In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would found their own colonies; some colonies were countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Unlike a puppet state or satellite state, a colony has no independent international representation, its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state; the term informal colony is used by some historians to refer to a country under the de facto control of another state, although this term is contentious. The word "colony" comes from the Latin word colōnia.
This in turn derives from the word colōnus, which means colonist but implies a farmer. Cologne is an example of a settlement preserving this etymology. Other, less obvious settlements that began as Roman colonia include cities from Belgrade to York. A tell-tale sign of a settlement once being a Roman colony is a city centre with a grid pattern; the terminology is taken from architectural analogy, where a column pillar is beneath the head capital, a biological analog of the body as subservient beneath the controlling head. So colonies are not independently self-controlled, but rather are controlled from a separate entity that serves the capital function. Roman colonies first appeared; these were small farming settlements. A colony could take many forms, as a military base in enemy territory, its original definition as a settlement created by people migrating from a central region to an outlying one became the modern definition. Carthage formed as a Phoenician colony Cadiz formed as a Phoenician colony Cyrene was a colony of the Greeks of Thera Sicily was a Phoenician colony Durrës formed as a Greek colony Sardinia was a Phoenician colony Marseille formed as a Greek colony Malta was a Phoenician colony Cologne formed as a Roman colony, its modern name refers to the Latin term "Colonia".
Kandahar formed as a Greek colony during the Hellenistic era by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Alaska: a colony of Russia from the middle 18th century until sold to the United States in 1867, it became the 49th American state in 1959. Angola: a colony of Portugal since the 16th century. Independent since 1975. Argentina gained its independence from Spain in 1810. Australia was formed as an independent country in 1901 from a federation of six distinct British colonies which were founded between 1788 and 1829. Barbados: was a colony of Great Britain important in the Atlantic slave trade, it gained its independence in 1966. Brazil: a colony of Portugal since the 16th century. Independent since 1822. Canada: was colonized first by France as New France and England under British rule, before achieving Dominion status and losing "colony" designation. Democratic Republic of the Congo: a colony of Belgium from 1908 to 1960. French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia.
The federation lasted until 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads. Ghana: Contact between Europe and Ghana began in the 15th century with the arrival of the Portuguese; this soon led to the establishment of several colonies by European powers: Portuguese Gold Coast, Dutch Gold Coast, Swedish Gold Coast, Danish Gold Coast and Prussian Gold Coast and British Gold Coast. In 1957, Ghana was the first African colony south of the Sahara to become independent. Greenland was a colony of Denmark-Norway from 1721 and was a colony of Denmark from 1814 to 1953. In 1953 Greenland was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in 1979 and extended to self-rule in 2009. See Danish colonization of the Americas. Guinea-Bissau: a colony of Portugal since the 15th century. Independent since 1974.
Hong Kong was a British colony from 1841 to 1997. Is now a Special Administrative Region of China. India was an imperial political entity comprising present-day India, Bangladesh and the United Arab Emirates with regions under the direct control of the Government of the United Kingdom from 1858 to 1947. From the 15th century until 1961, Portuguese India was a colony of Portugal. Pondicherry and Chandernagore were part of French India from 1759 to 1954. Small Danish colonies of Tharangambadi and the Nicobar Islands) from 1620 to 1869 were known as Danish India. Indonesia was a Dutch colony for 350 years, from 1602 to full independence in 1949. Jamaica was part of the Spanish West Indies in the seventeenth centuries, it became an English colony in 1655. Liberia a colony set up in 1821 by American private citizens for the migration of African American freedmen. Liberian Declaration of Independ
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to rule the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them; this would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Persians alike. In 499 BC, the tyrant of Miletus, embarked on an expedition to conquer the island of Naxos, with Persian support; this was the beginning of the Ionian Revolt, which would last until 493 BC, progressively drawing more regions of Asia Minor into the conflict. Aristagoras secured military support from Athens and Eretria, in 498 BC these forces helped to capture and burn the Persian regional capital of Sardis; the Persian king Darius the Great vowed to have revenge on Eretria for this act.
