Ilfov is the county that surrounds Bucharest, the capital of Romania. It used to be rural, after the fall of communism, many of the county's villages and communes developed into high-income commuter towns, which act like suburbs or satellites of Bucharest; the gentrification of the county is continuing, with many towns in Ilfov, such as Otopeni, having some of the highest GDP per capita levels in the country. It has a population of 364,241; the population density is 230.09 per km². 40% of the population commutes and works in Bucharest, although, in recent years, many industrial plants were built outside Bucharest, in Ilfov county. It has an annual growth of about 4%. Romanians - 96.05% Others - 3.95% The county has an area of 1,584 km² and it is situated in the Romanian Plain between the Argeș River and the Ialomița River. The main rivers that pass through the county are: Colentina River and Gruiu River. Several lakes can be found in notably Lake Cernica, Lake Snagov and Lake Căldărușani. Prahova County in the north.
Ialomița County in the east. Călărași County in the southeast. Giurgiu County in the southwest. Dâmbovița County in the west; the base occupation used to be the agriculture. Nowadays, due to the economical growth in Bucharest, many companies have opened their offices, production facilities or warehouses in the nearby villages, situated in the Ilfov County, thus making it the most developed county in Romania; the predominant industries in the county are: Food and beverages industry Textile industry Mechanical components industry Chemical industry Paper industry Furniture industry Rubber industry Electrical equipment industry Transport equipment industry Electronic and optical equipmentAt Otopeni there is the main aerial transport hub in Romania - the Henri Coandă International Airport. All the main roads and railways leaving Bucharest pass through the county; the county has a large surface covered with forests and due to its lakes, it is a frequent week-end and holiday destinations for the inhabitants of Bucharest.
Other notable touristic sites are: The Snagov Monastery The Cernica Monastery The Mogoșoaia Palace The Căldărușani Monastery The Ghica family palace in Moara Vlăsiei The Știrbei Palace in Buftea The Ilfov County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: Most of today's Ilfov County used to be covered by Codrii Vlăsiei, a thick forest, but there were several Dacian settlements, most important being Argedava, on the right bank of the Argeș River in what is now Popești, the capital of king Burebista. The thick forests were useful for retreat during the migration age because they were not easy to cross on horseback. In fact, the name of the forest means "the Forests of the Vlachs", a name given by the Slavs who inhabited the nearby plains; the county was named after the Ilfov River and it appears for the first time in a 1482 donation act of voivode Vlad Călugărul to the monastery of Snagov. In earliest documents, it was known as Elhov.
The name is of Slavic origin, being derived from елха, elha and possessive suffix -ov, referring to a river which flowed through an alder forest. The county has 32 communes; the largest settlements by population are Voluntari, Pantelimon and Popești-Leordeni. These are the only settlements with more than 20.000 residents. Unlike most other areas of Romania, the population in Ilfov County is increasing, as many of the settlements here are seen as suburbs of Bucharest and are attracting upper class families. At the 2011 census, 43% of the county's population was defined as urban. Vountari is the largest settlement, with a population of 42.944 at the 2011 census. It has experienced rapid population growth in recent years. There were serious debates about the city level awarded to Voluntari in 2004, as it is alleged that it was given in regard to the city's political affiliation, rather than population, development or any other objective features. Despite this, Voluntari did have a population of 30,000 at that time, many other localities with this population have been given city-status in the past.
Buftea is associated with the cinema of Romania. Otopeni was transformed into a town under the communist regime, as part of Nicolae Ceaușescu's systematization policy, with semidetached houses being replaced by four-storey blocks of flats. Before 1972, Ilfov County used to be one of the largest counties of Romania, but parts of it were added to neighbouring counties and nowadays it is the smallest. Between 1981 and 1997, it was called "Sectorul Agricol Ilfov" and it was not a separate county, but subordinate to the capital. Periș Ciolpani Gruiu Nuci Snagov Grădiștea Moara Vlăsiei Balotești Corbeanca Dascălu Petrăchioaia Otopeni Tunari Ștefăneștii de Jos Afumați Voluntari Găneasa Mogoșoaia Buftea Chitila Dragomirești-Vale Chiajna Dobroești Pantelimon Brănești Ciorogârla Domnești Clinceni Bragadiru Popești-Leordeni Glina Cernica Cornetu Măgurele Jilava Berceni Dărăști-Ilfov 1 Decembrie VidraIlfov County is the only county that has its capital outside of its territorial area, in Bucharest, not part of the actual county.
