Vampire: The Masquerade
Vampire: The Masquerade is a tabletop role-playing game created by Mark Rein-Hagen and released in 1991 by White Wolf Publishing as the first of several Storyteller System games for its World of Darkness setting line. It is set in a fictionalized "gothic-punk" version of the modern world, where players assume the roles of vampires, who are referred to as "Kindred", deal with their night-to-night struggles against their own bestial natures, vampire hunters and each other. Several associated products were produced based on Vampire: The Masquerade, including live-action role-playing games, collectible card games, video games, numerous novels. In 1996, a short-lived television show loosely based on the game, Kindred: The Embraced, was produced by Aaron Spelling for the Fox Broadcasting Company. Vampire was inspired by RPGs such as Call of Cthulhu and RuneQuest, as well as the writings of Joseph Campbell and vampire films such as The Lost Boys. Rein-Hagen felt that hunting vampires, as a game premise, would get boring so he came up with the idea of a game where the players played vampires instead of hunting them.
Rein-Hagen stated that he purposefully didn't read Anne Rice's Vampire Chronicles until "very late" in the development process but admitted she was an influence on the vampire films that inspired the game. He wanted to go beyond what Anne Rice had done by creating individual vampires, with a whole secret vampire society and culture; some of Vampire's central themes of the power of belief developed out of Rein-Hagen's religious upbringing. Inspired by a comic book given to him by White Wolf business partner Stewart Wieck, Rein-Hagen developed the idea that the cursed character of the Biblical Cain was the original vampire. In an "Ask Me Anything" interview on Reddit Rein-Hagen referred to the idea of Cain as the progenitor of all vampires as a "big turning point", he commented further: "I was trying to shy away from religion. After that... I went all in; the game and the world became about belief. My father was a Lutheran minister, I think that played a huge role in not only Vampire but the whole WoD series.
I was always fascinated by what made people believe so when I didn't seem to believe at all. Talking about that theme, the power of belief, fueled the second half of Vampire game design."Vampire was notably new in many respects. It was conceived as a dark, moody urban fantasy game with a unique gothic feel that harkened back to TSR's Ravenloft, it would be the first of a series of linked games sharing the same game world. Its simple cover photo of a rose on green marble set the tone for the game and differentiated it from other games on the market, its content was novel, as the game focused on plots and story as opposed to more straightforward dungeon scenarios. While the RPG industry in general had been trending towards a more narrative approach, Vampire was one of the first games of its kind to center on these things. Horror games had traditionally been a tough sell in the RPG industry, but Vampire included elements that made it a dark superhero game rather than purely a horror game. An extensive list of broad supernatural powers, called disciplines, which included superior strength and toughness, as well as other powers such as mystic senses, mind control and blood magic, gave the player characters a more super-human rather than horror feel.
The 13 clans added late in the development process provided a much needed character-class-like system based on vampiric archetypes which proved popular with players. For its mechanical elements Rein-Hagen turned to co-designer of Shadowrun. Vampire's system of "comparative" dice pools drew on the mechanics innovated by Shadowrun changing only the type of dice rolled. Skill values that determined the number of dice rolled had been used in games like Champions, but rather than add the result of the dice in total, Vampire compared the result of the dice with a fixed value to determine the degree of success or failure. Skill levels were low, ranging from one to five, were represented with dots rather than numbers, the standard of its contemporaries. Players could figure their dice pool and roll against the assigned difficulty rating; this system was a boon for narrative style of play that emphasized story over mechanics, as it was easy for new players to grasp, but provided unexpected results, such as a higher skilled character being more to fumble.