The revolt continued, with the two sides stalemated throughout 497–495 BC. In 494 BC, the Persians regrouped, attacked the epicentre of the revolt in Miletus. At the Battle of Lade, the Ionians suffered a decisive defeat, the rebellion collapsed, with the final members being stamped out the following year. Seeking to secure his empire from further revolts and from the interference of the mainland Greeks, Darius embarked on a scheme to conquer Greece and to punish Athens and Eretria for the burning of Sardis; the first Persian invasion of Greece began in 492 BC, with the Persian general Mardonius re-subjugating Thrace and Macedon before several mishaps forced an early end to the rest of the campaign. In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes; this expedition subjugated the Cyclades, before besieging and razing Eretria. However, while en route to attack Athens, the Persian force was decisively defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon, ending Persian efforts for the time being.
Darius began to plan to conquer Greece, but died in 486 BC and responsibility for the conquest passed to his son Xerxes. In 480 BC, Xerxes led the second Persian invasion of Greece with one of the largest ancient armies assembled. Victory over the allied Greek states at the famous Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Persians to torch an evacuated Athens and overrun most of Greece. However, while seeking to destroy the combined Greek fleet, the Persians suffered a severe defeat at the Battle of Salamis; the following year, the confederated Greeks went on the offensive, decisively defeating the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea, ending the invasion of Greece by the Achaemenid Empire. The allied Greeks followed up their success by destroying the rest of the Persian fleet at the Battle of Mycale, before expelling Persian garrisons from Sestos and Byzantium. Following the Persian withdrawal from Europe and the Greek victory at Mycale and the city states of Ionia regained their independence; the actions of the general Pausanias at the siege of Byzantium alienated many of the Greek states from the Spartans, the anti-Persian alliance was therefore reconstituted around Athenian leadership, called the Delian League.
The Delian League continued to campaign against Persia for the next three decades, beginning with the expulsion of the remaining Persian garrisons from Europe. At the Battle of the Eurymedon in 466 BC, the League won a double victory that secured freedom for the cities of Ionia. However, the League's involvement in the Egyptian revolt by Inaros II against Artaxerxes I resulted in a disastrous defeat, further campaigning was suspended. A Greek fleet was sent to Cyprus in 451 BC, but achieved little, when it withdrew, the Greco-Persian Wars drew to a quiet end; some historical sources suggest the end of hostilities was marked by a peace treaty between Athens and Persia, the Peace of Callias. All the primary sources for the Greco-Persian Wars are Greek. By some distance, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus. Herodotus, called the "Father of History", was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, he wrote his'Enquiries' around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been recent history.
Herodotus's approach was novel and, at least in Western society, he invented'history' as a discipline. As historian Tom Holland has it, "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally."Some ancient historians, starting with Thucydides, criticised Herodotus and his methods. Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off and felt Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, though he remained well re
J. B. Bury
John Bagnell Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist. He objected to the label "Byzantinist" explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire, he was Erasmus Smith's Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin, before being Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge from 1902 until his death. Bury was born and raised in Clontibret, County Monaghan, where his father was Rector of the Anglican Church of Ireland, he was educated first by his parents and at Foyle College in Derry. He studied classics at Trinity College, where he was elected a scholar in 1879, graduated in 1882, he was elected a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin in 1885 at the age of 24. In 1893, he was appointed to the Erasmus Smith's Chair of Modern History at Trinity College, which he held for nine years. In 1898 he was appointed Regius Professor of Greek at Trinity, a post he held with his history professorship. In 1902 he became Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge.
At Cambridge, Bury became mentor to the medievalist Sir Steven Runciman, who commented that he had been Bury's "first, only, student." At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off. Bury was the author of the first authoritative biography of Saint Patrick. Bury remained at Cambridge until his death at the age of 65 in Rome, he is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. He received the honorary degree Doctor of Laws from the University of Glasgow in June 1901, the honorary degree Doctor of Letters from the University of Oxford in October 1902, in connection with the tercentenary of the Bodleian Library, his brother, Robert Gregg Bury, was an Irish clergyman, philologist, a translator of the works of Plato and Sextus Empiricus into English. Bury's writings, on subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the 19th-century papacy, are at once scholarly and accessible to the layman, his two works on the philosophy of history elucidated the Victorian ideals of progress and rationality which undergirded his more specific histories.
He led a revival of Byzantine history, which English-speaking historians, following Edward Gibbon, had neglected. He contributed to, was himself the subject of an article in, the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. With Frank Adcock and S. A. Cook he edited The Cambridge Ancient History, launched in 1919. John Bagnell Bury's career shows his evolving thought process and his consideration of the discipline of history as a "science". From his inaugural lecture as Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge in 1902 comes his public proclamation of history as a "science" and not as a branch of "literature", he stated: I may remind you that history is not a branch of literature. The facts of history, like the facts of astronomy, can supply material for literary art. Bury's lecture continues by defending the claim that history is not literature, which in turns questions the need for a historian's narrative in the discussion of historical facts and evokes the question: is a narrative necessary? But Bury describes his "science" by comparing it to Leopold von Ranke's idea of science and the German phrase that brought Ranke's ideas fame when he exclaimed "tell history as it happened" or "Ich will nur sagen wie es eigentlich gewesen ist."
