W. O. Bentley
Walter Owen Bentley, MBE was an English engineer who designed engines for cars and aircraft, raced cars and motorcycles, founded Bentley Motors Limited in Cricklewood near London. He was known as "W. O." without any need to add the word Bentley. Bentley, born in Hampstead, was the youngest of his Adelaide-born parents’ nine children, his father was retired businessman Alfred Bentley, mother was Emily, née Waterhouse. As the son of a prosperous family he was educated at Clifton College in Bristol from 1902 until 1905, when at the age of 16 he left to start work as an apprentice engineer with the Great Northern Railway at Doncaster in Yorkshire; the premium five-year apprenticeship with Great Northern, which cost his father £75, taught W. O. to design complex railway machinery and gave him practical experience in the technical procedures to cast and build it. He recalled: "The sight of one of Patrick Stirling's eight-foot singles could move me profoundly." While with Great Northern, he came close to realizing his childhood ambition to drive one of their Atlantic express locomotives, when at the end of his apprenticeship he acquired footplate experience as a second fireman on main-line expresses.
"My longest day,” he said, “was London to Leeds and back, on the return journey doing Wakefield to King's Cross non-stop for 175 miles. This was a total day's run of 400 miles, entailing a consumption of about seven tons of coal, every pound of it to be shovelled. Not a bad day's exercise." He completed his apprenticeship in the summer of 1910 but decided that the railways did not offer him enough scope for a satisfying career. In 1909 and 1910 Bentley raced Quadrant and Indian motorcycles, he competed in two Isle of Man Tourist Trophy races, on a Rex in 1909 and as a member of Indian's factory team in 1910. He did not finish in either event, he was fascinated by the cabbies' ingenuity at fiddling the meters. In 1912 he joined his brother, H. M. Bentley, in a company called "Bentley and Bentley" that sold French DFP cars. Dissatisfied with the performance of the DFPs, yet convinced that success in competition was the best marketing for them, W. O. was inspired by a paperweight to have pistons made for the engine in aluminium alloy.
Fitted with the alloy pistons and a modified camshaft, a DFP took several records at Brooklands in 1913 and 1914. At the outbreak of war Bentley knew that using aluminium alloy pistons in military applications would benefit the national interest: they improved power output and ran cooler, allowing higher compression ratios and higher engine speeds; as security considerations prevented his broadcasting the information to engine manufacturers, he contacted the official liaison between the manufacturers and the Navy. That man, Commander Wilfred Briggs, would be his senior officer throughout the war. Commissioned in the Royal Naval Air Service, Bentley was sent to share with the manufacturers the knowledge and experience he had gained from the modifications to the engines of the DFP cars he sold in Britain. Following his first consultation, with the future Lord Hives at Rolls-Royce, the company’s first aero engine, named the Eagle, was designed with pistons of aluminium instead of cast-iron or steel.
Bentley next visited Louis Coatalen at Sunbeam, with the result that the same innovation was used in all their aero engines. Bentley visited Gwynnes, whose Chiswick factory made French Clerget engines under licence, he liaised between the squadrons in France and the Chiswick factory's engineering staff; when the Clerget licensees proved unwilling to implement Bentley’s more important suggestions the Navy gave him a team to design his own aero engine at the Humber factory in Coventry. Designated the BR1, Bentley Rotary 1, the engine was fundamentally different from the Clerget except in the design of the cam mechanism, retained to facilitate production. A prototype was running in the early summer of 1916; the bigger BR2 followed in early 1918. In recognition, Bentley was awarded the MBE. After he was invited In 1920 to make a claim, which the Clerget licensees contested unsuccessfully, the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors awarded him £8,000. After the war, in early 1919, W. O. and his brother founded Bentley Motors Limited.
They formed a group at small premises in Cricklewood to turn his aero engines business into one of car production. In a group that included Frank Burgess and Harry Varley, they set about designing a high quality sporting tourer for production under the name Bentley Motors. Clive Gallop joined the team as an engine designer to help develop their 3,000 cubic centimetres straight-4 engine; the 3-litre engine ran for the first time in Baker Street, London. A plaque marks the building in what is now Chagford Street NW1. W. O.’s first complete Bentley 3 Litre car began road tests in January 1920 and the first production version, made in Cricklewood, was delivered in September 1921. Its durability earned widespread acclaim. W. O.’s motto was "To build a good car, a fast car, the best in class." His cars raced in hill climbs and at Brooklands, the lone 3 Litre entered by the company in the 1922 Indianapolis 500 mile race and driven by Douglas Hawkes finished thirteenth at an average speed of 74.95 mph. Bentley entered a team of his new 3-litre modified and race-prepared cars in the 1922 Tourist Trophy driving himself in Bentley III.