The game uses the cursed, immortal vampiric condition as a backdrop to explore themes of morality, the human condition and personal horror. The gloomy and exaggerated version of the real world that the vampires inhabit, called the "World of Darkness," forms an bleak canvas against which the stories and struggles of characters are painted; the themes that the game seeks to address include retaining the character's sense of self and sanity, as well as keeping from being crushed by the grim opposition of mortal and supernatural antagonists and, more poignantly, surviving the politics and violent ambitions of their own kind. Vampire is based on the Storyteller System. In addition to the general Storyteller rules, it uses a number of specific mechanics aimed towards simulating the vampiric existence. A vampire has a blood pool signifying the amount of human blood or vitae in their body; these tricks simulate many of those portrayed on film, such as turning
The goth subculture is a subculture that began in England during the early 1980s, where it developed from the audience of gothic rock, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. The name, goth subculture, derived directly from the music genre. Notable post-punk groups that presaged that genre and helped develop and shape the subculture, include Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division and The Cure; the goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, has continued to diversify and spread throughout the world. Its imagery and cultural proclivities indicate influences from 19th-century Gothic literature and gothic horror films; the scene is centered on music festivals and organized meetings in Western Europe. The goth subculture has associated tastes in music and fashion; the music preferred by the goth subculture includes a number of different styles, e.g. gothic rock, death rock, post-punk, cold wave, dark wave, ethereal wave. Styles of dress within the subculture draw on punk, new wave and new romantic fashion as well as fashion of earlier periods such as the Victorian and Edwardian eras, or combinations of the above.
The style includes dark attire, pale face makeup and black hair. The subculture continues to draw interest from a large audience decades after its emergence; the term "gothic rock" was coined in 1967, by music critic John Stickney to describe a meeting he had with Jim Morrison in a dimly lit wine-cellar which he called "the perfect room to honor the Gothic rock of the Doors". That same year, Velvet Underground with a track like "All Tomorrow's Parties", created a kind of "mesmerizing gothic-rock masterpiece" according to music historian Kurt Loder. In the late 1970s, the "gothic" adjective was used to describe the atmosphere of post-punk bands like Siouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Division. In a live review about a Siouxsie and the Banshees' concert in July 1978, critic Nick Kent wrote that concerning their music, "parallels and comparisons can now be drawn with gothic rock architects like the Doors and early Velvet Underground". In March 1979, in his review of Magazine's second album Secondhand Daylight, Kent noted that there was "a new austere sense of authority" in the music, with a "dank neo-Gothic sound".
That year, the term was used by Joy Division's manager, Tony Wilson on 15 September in an interview for the BBC TV programme's Something Else. Wilson described Joy Division as "gothic" compared to the pop mainstream, right before a live performance of the band; the term was applied to "newer bands such as Bauhaus who had arrived in the wake of Joy Division and Siouxsie and the Banshees". Bauhaus's first single issued in 1979, "Bela Lugosi's Dead", is credited as the starting point of the gothic rock genre. In 1979, Sounds described Joy Division as "Gothic" and "theatrical". In February 1980, Melody Maker qualified the same band as "masters of this Gothic gloom". Critic Jon Savage would say that their singer Ian Curtis wrote "the definitive Northern Gothic statement". However, it was not until the early-1980s that gothic rock became a coherent music subgenre within post-punk, that followers of these bands started to come together as a distinctly recognizable movement, they may have taken the "goth" mantle from a 1981 article published in UK rock weekly Sounds: "The face of Punk Gothique", written by Steve Keaton.
In a text about the audience of UK Decay, Keaton asked: "Could this be the coming of Punk Gothique? With Bauhaus flying in on similar wings could it be the next big thing?" In July 1982, the opening of the Batcave in London's Soho provided a prominent meeting point for the emerging scene, which would be labelled "positive punk" by the NME in a special issue with a front cover in early 1983. The term "Batcaver" was used to describe old-school goths. Independent from the British scene, in the late 1970s and early 1980s in California, deathrock developed as a distinct branch of American punk rock, with acts such as Christian Death and 45 Grave; the bands that defined and embraced the gothic rock genre included Bauhaus, early Adam and the Ants, the Cure, the Birthday Party, Southern Death Cult, Sex Gang Children, UK Decay, Virgin Prunes, Killing Joke, the Damned. Near the peak of this first generation of the gothic scene in 1983, The Face's Paul Rambali recalled that there were "several strong Gothic characteristics" in the music of Joy Division.
In 1984, Joy Division's bassist Peter Hook named Play Dead as one of their heirs: "If you listen to a band like Play Dead, who I like, Joy Division played the same stuff that Play Dead are playing. They're similar." By the mid-1980s, bands began proliferating and became popular, including the Sisters of Mercy, the Mission, Alien Sex Fiend, the March Violets, Xmal Deutschland, the Membranes, Fields of Nephilim. Record labels like Factory, 4AD and Beggars Banquet released much of this music in Europe, through a vibrant import music market in the US, the subculture grew in New York and Los Angeles, where many nightclubs featured "gothic/industrial" nights; the popularity of 4AD bands resulted in the creation of a similar US label, which produces what was colloquially termed ethereal wave, a subgenre of dark wave music. The 1990s saw further growth for some 1980s bands and the emergence of many new acts, as well as new goth-centric U. S. record labels such as Cleopatra Records, among others. According to Dave Simpson of The Guardian, "in the 90s, goths all but disappeared as dance music became the dominant youth cult".