Bury's final thoughts during his lecture reiterate his previous statement with a cementing sentence that claims "...she is herself a science, no less and no more". In his book, History of Freedom of Thought he said the following; some people speak as if we were not justified in rejecting a theological doctrine unless we can prove it false. But the burden of proof does not lie upon the rejecter.... If you were told that in a certain planet revolving around Sirius there is a race of donkeys who speak the English language and spend their time in discussing eugenics, you could not disprove the statement, but would it, on that account, have any claim to be believed? Some minds would be prepared to accept it, if it were reiterated enough, through the potent force of suggestion; the Odes of Pindar The Nemean Odes of Pindar The Isthmian Odes of Pindar Rome A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene A History of the Roman Empire From its Foundation to the Death of Marcus Aurelius A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I A History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians The Life of St. Patrick and His Place in History History of the Papacy in the 19th Century Greece A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great The Ancient Greek Historians The Hellenistic Age: Aspects of Hellenistic Civilization, with E.
A. Barber, Edwyn Bevan, W. W. TarnPhilosophical A History of Freedom of Thought The Idea of Progress: An Inquiry into Its Origin and Growth Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of t
Crotone is a city and comune in Calabria. Founded c. 710 BC as the Achaean colony of Kroton, it was known as Cotrone from the Middle Ages until 1928, when its name was changed to the current one. In 1992, it became the capital of the newly established Province of Crotone; as of August 2018, its population was about 65,000. Croton's oikistes was Myscellus who came from the city of Rhypes in Achaea in the northern Peloponnese, he established the city in c. 710 BC and it soon became one of the most flourishing cities of Magna Graecia with a population between 50,000 and 80,000 around 500 BC. Its inhabitants were famous for the simple sobriety of their lives. From 588 BC onwards, Croton produced many generations of victors in the Olympics and the other Panhellenic Games, the most famous of whom was Milo of Croton. According to Herodotus, the physicians of Croton were considered the foremost among the Greeks, among them Democedes, son of Calliphon, was the most prominent in the 6th century BC. Accordingly, he traveled around Greece and ended up working in the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos.
After the tyrant was murdered, Democedes was captured by the Persians and brought to King Darius, curing him of a dislocated ankle. Democedes' fame was, according to the basis for the prestige of Croton's physicians. Pythagoras founded his school, the Pythagoreans, at Croton c. 530 BC. Among his pupils were the early medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton and the philosopher and astronomer Philolaus; the Pythagoreans acquired considerable influence with the supreme council of one thousand by which the city was ruled. Sybaris was the rival of Croton until 510 BC, when Croton sent an army of one hundred thousand men, commanded by the wrestler Milo, against Sybaris and destroyed it. Shortly afterwards, however, an insurrection took place, led by a prominent citizen, Cylon, by which the Pythagoreans were driven out and a democracy established. In 480 BC, Croton sent a ship in support of the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis, but the victory of Locri and Rhegium over Croton in the same year marked the beginning of its decline.
It was replaced by Heraclea as headquarters of the Italiote League. Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, aiming at hegemony in Magna Graecia, captured Croton in 379 BC and held it for twelve years. Croton was occupied by the Bruttii, with the exception of the citadel, in which the chief inhabitants had taken refuge. In 295 BC, Croton fell to Agathocles; when Pyrrhus invaded Italy, it was still a considerable city, with twelve miles of walls, but after the Pyrrhic War, half the town was deserted. What was left of its population submitted to Rome in 277 BC. After the Battle of Cannae in the Second Punic War, Croton was betrayed to the Brutii by a democratic leader named Aristomachus, who defected to the Roman side. Hannibal made it his winter quarters for three years and the city was not recaptured until 205 or 204 BC. In 194 BC, it became the site of a Roman colony. Little more is heard of it during the Republican and Imperial periods, though the action of one of the more significant surviving fragments of the Satyricon of Petronius is set in Croton.