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA. The family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the company's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Léon Serpollet in 1889. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot, in 1896; the Peugeot company and family are from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the shareholders agreed to a recapitalisation plan for Groupe PSA, in which Dongfeng Motors and the French government each bought a 14% stake in the company. Peugeot has received many international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114.9g CO2/km.
Peugeot is known as a reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are still running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s, where Peugeot is called "the lion". Peugeot has been involved in motor sport for more than a century. Peugeot Sport won the World Rally Championship five times, the Dakar Rally seven times, the 24 Hours of Le Mans three times, the World Endurance Championship twice, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup twice surpassing Toyota and Audi and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge Championship three times. During the last year, Peugeot Sport has surpassed the record set in the ascent to Pikes Peak with the Peugeot 208 T16 driven by Sébastien Loeb; the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee and salt grinders; the company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, bicycles.
Armand Peugeot introduced his "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles. The company's logo a lion walking on an arrow, symbolized the speed and flexibility of the Peugeot saw blades; the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the automobile early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler and others, was convinced of its viability; the first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889. Steam power required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a four-wheeled car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence; the car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension and a sliding-gear transmission. An example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont. More cars followed, 29 being built in 1892, 40 in 1894, 72 in 1895, 156 in 1898, 300 in 1899.
These early models were given "type" numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car. Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the world's first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot. Five Peugeots qualified for the main event, all finished. Lemaître finished 3 min 30 sec behind the Comte de Dion whose steam-powered car was ineligible for the official competition. Three Peugeots were entered in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris, where they were beaten by Panhard's car (despite an average speed of 20.8 km/h and taking the 31,500 franc prize. This marked the debut of Michelin pneumatic tyres in racing on a Peugeot; the vehicles were still much horseless carriages in appearance and were steered by a tiller. In 1896, the first Peugeot engines were built. Designed by Rigoulot, the first engine was an 8 hp horizontal twin fitted to the back of the Type 15, it served as the basis of a nearly exact copy produced by Rochet-Schneider.
Further improvements followed: the engine moved to the front on the Type 48 and was soon under a bonnet at the front of the car, instead of hidden underneath. In 1896, Armand Peugeot broke away from Les Fils de Peugeot Frères to form his own company, Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot, building a new factory at Audincourt to focus on cars. In 1899, sales hit 300; the same year, Lemaître won the Nice-Castellane-Nice Rally in a special 5,850 cc 20 hp racer. At the 1901 Paris Salon, Peugeot debuted a tiny shaft-driven 652 cc 5 hp one-cylinder, dubbed "Bébé", shed its conservative image, becoming a style leader. After placing 19th in the 1902 Paris-Vienna Rally with a 50 hp 11,322 cc racer, failing to finish with two similar cars, Peugeot quit racing. In 1898, Peugeot Motocycles presents at the Paris Motorshow the first motorcycle equipped with a Dion-Bouton motor. Peugeot Motocycles remains the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Peugeot added motorcycles to it
Brooklands was a 2.75-mile motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the world's first purpose-built motor racing circuit as well as one of Britain's first airfields, which became Britain's largest aircraft manufacturing centre by 1918, producing military aircraft such as the Wellington and civil airliners like the Viscount and VC-10; the circuit hosted its last race in August 1939 and today part of it forms the Brooklands Museum, a major aviation and motoring museum, as well as a venue for vintage car and other transport-related events. The Brooklands motor circuit was the brainchild of Hugh F. Locke King, was the first purpose-built banked motor race circuit in the world. Following the Motor Car Act 1903, Britain was subject to a blanket 20 mph speed limit on public roads: at a time when nearly 50% of the world's new cars were produced in France, there was concern that Britain's infant auto-industry would be hampered by the inability to undertake sustained high-speed testing.