As a result, the goth "movement went underground and mistaken for cyber goth, Shock rock, Industrial metal, Gothic metal, Medieval folk metal and the latest sub
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
The muskrat, the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe and South America. The muskrat is found in wetlands over a wide range of habitats, it has important effects on the ecology of wetlands, is a resource of food and fur for humans. The muskrat is the largest species in the subfamily Arvicolinae, which includes 142 other species of rodents voles and lemmings. Muskrats are referred to as "rats" in a general sense because they are medium-sized rodents with an adaptable lifestyle and an omnivorous diet, they are not, members of the genus Rattus. The muskrat's name comes from a word of Algonquian origin, muscascus, or from the Abenaki native word mòskwas, as seen in the archaic English name for the animal, musquash; because of the association with the "musky" odor, which the muskrat uses to mark its territory, its flattened tail, the name became altered to musk-beaver. Its specific name zibethicus means "musky", being the adjective of zibethus "civet musk.
The genus name comes from the Huron word for the animal and entered New Latin as Ondatra via French. An adult muskrat is about 40–70 cm long, half of, the tail, weighs from 0.6–2 kg. That is about four times the weight of the brown rat, though an adult muskrat is only longer, are certainly the largest and heaviest members of the diverse family Cricetidae, which includes all voles and most mice native to the Americas. Muskrats are much smaller than beavers, with which they share their habitat. Muskrats are covered with short, thick fur, medium to dark brown or black in color, with the belly a bit lighter; the fur has two layers. They have long tails covered with scales rather than hair, to aid them in swimming, are flattened vertically, a shape, unique to them; when they walk on land, their tails drag on the ground. Muskrats are well suited for their semiaquatic life, they can swim under water for 12 to 17 minutes. Their bodies, like those of seals and whales, are less sensitive to the buildup of carbon dioxide than those of most other mammals.
They can close off their ears to keep the water out. Their hind feet are semiwebbed, although in swimming, their tails are their main means of propulsion. Muskrats are found over the United States and a small part of northern Mexico, they were introduced to Europe in the beginning of the 20th century and have become an invasive species in northwestern Europe. They inhabit wetlands, areas in or near saline and freshwater wetlands, lakes, or ponds, they are not found in Florida, where the round-tailed muskrat, or Florida water rat, fills their ecological niche. Their populations cycle, they are thought to play a major role in determining the vegetation of prairie wetlands in particular. They selectively remove preferred plant species, thereby changing the abundance of plant species in many kinds of wetlands. Species eaten include cattail and yellow water lily. Alligators are thought to be an important natural predator, the absence of muskrats from Florida may in part be the result of alligator predation.
While much wetland habitat has been eliminated due to human activity, new muskrat habitat has been created by the construction of canals or irrigation channels, the muskrat remains common and widespread. They are able to live alongside streams which contain the sulfurous water that drains away from coal mines. Fish and frogs perish in such streams, yet muskrats may occupy the wetlands. Muskrats benefit from human persecution of some of their predators; the muskrat is classed as a "prohibited new organism" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, preventing it from being imported into the country. Trematode Metorchis conjunctus can infect muskrats. Muskrats live in groups consisting of a male and female pair and their young. During the spring, they fight with other muskrats over territory and potential mates. Many are killed in these fights. Muskrat families build nests to their young from cold and predators. In streams, ponds, or lakes, muskrats burrow into the bank with an underwater entrance.
