, Cytinium, Lilaeum, Carphaea.
The Dorians would appear at one time to have extended across Mount Oeta to the sea coast, among the Doric towns Hecataeus mentioned Amphanae, called Amphanaea by Theopompus. Livy places in Doris Tritonon and Drymiae, which are evidently the Phocian towns elsewhere called Tithronium, there was an important mountain pass leading across Parnassus from Doris to Amphissa in the country of the Ozolian Locrians, at the head of this pass stood the Dorian town of Cytinium. Doris is said to have been originally called Dryopis from its inhabitants the Dryopes, who were expelled from the country by Heracles. It derived its name from the Dorians, who migrated from district to the conquest of Peloponnesus. The name Dorians is supposed to have derived from Dorus, the son of Hellen, according to one tradition, Dorus settled once in the country subsequently known as Doris, but other traditions represent them as more widely spread in earlier times. For this statement Herodotus could have had no other authority than tradition, in the Bibliotheca Dorus is represented as occupying the country across the Peloponnese, on the opposite side of the Corinthian gulf, and calling the inhabitants after himself Dorians.
By this description is meant the whole country along the northern shore of the Corinthian gulf, comprising Aetolia, Phocis. This statement, according to Smith, is at least more suitable to the facts attested by historical evidence than the legends given in Herodotus, in the historical period the whole of the eastern and southern parts of the Peloponnese were in the possession of the Dorians. In the Saronic gulf, Aegina was peopled by Dorians, the districts just mentioned are represented in the Homeric poems as the seats of the great Achaean monarchies, and there is no allusion in these poems to any Doric population in Peloponnesus. In fact the name of the Dorians occurs only once in Homer, from the Peloponnesus the Dorians spread over various parts of the Aegean and its connected seas. Doric colonies were founded in times in the islands of Crete, Thera, Cos
Karystos or Carystus is a small coastal town on the Greek island of Euboea. It lies 129 km south of Chalkis, from Athens it is accessible by ferry via Marmari from the port of Rafina. Its urban plan was out by the renowned Bavarian civil engineer Bierbach, in the middle of the 19th century. Karystos apparently remained inhabited throughout the early Middle Ages, as part of the theme of Hellas, it was seat of a bishop – a suffragan of Athens – at least since the reign of Leo VI the Wise. It was among the towns listed in the 1198 chrysobull of Alexios III Angelos, in 1205 it was captured, as with the rest of the island, by Jacques dAvesnes, and soon it became the seat of the southern third of Euboea under Ravano dalle Carceri. It is likely that it was at time, with the construction of the castle of Castel Rosso and the rise of piracy. The town remained an episcopal see under Latin rule, with the Greek bishop remaining in office, in 1276/7 it was reconquered by the Byzantines under Licario and held until 1296, when it was recovered by Boniface of Verona.
In 1318 it passed into Catalan hands as part of the dowry of Marulla of Verona for her marriage with Alfonso Fadrique. After the conquest of Euboea by the Ottoman Empire in 1470, the local Orthodox see was reactivated as part of the Metropolis of Euripos.635 km2, the reconstructed Venetian fortress of Bourtzi, built in the 13th century on the eastern beach of the town. The ruins of the Venetian castle named Castello Rosso built in 1030 and ancient marble quarries, the town hall, built at the end of the 19th century. A small museum hosted by the Yokaleion Cultural Centre, featuring collections of Hellenistic and Roman era sculptures, the Orthodox monasteries of Taxiarches, St. George and St. Mavra. The mountain area of Mt. Ochi, tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 1, Hellas und Thessalia. Vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, the Latins in the Levant, a History of Frankish Greece
Domokos, the ancient Thaumacus or Thaumacie, is a town and a municipality in Phthiotis, Greece. The town Domokos is the seat of the municipality of Domokos, the town is built on a mountain slope overlooking the plain of Thessaly, 38km from the city of Lamia. The area of Domokos became part of Greece in 1881, when the Ottoman Empire ceded Thessaly, until 1899, it was part of the Larissa Prefecture. In 1897, during the Greco-Turkish War, about 2,000 Italian volunteers under the command of Giuseppe Garibaldis son, Ricciotti Garibaldi, among them there was one of the members of Italian Parliament, Antonio Fratti, who died in fightening. The Turkish Army was victorious over Greek Army.953 km2, the province of Domokos was one of the provinces of Phthiotis. It had the territory as the present municipality
Chalcis or Chalkida is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός, in the late Middle Ages, it was known as Negropont, a name that was applied to the entire island of Euboea as well. The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad, where it is mentioned in the line as its rival Eretria. It is documented that the set for the Trojan War gathered at Aulis. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice and several important cities in Magna Graecia, such as Naxos and Cumae. Its mineral produce, metal-work and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, early in the 6th century BC, its prosperity was broken by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site.
Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues, in the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria and Mithradates VI of Pontus as a base for invading Greece, under Roman rule, Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity. The city is recorded as a city in the 6th-century Synecdemus and mentioned by the contemporary historian Procopius of Caesarea, the town survived an Arab naval raid in the 880s and its bishop is attested in the 869–70 Church council held at Constantinople. By the 12th century, the featured a Venetian trading station, being attacked by the Venetian fleet in 1171 and eventually seized by Venice in 1209. For Westerners, its name was Negropont or Negroponte. The town was a condominium between Venice and the Veronese barons of the rest of Euboea, known as the triarchs, who resided there. Chalcis or Negroponte became a Latin Church diocese, the first bishop being Theodorus, the Greek bishop of the see, a large hoard of late medieval jewellery dating from Venetian times was found in Chalcis Castle in the nineteenth century and is now in the British Museum.
The synagogue dated to around 1400 and that siege is the subject of the Rossini opera Maometto II. The Ottomans made it the seat of the Admiral of the Archipelago, in 1688, it was successfully held by the Ottomans against a strong Venetian attack. The modern town received an impetus in its trade from the establishment of railway connection with Athens. The old town, called the Castro, was surrounded by a circuit of defense walls until they were completely razed for urban development around the start of the 20th century
Euboea (regional unit)
Euboea is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. It consists of the islands of Euboea and Skyros, as well as a 395 km2 area on the Greek mainland, the Euboea regional unit is subdivided into 8 municipalities. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, the former municipalities of Anthidona and Avlida are on the mainland, attached to the northeastern part of Boeotia. Skyros is an island by itself, Chalkida Province - Chalkida Istiaeotis Province - Istiaia Karystiaea Province - Karystos Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. At the 2001 census the prefecture had a population of 215,136 inhabitants, whereas the island Euboea itself had a population of 198,130
Aliartos is a small town and municipality in the Boeotia regional unit, Greece, at 109 kilometres from Athens. The 2011 census recorded 10,887 residents in the municipality,6,094 residents in the unit and 4,847 in the community of Aliartos. Its name comes from the ancient city of Haliartus, Aliartos Lies in the center of the Kopais plain. The municipality of Aliartos covers an area of 256.507 km2, the unit of Aliartos 148.355 km2. Under the Köppen climate classification, Aliartos has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with wet, cool winters and dry, the modern town of Aliartos is a recent creation. In the early 19th century, the site was occupied by two small settlements and Krimpas. In 1835, the name of ancient Haliartus was revived for the newly established municipality which encompassed these settlements, Krimpas was renamed to Aliartos in June 1919, but in 1951 the settlement was disbanded and the name was transferred in July 1953 to Moulki. The names of Moulki and Krimpas survive as quarters of the new town