King commissioned Colonel Capel Lofft Holden of the Royal Artillery to design the projected circuit and work began in 1906. Requirements of speed and spectator visibility led to the Brooklands track being built as a 100 ft wide, 2.75 miles long, banked oval. The banking was nearly 30 feet high in places. In addition to the oval, a bisecting "Finishing Straight" was built, increasing the track length to 3.25 miles, of which 1.25 miles was banked. It could host up to 287,000 spectators in its heyday. Owing to the complications of laying tarmacadam on banking, the expense of laying asphalt, the track was built in uncoated concrete; this led in years to a somewhat bumpy ride, as the surface suffered differential settlement over time. Along the centre of the track ran a dotted black line, known as the Fifty Foot Line. By driving over the line, a driver could theoretically take the banked corners without having to use the steering wheel; the track was opened on 17 June 1907 with a luncheon attended by most of Britain's motor manufacturers, followed by an informal inauguration of the track by a procession of 43 cars, one driven by Charles Rolls.
The first competitive event was held on 28–29 June, with three cars competing to break the world record for distance covered in 24 hours, the first race meeting was held on 6 July, attracting over 10,000 spectators. Drawing inspiration from the development at Brooklands, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was built soon afterwards, held its inaugural race in August 1909; the Brooklands Mountain Circuit was a small section of the track giving a lap 1¼ miles long, running from the Fork to the rear of Members' Hill and back. It was created in 1930 using movable barriers. On 28–29 June 1907, eleven days after the circuit opened, it played host to the world's first 24-hour motor event, with Selwyn Edge leading three specially converted Napier cars around the circuit. A statement of intent had been made in 1906, Selwyn Edge entered into a physical training program to prepare for the event, his car, "804" was extensively modified, having a special fuel tank, bodywork removed, a special windscreen. Over 300 red railway lamps were used to light the track during the night.
Flares were used to mark the upper boundary of the track. Edge drove his car for the full duration, with the drivers of the other two cars taking the more familiar shift approach. During the event Edge covered a distance of 1,581.74 mi at an average speed of 65.91 mph, comfortably beating the existing record of 1,096.187 mi set at Indianapolis in 1905. Women were not allowed to compete for several years. Dorothy Levitt, S. F. Edge's leading driver, was refused entry despite having been the'first English-woman to compete in a motor race' in 1903, holding the'Ladies World Land Speed Record'. Edge completed 2,545 km at a record which stood for 17 years; the first standard race meeting would be held the next week, on 6 July. George E. Stanley broke the one-hour record at Brooklands race track on a Singer motorcycle in 1912, becoming the first rider of a 350 cc motorcycle to cover over 60 miles in an hour; the world record for the first person to cover 100 miles in 1 hour was set by Percy E. Lambert at Brooklands, on 15 February 1913 when driving his 4.5 litre sidevalve Talbot.
He covered 103 miles, 1470 yards in 60 minutes. A contemporary film of his exploits on that day can be viewed at the Brooklands Museum. In July and August 1929, Violette Cordery and her younger sister Evelyn drove her 4.5 litre four-seater Invicta for 30,000 miles in less than 30,000 minutes, averaging 61.57 mph and earning her second Dewar Trophy from the Royal Automobile Club. Brooklands closed to motor racing during World War I, was requisitioned by the War Office and continued its pre-war role as a flying training centre although it was now under military control. Brooklands soon became a major location for the construction and supply of military aeroplanes. Motor racing resumed in 1920 after extensive track repairs and Grand Prix motor racing was established at Brooklands in 1926 by Henry Segrave, after his victories in the 1923 French Grand Prix and the San Sebastián Grand Prix the following year raised interest in the sport in Britain; this first British Grand Prix was won by Louis Wagner and Robert Sénéchal, sharing the drive in a Delage 155B.
The second British Grand Prix was staged there in 1927 and these two events resulted in improve
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Clément-Bayard, Bayard-Clément, was a French manufacturer of automobiles and airships founded in 1903 by entrepreneur Gustave Adolphe Clément. Clément obtained consent from the Conseil d'Etat to change his name to that of his business in 1909; the extra name celebrated the Chevalier Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard who saved the town of Mézières in 1521. A statue of the Chevalier stood in front of Clément's Mézières factory, the image was incorporated into the company logo. From 1903 Clément-Bayard automobiles were built in a modern factory at Mézières, known as La Macérienne, which Clément had designed in 1894 for building bicycles; the company entered the field of aviation in 1908, announcing the construction of Louis Capazza's'planeur', a lenticular airship, in L'Aérophile in May 1908.: however it was never built. Adolphe Clément built Alberto Santos-Dumont's Demoiselle No 19 monoplane that he had designed to compete for the Coupe d'Aviation Ernest Archdeacon prize from the Aéro-Club de France.