After the 1968 reform of the public administration in communist Romania, Ilfov was a larger county, that comprised its present-day territory, the entire Giurgiu County and the western parts of Călăraşi and Ialomiţa counties. During the communist period, its territory was reduced to its current size an
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
Sofiya Aleksandrovna Velikaya is a Russian sabre fencer, Olympic gold and silver medalist, seven-times World champion and nine-times European champion. Velikaya collected her first Olympic gold medal with her team at the 2016 Summer Olympics. Velikaya began, her first coach was Valery Dyakokin. She placed fourth in the 2008 Beijing Games after losing to Rebecca Ward by one point in the bronze medal match. On 12 October 2011, she became the World Champion after beating two-time Olympic champion Mariel Zagunis in the final. One year after, she took part in the Summer Olympics in London, where she advanced to finals after defeating Olga Kharlan of Ukraine, she captured silver. After the Olympics Velikaya took a break in her career, she gave birth with Olympic wrestler Aleksey Mishin. She came back to international competition in March 2014 at the Antalya World Cup, where she was defeated in the second round by Hungary's Anna Várhelyi. At the European Championships in Strasbourg, she was stopped in the second round again, this time by Italy's Rossella Gregorio.
In the team event, Russia defeated Hungary to meet France in the final. After being led 30–35 Russia overcame France in the last two relays to win the gold medal. At the World Championships in Kazan Velikaya made her way to the quarter-finals, where she met reigning World champion Olga Kharlan of Ukraine. After a good beginning Velikaya could not prevent Kharlan's comeback and was defeated 9–15, she was however pleased by her return to form. In the team event, Russia overcame Canada in the round of 16 and met France in the quarter-finals. Surprised by France's outright attack, Russia did not manage to regain control and suffered a shock 41–45 defeat, they finished 5th after prevailing over South Korea and Poland. In the 2014–15 season, Velikaya won the first event held in Cancún after defeating France's Charlotte Lembach in the final, she placed second with Russia in the team event. In Orléans, Velikaya put an end to the invincibility of the world no.1 Olga Kharlan, who had not taken part in the Cancún tournament.
Velikaya proceeded to the final where she defeated Italy's Rossella Gregorio and earned her second gold medal in a row. In the team event, Russia stormed through the competition and saw off the United States in the final to win team gold. Velikaya reached again the final in the New York Grand Prix, she met Kharlan. The same scenario played out in Athens at the first World Cup event of 2015, Velikaya losing only by a single hit that time. In the team event, Russia fenced Ukraine in the final. After a tight match Russia lost ground in the penultimate relay, which ended on 33–40. Velikaya came away with a second silver medal, she took her revenge at the Ghent World Cup, defeating Kharlan 15–3 in the semi-finals Zagunis 15–10 in the final, to take her third gold medal of the season. This result caused her to jump to the third place in World rankings. Velikaya qualified for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro alongside her teammates Yana Egorian and Ekaterina Dyachenko. In women's sabre in the table of 32 she defeated Bogna Jóźwiak from Poland.
In the table of 16, quarter-finals and semi-finals, Velikaya prevailed over Charlotte Lembach, Cécilia Berder and Manon Brunet of France, respectively. She lost 14–15 to her teammate Yana Egorian in the finals, winning her second consecutive silver medal at the Olympics in the individual women's sabre. Velikaya managed to claim the Olympic gold a few days in the team event. Russia defeated Mexico in the quarter-finals, prevailed over the USA in the semi-finals and met the Ukrainian in the final. Velikaya and her teammates, including Yuliya Gavrilova, came away with the gold medal, defeating Ukraine 45–30. Velikaya was ranked Nr. 1 in the women's sabre for the most of 2016. She was succeeded by Yana Egorian as the new #1. Velikaya finished 2016 as the world's #3. On 17 November 2016, Velikaya was elected the head of the Russian Olympic Committee Athletes' Commission. Order of Merit for the Fatherland 1st class – for outstanding contribution to the development of physical culture and sports, high achievements at the Games of the 30th Olympic Games in London, United Kingdom.