Around 550, the city was unsuccessfully besieged by king of the Ostrogoths. At a date it became a part of the Byzantine Empire. Around 841, the Republic of Venice sent a fleet of 60 galleys to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but it failed. About 870, it was sacked by the Saracens, who put to death the bishop and many people who had taken refuge in the cathedral but were not able to occupy the city. Over a hundred years Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor, mounted a campaign in southern Italy to reduce the power of the Byzantines. On Crotone was conquered by the Normans. In 1806, it was occupied and sacked by the English, on by the French. Thereafter it shared the fate of the Kingdom of Naples—including the period of Spanish rule of which the 16th-century castle of Charles V, overlooking modern Crotone, serves as a reminder—and its successor, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and incorporated into the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861. Crotone's location between the ports of Taranto and Messina, as well as its proximity to a source of hydroelectric power, favored industrial development during the period between the two World Wars.
In the 1930s its population doubled. However, after the two main employers, Pertusola Sud and Montedison, collapsed by the late 1980s, Crotone was in economic crisis, with many residents losing their jobs and leaving to find work elsewhere. In 1996, the river Esaro flooded the city. Since that low point, the city has risen in quality-of-life rankings. Crotone enjoys a Mediterranean climate; the Cathedral from the 9th to 11th centuries, but rebuilt. It has a neo-classical façade, while the interior has a nave with two aisles, with Baroque decorations. Noteworthy are a baptismal font and the Madonna di Capo Colonna, the icon of the Black Madonna which, according to the tradition, was brought from East in the first years of the Christian era; the 16th-century Castle of Charles V. It houses the Town Museum, with findings excavated in the ancient site of Kroton. Notable are the remnants of the walls, of the same century, of various watchtowers; the ancient castle built on an island, with accessibility
Magna Graecia was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Basilicata and Sicily. The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, to leave a lasting imprint on Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome. Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred to the south of Italy as Magna Graecia in his poem Fasti. According to Strabo, Magna Graecia's colonization had begun by the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, because of demographic crises, the search for new commercial outlets and ports, expulsion from their homeland after wars, Greeks began to settle in southern Italy. Colonies were established all over the Mediterranean and Black Seas, including in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula; the Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks.
The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or Apulia and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed interacting with the native Italic civilisations; the most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, adopted by the Etruscans. These Hellenic colonies became rich and powerful, some still stand today, like Neapolis, Akragas, Rhegion, or Kroton; the first Greek city to be absorbed into the Roman Republic was Neapolis in 327 BC. The other Greek cities in Italy followed during the Pyrrhic War. Sicily was conquered by Rome during the First Punic War. Only Syracuse remained independent until 212, because its king Hiero II was a devoted ally of the Romans, his grandson Hieronymous however made an alliance with Hannibal, which prompted the Romans to besiege the city, which fell in 212, despite the machines of Archimedes.
This is a list of the 22 poleis in Italy, according to Mogens Herman Hansen. It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a polis structure. During the Early Middle Ages, following the disastrous Gothic War, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks may have come to Southern Italy from Greece and Asia Minor, as Southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire. Although possible, the archaeological evidence shows no trace of new arrivals of Greek peoples, only a division between barbarian newcomers, Greco-Roman locals; the iconoclast emperor Leo III appropriated lands, granted to the Papacy in southern Italy and the Eastern Roman Empire continued to govern the area in the form of the Catapanate of Italy through the Middle Ages, well after northern Italy fell to the Lombards. At the time of the Normans' late medieval conquest of southern Italy and Sicily, the Salento peninsula and up to one third of Sicily was still Greek speaking. At this time the language had evolved into medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek, its speakers were known as Byzantine Greeks.
The resultant fusion of local Byzantine Greek culture with Norman and Arab culture gave rise to Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture on Sicily. A remnant of this influence can be found in the survival of the Greek language in some villages of the above mentioned Salento peninsula; this living dialact of Greek, known locally as Griko, is found in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is considered by linguistics to be a descendant of Byzantine Greek, the majority language of Salento through the Middle Ages, combining some ancient Doric and modern Italian elements. There is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element; some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia. Although many of the Greek inhabitants of Southern Italy were Latinized during the Middle Ages, pockets of Greek culture and language remained and survived into modernity because of continuous migration between southern Italy and the Greek mainland.