It was the world's first series production aircraft and by 1909 Clement-Bayard had the license to manufacture Wright engines alongside their own design. In 1908'Astra Clément-Bayard' began manufacturing airships at a new factory in La Motte-Breuil. In 1914 the factory La Macérienne at Mézières was seized by the advancing German army and automobile production in Levallois-Perret, was suspended as the factory was turned over to war production, military equipment and military vehicles, aero engines and planes. In 1922 the company was broken up and the factory in Paris was taken over by Citroën. Circa 1909 Adolphe Clément received permission from the Conseil d'État to change his name to Adolphe Clément-Bayard. In 1896 Adolphe Clément who held the profitable manufacturing rights for Dunlop tyres in France joined with a syndicate led by Dunlop's founder Harvey Du Cros to buy out the Gladiator Cycle Company and they merged it into a major bicycle manufacturing conglomerate of Clément, Gladiator & Humber & Co Limited.
The range was expanded, in 1902 a motorised bicycle led to cars and motorcycles. Clément chose the name Bayard in commemoration of the Chevalier Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard who saved the town of Mézières in 1521. A statue of the Chevalier stood in front of the Mézières factory, the image was incorporated into the company logo. After the split both marques built similar cars, but the specifications diverged. Clément-Bayard cars were imported to Britain under the Talbot brand; the initial model range comprised three models and was enhanced in 1904 with a 6Hp single-cylinder, a 7Hp twin-cylinder, 14Hp, 20Hp & 27Hp 4-cylinders. From 1904 Clément-Bayard production at Levallois-Perret increased from 1,800 cars per annum to 3,000 in 1907, employing up to 4,000 workers; the range included several models, all luxurious and high quality, from a small two-seater twin-cylinder 8-10 hp to a big four-cylinder 50-60 hp model that could exceed 60 km/h. In 1907 the 10/12 hp model was introduced with a dashboard radiator.
In 1910 Clément-Bayard started to manufacture a stylish, low cost, two-seater roadster, with a 4-cylinder 10/12 hp, a heater for the driver and passenger. It was popular and production continued until the outbreak of war in 1914. By 1913 the factories of Levallois and Mezieres were focused on the production of a wide range of products including car chassis, car bodies, trucks, airplanes, canoes, bicycles and generators. On the front page of the 15 November 1913 edition of the Revue de l’industrie automobile et aéronautique Clément-Bayard announced a new 4-cylinder 30-40 Hp motor. By early 1914 Clément-Bayard had a complete range of twelve models, from two to six seats, equipped with engines ranging from a small 7 hp twin-cylinder for less than 7000 francs to a big 6-cylinder 30 Hp unit. Additionally there was a 20 Hp four-cylinder'valveless' Knight engine, licensed from Panhard et Levassor. In 1914 the factory La Macérienne at Mézières was seized by the advancing German army and automobile manufacture in Levallois-Perret, was suspended as the factory was turned over to war production: military equipment.
After World War I motor production resumed with a 17.6 hp model. Clément-Bayard started building automobiles in 1903 and started building racing cars in 1904; the racing team included Albert Clément, Jacques Guders, Rene Hanriot, Marc-Philippe Villemain,'Carlès', "De la Touloubre" and A. Villemain, Pierre Garcets. Albert Clément finished 10th at the I Eliminatoires Françaises de la Coupe Internationale, held at the Forest of Argonne on 20 May 1904; this was an eliminating contest for the French entry into the Coupe Internationale where only three cars were allowed per country. Clement finished 532.79 km event in 7 hours 10 minutes 52.8 seconds. His team-mates Jacques Guders and Rene Hanriot failed to complete a single lap. Albert Clément won the II Circuit des Ardennes des Voiturettes on 24 July 1904 at Bastogne, he completed the 5 lap 240.010 km race in 4h 26m 52.6seconds at an average speed of 53.91 kph in an 18Hp Clement -. He set the fastest lap of the race at 45minutes 02seconds. Clément drove his Clement-Bayard into third place at the III Circuit des Ardennes race at Bastogne, on 25 July 1904.