Athlete of the Year Order of Honour – for high achievements at the 31st Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, the will to win and goal-oriented approach. Medal of Military Valour – 1st class. Velikaya is married to Aleksey Mishin, they have two child together, a son, named Oleg, born on 30 November 2013, a girl named Zoya, born in 2018. Sofiya Velikaya at the Russian Fencing Federation Sofiya Velikaya at the European Fencing Confederation Sofiya Velikaya at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
The Sabre is one of the three disciplines of modern fencing. The sabre weapon is for cutting with both the cutting edge and the back of the blade. Unlike other modern fencing weapons, the épée and foil, where the methods of making a hit are scored using the point of the blade; the informal term "sabreur" refers to a male fencer. "Sabreuse" is the female equivalent. "The blade, which must be of steel, is rectangular in section. The maximum length of the blade is 88 cm; the minimum width of the blade, which must be at the button, is 4 mm. The cross-sectional profile of the sabre blade is a V-shaped base which transitions to a flat rectangular shaped end with most blade variants, however this is dependent on the how it is manufactured; this allows the blade to be flexible towards the end. According to regulation, manufacturers must acknowledge that the blade must be fixed horizontally at a point 70 cm from the tip of the blade. Standardised Adult blades are 88 cm in length.. At the end of the blade, the point is folded over itself to form a "button" which, when viewed end on, must have a square or rectangular section of 4 mm - 6 mm no larger or smaller.
The button must not be any more than 3 mm from the end of the 88 cm blade section. The guard is full in shape, made in one piece and is externally smooth, the curvature of the guard is continuous without any aesthetic perforations or rims; the interior of the guard is insulated by either paint or a pad. The guard is designed to provide the hand adequate protection to ensure that injury does not occur which may hinder the performance of the fencer. Guards are dimensionally measured 15 cm by 14 cm in section where the blade is parallel with the axis of the gauge. On electrical sabres, a socket for the body wire is found underneath the bell guard. A fastener known as a pommel is attached to the end of the sword to keep the bell guard and handle on, it electrically separates the handle and the guard; the conventional handle of the sabre is shaped so that it may be held so that the hand may slide down to gain further extension of the weapon relative to the fencer. Other grips which form various shapes are incompatible and impractical with sabre as they limit the movement of the hand, are to be ergonomically incompatible with the guard.
The entire weapon is 105 cm long. It is shorter than the foil or épée, lighter than the épée, hence physically easier to move swiftly and decisively; however the integrity of the sabre blade is not as strong as other weapons as it is more to break due to the design. Like other weapons used in fencing, the modern sabre uses an electrical connection to register touches; the sabreur wears a lamé, a conductive vest, to complete the circuit and register a touch to a valid target. Sabre was the last weapon in fencing to make the transition over to using electrical equipment; this occurred in 32 years after foil and 52 years after the épée. In 2004 following the Athens Summer Olympics, the timing for recording a touch was shortened from its previous setting altering the sport and method in which a touch is scored. Unlike the other two weapons, there is little difference between an electric sabre and a steam or dry one; the blade itself is the same in steam and electric sabres, as there is no need for a blade wire or pressure-sensitive tip in an electric sabre.
An electric sabre has a socket, a 2-prong or bayonet foil socket with the two contacts shorted together. The electric sabre has insulation on the pommel and on the inside of the guard to prevent an electrical connection between the sabre and the lamé; this is undesirable because it extends the lamé onto the sabre, causing any blade contact to be registered as a valid touch. Early electric sabres were equipped with a capteur socket; the capteur was a device, intended to detect a parry by use of an accelerometer. If a parry was detected, the electronics were supposed to invalidate any subsequent closing of the scoring circuit due to the flexible blade whipping around the parry; this device never worked as intended and was discarded, the whipover effect was mitigated when the FIE mandated stiffer sabre blades in the S2000 specification. The general target area for the discipline contains the entire torso above the waist, the head, the arms up to the wrist of which a valid hit may be scored; the legs and feet are excluded from the target area.