One example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain customs. Greeks re-entered the region in the 16th and 17th century in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire. After the end of the Siege of Coron, large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property, they were granted special privileges and tax exempt
The Pythia was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who served as the oracle known as the Oracle of Delphi. The name Pythia is derived from Pytho. In etymology, the Greeks derived this place name from the verb, πύθειν "to rot", which refers to the sickly sweet smell of the decomposition of the body of the monstrous Python after she was slain by Apollo; the Pythia was established at the latest in the 8th century BC, was credited for her prophecies inspired by being filled by the spirit of the god, in this case Apollo. The Pythian priestess emerged pre-eminent by the end of 7th century BC and would continue to be consulted until the 4th century AD. During this period the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle among the Greeks, she was without doubt the most powerful woman of the classical world; the oracle is one of the best-documented religious institutions of the classical Greeks. Authors who mention the oracle include Aeschylus, Clement of Alexandria, Diogenes, Herodotus, Justin, Lucan, Ovid, Pindar, Plutarch, Strabo and Xenophon.
Details of how the Pythia operated are missing as authors from the classical period treat the process as common knowledge with no need to explain. Those who discussed the oracle in any detail are from 1st century BC to 4th century AD and give conflicting stories. One of the main stories claimed that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapours rising from a chasm in the rock, that she spoke gibberish which priests interpreted as the enigmatic prophecies and turned them into poetic dactylic hexameters preserved in Greek literature; this idea, has been challenged by scholars such as Joseph Fontenrose and Lisa Maurizio, who argue that the ancient sources uniformly represent the Pythia speaking intelligibly, giving prophecies in her own voice. Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BC describes the Pythia speaking in dactylic hexameters; the Delphic oracle may have been present in some form from 1400 BC, in the middle period of Mycenaean Greece. There is evidence that Apollo took over the shrine with the arrival of priests from Delos in the 8th century, from an earlier dedication to Gaia.
The 8th-century reformulation of the Oracle at Delphi as a shrine to Apollo seems associated with the rise in importance of the city of Corinth and the importance of sites in the Corinthian Gulf. The earliest account of the origin of the Delphic oracle is provided in the Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo, which recent scholarship dates within a narrow range, c. 580–570 BC. It describes in detail how Apollo chose his first priests, whom he selected in their "swift ship", but Apollo, who had Delphinios as one of his cult epithets, leapt into the ship in the form of a dolphin. Dolphin-Apollo revealed himself to the terrified Cretans, bade them follow him up to the "place where you will have rich offerings"; the Cretans "danced in time and followed, singing Iē Paiēon, like the paeans of the Cretans in whose breasts the divine Muse has placed "honey-voiced singing". "Paean" seems to have been the name. G. L. Huxley observes, "If the hymn to Apollo conveys a historical message, it is above all that there were once Cretan priests at Delphi."
Robin Lane Fox notes that Cretan bronzes are found at Delphi from the eighth century onwards, Cretan sculptures are dedicated as late as ca 620–600 BC: "Dedications at the site cannot establish the identity of its priesthood," he observes, "but for once we have an explicit text to set beside the archaeological evidence." An early visitor to these "dells of Parnassus", at the end of the eighth century, was Hesiod, shown the omphalos. There are many stories of the origins of the Delphic Oracle. One late explanation, first related by the 1st century BC writer, Diodorus Siculus, tells of a goat herder named Coretas, who noticed one day that one of his goats, who fell into a crack in the earth, was behaving strangely. On entering the chasm, he found himself filled with a divine presence and could see outside of the present into the past and the future. Excited by his discovery he shared it with nearby villagers. Many started visiting the site to experience the convulsions and inspirational trances, though some were said to disappear into the cleft due to their frenzied state.
A shrine was erected at the site, where people began worshiping in the late Bronze Age, by 1600 BC. After the deaths of a number of men, the villagers chose a single young woman as the liaison for the divine inspirations, she spoke on behalf of gods. According to earlier myths, the office of the oracle was possessed by the goddesses Themis and Phoebe, the site was sacred to Gaia. Subsequently, it was believed to be sacred to the "Earth-shaker" god of earthquakes. During the Greek Dark Age, from the 11th to the 9th century BC, a new god of prophecy, Apollo seized the temple and expelled the twin guardian serpents of Gaia, whose bodies he wrapped around the caduceus. Myths stated that Phoebe or Themis had "given" the site to Apollo, rationalizing its seizure by priests of the new god, but having to retain the priestesses of the original oracle because of the long tradition. Poseidon was mollified by the gift of a new site in Troizen. Diodorus explained how the Pythia was an appropriately clad young virgin, for great