He completed 591.255 km event in 6 hours 34 minutes 43.2 seconds. His team-mates Jacques Guders and Rene Hanriot both abandoned after four laps. Clément finished second at the 1904 I. W. K. Vanderbilt Cup Race on Long
Courbevoie is a commune located 8.2 km from the center of Paris, France. The centre of Courbevoie is situated 2 kilometres from the outer limits of central Paris, it is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe, ranks as the third-best place to live in the Île-de-France region, after the neighbouring communes of Levallois-Perret and Neuilly-sur-Seine. La Défense, Paris's business district hosting the tallest buildings in the metropolitan area, spreads over the southern part of Courbevoie; the name Courbevoie comes from Latin Curva Via and means "curved highway" in reference to a Roman road from Paris to Normandy which made a sharp turn to climb the hill over which Courbevoie was built. Courbevoie is divided into two cantons: Canton of Courbevoie-1 and Canton of Courbevoie-2. A wooden bridge was built crossing the Seine at Courbevoie by order of King Henry IV when in 1606 his royal coach fell into the river while being transported by ferry. Rebuilt in stone during the eighteenth century, this was replaced by a metal bridge in 1946.
The Convent of the Penitents founded in 1658 by Jean-Baptiste Forne was located in Courbevoie until the Revolution of 1789. Located in the town was the barracks of the Swiss Guard of the monarchy. Courbevoie is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Courbevoie and Bécon-les-Bruyères. Courbevoie is served by Esplanade de La Défense station on Paris Métro Line 1, in the business district of La Défense. There are a large number of city buses that come through the bustling La Défense station; when it comes to air transportation, Courbevoie can be served by Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport as well as Paris-Orly to the south and Beauvais Airport to the north. Courbevoie has elementary schools. Junior high schools include: Collège Alfred de Vigny Collège Georges Pompidou Collège Georges Seurat Collège Les Bruyères Collège Les Renardières Collège Sainte GenevièveSenior high schools include: Lycée Paul Lapie de Courbevoie Lycée Paul Painlevé Courbevoie Collège Les renardières et Lycée Lucie Aubrac Groupe scolaire Montalembert Arletty and singer Henri Betti, composer Michel Delpech, singer Louis de Funès, comedy actor Colomba Fofana, athlete Albert Gleizes, cubist artist, theorist Lamine Kante, basketball player Massire Kante, footballer Henri Letocart and composer Marie-Bernadette Mbuyamba, basketball player William Remy, footballer Franck Tchiloemba, basketball player Michel Blanc, actor Louis-Ferdinand Céline, writer Hélène de Krzyżanowska-Dyhrn and relative of Chopin Jean-Pierre Worms, representative to the French Parliament Stephane Coquin, footballer Roy Benson, stage magician Courbevoie is twinned with: Forest-Vorst, Belgium Enfield Town, United Kingdom Freudenstadt, Germany Beit Mery, Lebanon Total S.
A. has its head office in Courbevoie. Areva has its head office in the Tour Areva in Courbevoie. Saint-Gobain has its head office in Courbevoie; the headquarters of INPI, the French government office for patents and trademarks, is in Courbevoie. La Défense business district. List of tallest structures in Paris Phare Tower, a 300-meter skyscraper now under construction Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Courbevoie official website Courbevoie Community portal blog about Courbevoie
Auguste Frédéric Doriot was a French motoring pioneer who developed and raced cars for Peugeot before founding his own manufacturing company D. F. P. in combination with Ludovic Flandrin and the Parant brothers. In 1891, Doriot and his Peugeot colleague Louis Rigoulot completed the longest trip by a petrol powered vehicle when their self-designed and built Daimler powered Peugeot Type 3 completed 2,100 kilometres from Valentigney to Paris and Brest and back again, they were attached to the first Paris-Brest-Paris bicycle race, but the duo reached Brest one day after the winning cyclist, Charles Terront, finished in Paris, they finished six days after him. Doriot's son, Georges Doriot, emigrated to the United States and became a professor at the Harvard Business School, where he became known as the father of Venture Capitalism, he became a brigadier general during World War II. Auguste Frederic Doriot was born on 24 October 1863, the second youngest of eight children of Jacques Doriot, in the village of Sainte-Suzanne, Doubs in Franche-Comté.