These entrances are 6–8 in wide. In marshes, push-ups are constructed from mud; these push-ups are up to 3 ft in height. In snowy areas, they keep the openings to their push-ups closed by plugging them with vegetation, which they replace every day; some muskrat push-ups have to be replaced each year. Muskrats build feeding platforms in wetlands, they help maintain open areas in marshes. Muskrats are most active near dawn and dusk, they feed on cattail and other aquatic vegetation. They do not store food for the winter, but sometimes eat the insides of their push-ups. While they may appear to steal food beavers have stored, more cooperative partnerships with beavers exist, as featured in the BBC David Attenborough wildlife documentary The Life of Mammals. Plant materials compose about 95% of their
A hobby is a regular activity done for enjoyment during one's leisure time. Hobbies include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. Participation in hobbies encourages acquiring substantial skills and knowledge in that area. A list of hobbies changes with renewed interests and developing fashions, making it diverse and lengthy. Hobbies tend to follow trends in society, for example stamp collecting was popular during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as postal systems were the main means of communication, while video games are more popular nowadays following technological advances; the advancing production and technology of the nineteenth century provided workers with more availability in leisure time to engage in hobbies. Because of this, the efforts of people investing in hobbies has increased with time. Hobbyists may be identified under three sub-categories: casual leisure, serious leisure, project-based leisure.
Though, some hobbyists engage in leisure pursuits that overlap multiple boundaries of the groups. Hobbies are found within the second category, serious leisure. In the 16th century, the term "hobyn" had the meaning of "small horse and pony"; the term "hobby horse" was documented in a 1557 payment confirmation for a "Hobbyhorse" from Reading, England. The item called a "Tourney Horse", was made of a wooden or basketwork frame with an artificial tail and head, it was designed for a child to mimic riding a real horse. By 1816 the derivative, "hobby", was introduced into the vocabulary of a number of English people. Over the course of subsequent centuries, the term came to be associated with leisure. In the 17th century, the term was used in a pejorative sense by suggesting that a hobby was a childish pursuit, however, in the 18th century with a more industrial society and more leisure time, hobbies took on greater respectability A hobby is called a pastime, derived from the use of hobbies to pass the time.
A hobby became an activity, practised and with some worthwhile purpose. Hobbies are but not always, practised for interest and enjoyment, rather than financial reward. Hobbies were described as pursuits that others thought somewhat childish or trivial. However, as early as 1676 Sir Matthew Hale, in Contemplations Moral and Divine, wrote "Almost every person hath some hobby horse or other wherein he prides himself." He was acknowledging. By the mid 18th century there was a flourishing of hobbies as working people had more regular hours of work and greater leisure time, they spent more time to pursue interests. However, there was concern that these working people might not use their leisure time in worthwhile pursuits. "The hope of weaning people away from bad habits by the provision of counter-attractions came to the fore in the 1830s, has waned since. The bad habits were perceived to be of a sensual and physical nature, the counter attractions, or more alternatives, deliberately cultivated rationality and the intellect."
The flourishing book and magazine trade of the day encouraged worthwhile pursuits. The burgeoning manufacturing trade made materials used in hobbies cheap and was responsive to the changing interests of hobbyists; the English have been identified as enthusiastic hobbyists. "nother English characteristic, so much a part of us that we notice it … is the addiction to hobbies and spare-time occupations, the privateness of English life. We are a nation of flower-lovers, but a nation of stamp-collectors, pigeon-fanciers, amateur carpenters, coupon-snippers, darts-players, crossword-puzzle fans. All the culture, most native centres round things which when they are communal are not official—the pub, the football match, the back garden, the fireside and the'nice cup of tea'."Deciding what to include in a list of hobbies provokes debate because it is difficult to decide which pleasurable pass-times can be described as hobbies. During the 20th century the term hobby suggested activities, such as stamp collecting, knitting, painting and photography.
The description did not include activities like listening to music, watching television, or reading. These latter activities bring pleasure, but lack the sense of achievement associated with a hobby, they are not structured, organised pursuits, as most hobbies are. The pleasure of a hobby is associated with making something of value or achieving something of value. "Such leisure is valorised because it produces feelings of satisfaction with something that looks much like work but, done of its own sake." "Hobbies are a contradiction: they take work and turn it into leisure, take leisure and turn it into work."Hobbies change with time. In the 21st century, the video game industry is a large hobby involving millions of kids and adults in various forms of'play'. Stamp collecting declined along with the importance of the postal system. Woodwork and knitting declined as hobbies, because manufactured goods provide cheap alternatives for handmade goods. Through the internet, an online community has become a hobby for many people.