A single circuit for the entire target area used in scoring systems is formed by multiple conductive equipment: Glove: Gloves provide the conductive'manchette' / cuff used in physical conjunction and contact with the lamé. Worn over the lamé; the hand may not be conductive. Lamé: The conductive lamé which covers the torso and arms of the fencer. Conductivity of the lamé does not extend past the waistline to meet with the target criteria. Mask: The conductive mask directly connected to the Lamé through a wire with a crocodile clip on each ends; because touches can be scored using the edge of the blade, there is no need for a pressure-sensitive head to be present on the end of the blade. When fencing "electric" a current runs through the sabre blade; when the blade comes into contact with the lamé, the electrical mask, or the manchette, the current flows through the body cord and interacts with the scoring equipment. Known as the'Scoring apparatus'. A
2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. The Games saw 10,625 athletes compete, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports. Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 marked the return of the Olympic Games to the city where they began. Having hosted the Olympics in 1896, Athens became one of only four cities to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games on two separate occasions. A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli, used since the 1928 Games; this rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue. The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium.
The 2004 Summer Games were hailed as "unforgettable, dream games" by IOC President Jacques Rogge, left Athens with a improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, subway system. There have been arguments regarding the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games and their possible contribution to the Greek government-debt crisis, there is little or no evidence for such a correlation; the 2004 Olympics were deemed to be a success, with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and Russia with the host Greece at 15th place. Several World and Olympic records were broken during these Games. Athens was chosen as the host city during the 106th IOC Session held in Lausanne on 5 September 1997. Athens had lost its bid to organize the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta nearly seven years before on 18 September 1990, during the 96th IOC Session in Tokyo. Under the direction of Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens pursued another bid, this time for the right to host the Summer Olympics in 2004.
The success of Athens in securing the 2004 Games was based on Athens' appeal to Olympic history and the emphasis that it placed on the pivotal role that Greece and Athens could play in promoting Olympism and the Olympic Movement. Furthermore, unlike their bid for the 1996 Games, criticized for its overall disorganization and arrogance—wherein the bid lacked specifics and relied upon sentiment and the notion that it was Athens' right to organize the Centennial Games—the bid for the 2004 Games was lauded for its humility and earnestness, its focused message, its detailed bid concept; the 2004 bid addressed concerns and criticisms raised in its unsuccessful 1996 bid – Athens' infrastructural readiness, its air pollution, its budget, politicization of Games preparations. Athens' successful organization of the 1997 World Championships in Athletics the month before the host city election was crucial in allaying lingering fears and concerns among the sporting community and some IOC members about its ability to host international sporting events.
Another factor which contributed to Athens' selection was a growing sentiment among some IOC members to restore the values of the Olympics to the Games, a component which they felt was lost during the criticized over-commercialization of Atlanta 1996 Games. Subsequently, the selection of Athens was motivated by a lingering sense of disappointment among IOC members regarding the numerous organizational and logistical setbacks experienced during the 1996 Games. After leading all voting rounds, Athens defeated Rome in the 5th and final vote. Cape Town and Buenos Aires, the three other cities that made the IOC shortlist, were eliminated in prior rounds of voting. Six other cities submitted applications, but their bids were dropped by the IOC in 1996; these cities were Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Saint Petersburg and Cali. The 2004 Summer Olympic Games cost the Government of Greece €8.954 billion to stage. According to the cost-benefit evaluation of the impact of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games presented to the Greek Parliament in January 2013 by the Minister of Finance Mr. Giannis Stournaras, the overall net economic benefit for Greece was positive.
The Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, responsible for the preparation and organisation of the Games, concluded its operations as a company in 2005 with a surplus of €130.6 million. ATHOC contributed €123.6 million of the surplus to the Greek State to cover other related expenditures of the Greek State in organizing the Games. As a result, ATHOC reported in its official published accounts a net profit of €7 million; the State's contribution to the total ATHOC budget was 8% of its expenditure against an anticipated 14%. The overall revenue of ATHOC, including income from tickets, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc. totalled €2,098.4 million. The largest percentage of that income came from broadcasting rights; the overall expenditure of ATHOC was €1,967.8 million. Analysts refer to the "Cost of the Olympic Games" by taking into account not only the Organizing Committee's budget directly related to the Olympic Games, but the cost incurred by the hosting country during preparation, i.e. the large projects required for the upgrade of the country's infrastructure, including sports infrastructure, airports, power grid etc.