On 27 September 1894 at Valentigney he married 24-year-old Berthe Camille Baehler from Voujeaucourt, known as Camille, who had a Swiss father from Uetendorf and a French mother. She was raised by her grandmother and three older sisters; the couple went on to have two children, Georges Frederic was born in September 1899 and Madeleine Georgette was born on 11 August 1906 at the family home in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Doriot was a cold, driving, ambitious father, unlike Camille. Georges' successes were met without enthusiasm, and'his cool stare was worse than any physical punishment'. Georges was trained in the D. F. P workshops and was able to enlist as an Artillery engineer after WW1. After the war the family sent him to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA but he switched to the Harvard Business School where he became a Professor and the father of Venture Capitalism, he became Brigadier general during WWII. Georges noted: "I think that my father worked 24 hours a day." In 1889 at the age of 26, Doriot finished his military service and took a job at the Peugeot bicycle factory in Beaulieu-sur-Doubs, Valentigney.
Armand Peugeot, seeing his technical potential and ambition, sent him on a series of apprenticeships to develop his skills. By 1891 he had become a full employee at the factory and began working for the company's main engineer, Louis Rigoulot, installing Daimler engines into Peugeot's first vehicles, thus developing a four-wheeled petroleum-powered Quadricycle - the Peugeot Type 2 and the Type 3 with 2.5 hp, four forward gears plus reverse. This enterprise saw Doriot promoted to foreman. In order to publicly prove the reliability and performance of the'Quadricycle' it was entered into the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris bicycle race, Armand Peugeot having persuaded the organiser, Pierre Giffard of Le Petit Journal, of the benefits if his network of monitors and marshalls could vouchsafe the performance; the intended distance of 1200 kilometres had never been achieved by a motorised vehicle, it being about three times further than the record set by Leon Serpollet from Paris to Lyon. Additionally Rigoulot and Doriot loaded the Type 3 Quadricycle with tools, spare parts and water, drove it 300 kilometres from Valentigny to Paris, a three-day journey.
They reached 20 kilometres an hour on flat roads but Rigoulot had to walk behind up the hills, ready to push. Peugeot had to pre-seed the route with petrol supplies, so employees placed cans at strategic railway stations about 60 kilometres apart; some were lost or disposed of by station masters on safety grounds so the'racers' had to acquire dry cleaning fluid. The Peugeot left Paris behind the cyclists on 8 September, covering 200 kilometres on the first day and 160 kilometres on the second, but lost 24 hours when a gear failed near Morlaix. After effecting a repair using local resources they arrived at Brest after dark where they were received by a large crowd and the local Peugeot bicycle dealer. Le Petit Journal reported their arrival in Brest on 12 September, one day after it reported winning cyclist Charles Terront's finishing the race back in Paris. Doriot and Rigoulot arrived in Paris with cyclists 88-96 on 16 September to complete the Paris–Brest–Paris race six days after the winner.
Throughout the 1890s Doriot worked for Peugeot at Doubs, was regarded as Armand Peugeot's protegé, developing and testing the cars, plus competing in the Grandes Épreuves. Armand Peugeot appointed Doriot as director of Peugeot's Paris factory and new showroom on the Avenue de la Grande Armée. Doriot drove for Peugeot in the Grandes Épreuves of the 1890s finishing near the top after many hours of competing on unsurfaced roads in difficult conditions. On 22 July 1894, he finished third in the Paris-Rouen Trail, covering the 126 kilometres in seven hours. In 1895 he finished fourth in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris Trail, carrying three passengers for the 59-hour race. In 1896 he finished eighth in the ten-day Paris-Marseilles-Paris Trail, covering the 1,710 kilometres in 81 hours. In 1897 he finished 29th in the Paris-Dieppe Trail, he finished seventh in the 1898 Paris–Amsterdam–Paris after taking 36 hours to cover the 1,431 kilometres. In 1899 he was second in the Paris-Saint Malo trail and 10th in the Paris-Ostende trail driving Peugeot voiturettes.
In 1900 he finished fourth in the Coupe des Voiturettes averaging circa 36 kilometres per hour. Doriot left Peugeot in 1902, worked for Clément-Bayard for a short time while preparing to establish his own company. In 1906 Doriot cofounded Doriot Flandrin wit