Hobbyists are a part of a wider group of people engaged in leisure pursuits where the boundaries of each group overlap to some extent. The Serious Leisure Perspective groups hobbyists with amateurs and volunteers and identifies three broa
A fandom is a subculture composed of fans characterized by a feeling of empathy and camaraderie with others who share a common interest. Fans are interested in minor details of the object of their fandom and spend a significant portion of their time and energy involved with their interest as a part of a social network with particular practices. A fandom can grow around any area of human activity; the subject of fan interest can be narrowly defined, focused on something like an individual celebrity, or more defined, encompassing entire hobbies, genres or fashions. While it is now used to apply to groups of people fascinated with any subject, the term has its roots in those with an enthusiastic appreciation for sports. Merriam-Webster's dictionary traces the usage of the term back as far as 1903. Fandom as a term can be used in a broad sense to refer to the interconnected social networks of individual fandoms, many of which overlap. There are a number of large conventions that cater to fandom in this broad sense, catering to interests in film, anime, television shows and the opportunity to buy and sell related merchandise.
Annual conventions such as Comic Con International, Dragon Con and New York Comic Con are some of the more well known and attended events that cater to overlapping fandoms. Fans of the literary detective Sherlock Holmes are considered to have comprised the first modern fandom, holding public demonstrations of mourning after Holmes was "killed off" in 1893, creating some of the first fan fiction as early as about 1897 to 1902. Outside the scope of media, railway enthusiasts are another early fandom with its roots in the late 19th century that began to gain in popularity and organize in the first decades of the early 20th century. A wide variety of Western modern organized fannish subcultures originated with science fiction fandom, the community of fans of the science fiction and fantasy genres. Science fiction fandom dates back to the 1930s and maintains organized clubs and associations in many cities around the world. Fans have held the annual World Science Fiction Convention since 1939, along with many other events each year, has created its own jargon, sometimes called "fanspeak".
In addition, the Society for Creative Anachronism, a medievalist re-creation group, has its roots in science fiction fandom. It was founded by members thereof. Media fandom split from science fiction fandom in the early 1970s with a focus on relationships between characters within TV and movie media franchises, such as Star Trek and The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. Fans of these franchises generated creative products like fan art and fan fiction at a time when typical science fiction fandom was focused on critical discussions; the MediaWest convention provided a video room and was instrumental in the emergence of fan vids, or analytic music videos based on a source, in the late 1970s. By the mid-1970s, it was possible to meet fans at science fiction conventions who did not read science fiction, but only viewed it on film or TV. Anime and manga fandom began in the 1970s in Japan. In America, the fandom began as an offshoot of science fiction fandom, with fans bringing imported copies of Japanese manga to conventions.
Before anime began to be licensed in the U. S. fans who wanted to get a hold of anime would leak copies of anime movies and subtitle them to exchange with friends in the community, thus marking the start of fansubs. Furry fandom refers to the fandom for fictional anthropomorphic animal characters with human personalities and characteristics; the concept of furry originated at a science fiction convention in 1980, when a drawing of a character from Steve Gallacci's Albedo Anthropomorphics initiated a discussion of anthropomorphic characters in science fiction novels, which in turn initiated a discussion group that met at science fiction and comics conventions. Additional subjects with significant fandoms include comics, music, pulp magazines, soap operas and videogames. Members of a fandom associate with one another attending fan conventions and publishing and exchanging fanzines and newsletters. Amateur press associations are another form of fan networking. Using print-based media, these sub-cultures have migrated much of their communications and interaction onto the Internet, which they use for the purpose of archiving detailed information pertinent to their given fanbase.
Fans congregate on forums and discussion boards to share their love for and criticism of a specific work. This congregation can lead to a high level of organization and community within the fandom, as well as infighting. Although there is some level of hierarchy among most of the discussion boards in which certain contributors are valued more than others, newcomers are most welcomed into the fold. Most these sorts of discussion boards can have an effect on the media itself as was the case in the television show Glee. Trends on the discussion boards have been known to influence the producers of the show; the media fandom for the TV series Firefly was able to generate enough corporate interest to create a movie after the series was canceled. Fan Some fans write fan fiction, stories based on the universe and characters of their chosen fandom; this fiction can take the form of video-making as well as writing. Fan fiction may not tie in with the story's canon.