This cost, however, is not directly attributable to the act
Olha Hennadiyivna Kharlan is a Ukrainian sabre fencer. She holds a bronze medal from both the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2012 Summer Olympics and is a three-time World champion and five-time European champion, she was Olympic team champion in the 2008 Summer Olympics, twice World team champion and twice European team champion. Kharlan was named athlete of the year at the 2009 Ukrainian Heroes of Sports Years awards, she pursued a political career. Kharlan was born in a shipbuilding town in the south of Ukraine, her father was a sailing and swimming coach, taught her to swim when she was still a baby. He moonlighted as a construction worker and a cab driver, her mother worked as a plasterer. Kharlan first interest was in dancing; when she was 10, her godfather, sabre coach Anatoly Shlikar, suggested she take up fencing, where the lessons were free. She came under the training of Artem Skorokhod, who remains her coach as of 2014, her first success was the national Junior title, won when she was only 13 against teenagers up to five years older.
Kharlan was educated at the Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding in Mykolaiv. She married fellow sabre fencer Dmytro Boiko in August 2014. Kharlan joined the Ukrainian national team at the age of 14, her first medal in an international competition was a bronze in the 2005 Junior World Championships in Linz after a defeat against Olympic champion Mariel Zagunis. That same year, she reached the quarter-finals in the 2005 European Fencing Championships at Zalaegerszeg despite still being a cadet. In 2006, she placed second in the 2006 European Seniors Fencing Championship at İzmir after a close 14–15 defeat against Russia's Sofiya Velikaya. At the age of 17 Kharlan took part in the 2008 Summer Olympics at Beijing, she was eliminated by No.1 seed Sada Jacobson in the third round of the individual event. In the team event, Ukraine made their way to the final. Kharlan proved decisive in the last bout. In the 2008–09 season Kharlan won the gold medal at the European Championships in Plovdiv both in the individual and the team event, where Ukraine overcame Russia.
At the World Championships in Antalya, Kharlan once again made her way to the final, only to be stopped by Mariel Zagunis. She was described as "one of the most precocious talents in this category, she is steady and consistent, but above all she is the star of the future." In the team event, Ukraine defeated France in the final to come away with the gold medal. For this performance Kharlan and her team were named athlete and team of the year at the Ukrainian Heroes of Sports Year ceremony held in April 2010. In the 2009–10 season Kharlan won her fourth Junior World Championship in a row, equalling the record established by Jacques Brodin in the 1960s, she is however the only fencer to have claimed these consecutive golds both in the individual and team events. She was defeated by Germany's Sibylle Klemm in the quarter-finals of the European Championships and failed to earn a medal. In the team event Ukraine won gold after beating Russia once again in the final. In the 2013 World Championships Kharlan made her way to the final after defeating reigning Olympic champion Kim Ji-yeon in a tight 15–14 bout.
She took an early 8–1 lead in the bout against Yekaterina Dyachenko of Russia, who managed to get back to 12–12. Kharlan struck three hits in a row to win her first individual World title. In the team event Ukraine met once again Russia in the final. After a tight match Kharlan managed a comeback in the last leg and received her second gold medal in the competition, she finished the season No.1 in world rankings for the first time of her career and she was inducted in the hall of fame of the International Fencing Federation. In the 2013 -- 14 season Kharlan won four World Cups out of seven competitions. At the European Championships in Strasbourg she earned her fourth European gold medal in a row and the fifth of her career after defeating Dyachenko again in the final. In the team event she had to rescue her team against underdogs Spain in the quarter-finals, scraping a 45–43 victory, but could not prevent a 45–30 defeat at the hands of France. Kharlan's contribution proved once again decisive in the match against Poland and Ukraine came away with a bronze medal.
In the World Championships Kharlan won her second title in a row after prevailing 15–12 over No.2 seed Zagunis. In the team event, Ukraine were defeated by 44–45 by the United States and met Italy for the third place. Again Kharlan came back in the last leg to win her team a bronze medal, she finished the season No.1 in rankings for the second time in a row. In the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, she bested French competitor Manon Brunet for the bronze medal, with a score of 15-10. In the 2010 Ukrainian local elections Kharlan was elected a member of the Mykolaiv City Council for Party of Regions despite living in Kiev, she was notoriously absent during its sessions She was standing for election to the Ukrainian Parliament in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election but due to a 194th place on the list of Party of Regions she was not elected. Kharlan left the Party of Regions faction in the Mykolaiv City Council late March 2014. In May 2014 she was a candidate for the Party of Greens of Ukraine in the Kiev local election.
The website of the Party of Greens of Ukraine claimed Kharlan was third on its election list in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamenta
Fédération Internationale d'Escrime
The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime known by the acronym FIE, is the international governing body of Olympic fencing. Today, its head office is at the Maison du Sport International in Switzerland; the FIE is composed of 153 national federations, each of, recognized by its country's Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country. Since its inception in 1913, there have been fourteen different presidents; the current president of the federation is Alisher Usmanov. The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime is the heir of the Société d'encouragement de l'escrime founded in France in 1882, which took part in the global movement of structuring sport; the first international fencing congress was held in Brussels, Belgium in 1897 at the instigation of the Fédération belge des cercles d'escrime, followed by another one in Paris in 1900. At this occasion the Société organised one of the first international fencing events. Dissensions arose between epeists and foilists, which held the majority at the Société.
The third congress held in Brussels in 1905 voted the creation of an international fencing committee whose mission would be of fostering friendship amongst all fencers, establishing national rules, supporting the organization of fencing competitions. The 3rd congress adopted the French rules as the basis for upcoming international competitions. New tensions appeared, this time about the regulatory weapon grip, they led to the boycott by France of the fencing events of the 1912 Olympic Games. A new international congress was called together in Ghent, Belgium, in July 1913; the main matter was the adoption of international regulations for each of the three weapons. The French rules were adopted in foil. Frenchman René Lacroix campaigned for the creation of an international fencing federation; the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime was founded on November 29, 1913, in the conference rooms of the Automobile Club de France in Paris. The nine founding nations were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway.
Albert Feyerick, president of the Federation of fencing clubs of Belgium, was elected as the first president. The FIE held its first congress on June 23, 1914 and accepted the adhesion of seven new countries: Austria, Monaco, Russia and the United States. Competitions organized by the FIE include the senior World Championships and World Cup, the Junior World Championships and Junior World Cup, the Cadets World Championships and the Veterans World Championships; the FIE delegates to regional confederations the organization of the zone championships. The FIE assists the International Olympic Committee in the organization of fencing events at the Summer Olympics; the number of events is a matter of contention between the FIE and the CIO since the introduction of women's sabre at the 1999 World Championships: since the World Championships feature twelve events–an individual and a team weapon for each of the three weapons, for men and for women. However, the CIO refuses to increase the number of Olympic medals allocated to fencing.
After much dithering the FIE decided to organize all six individual events, but only four team events decided on a rotational basis. The two team events excluded from the Olympic programme, one for men and one for women, compete instead in World championships. A list of FIE presidents from 1913 to the present: As of 2012, the FIE recognizes 145 affiliated national federations. Note: As of 7 July 2012, the Netherlands Antilles is still listed as an FIE Member nation and 146 member nations are listed on the FIE's membership page. However, after the country was dissolved, it lost its National Olympic Committee status in 2011. At the 2012 Olympics, athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles were eligible to participate as independent athletes under the Olympic flag. Ottogalli, Cécile. L'Histoire de l'escrime. 1913–2013, un siècle de Fédération internationale d'escrime. Biarritz: Atlantica. ISBN 978-2-7588-0485-7. FIE100. Official website Olympics, FIE records History of fencing FIE calendar Results of FIE competitions FIE rules FIE Magazines FIE press releases