Dornier Do 18
The Dornier Do 18 was a development of the Do 16 flying boat. It was developed for the Luftwaffe, but Lufthansa received five aircraft and used these for tests between the Azores and the North American continent in 1936 and on their mail route over the South Atlantic from 1937 to 1939. On 27–29 March 1938, a "Do 18 W" established a seaplane record, flying non-stop a straight distance of 8,391 km from Start Point, Devon to Caravelas in Brazil. In 1934, the Dornier Flugzeugwerke started development of a new twin-engine flying boat to replace the Dornier Do J "Wal" in both military and civil roles; the resultant design, Do 18 retained the layout of the Wal, with a metal hull fitted with distinctive stabilising sponsons, powered by two engines above the wing in a push-pull layout, but was aerodynamically and hydrodynamically more efficient. It was planned to be powered by two of the new Junkers Jumo 205 Diesel engines. Although heavy, these promised to give much lower fuel consumption than conventional petrol engines of similar power.
The first prototype, the Do 18a, registration D-AHIS flew on 15 March 1935, powered by two of the earlier 410 kW Junkers Jumo 5c Diesels as the planned Jumo 205s were not yet available. It was lost on 2 November 1935 over the Baltic Sea during high-speed tests. Three further prototypes followed, two being prototype military aircraft, the Do 18c, a civil prototype; the Do 18c was delivered to Lufthansa as a Do 18E civil transport followed by a further two aircraft, with a final Do 18E being built in 1938. A further civil Do 18 was the Do 18F, a modified aircraft with longer wingspan and higher weights built for extended-range flights; the sole Do 18F, D-ANHR, first flew on 11 June 1937. It was modified with 656 kW BMW 132N radial engines to test a possible upgrade for the Luftwaffe's aircraft, flying in this form on 21 November 1939 as the Do 18L, it suffered cooling problems and further development of the radial powered Do 18 was abandoned. In 1936, Lufthansa started a series of endurance trials, culminating on 10–11 September when Zephir, flown by Flugkapitän Blankenburg with Lufthansa Director Freiherr von Gablenz as passenger, was launched by catapult from the seaplane tender Schwabenland at Horta, flying the 4,460 km to New York City in 22 hours 12 minutes.
On 11 September, Aeolus flew from Horta to Hamilton, Bermuda in 18 hours 15 minutes, continuing to New York the next day. For the main leg of the North Atlantic the aircraft needed the help of the catapult on Schwabenland. On 22 September Aeolus returned to Horta in 17:50 h. Zephir was catapulted on 28 September at Hamilton; the second Flights to New York followed on 5–6 and 6–7 October and the return flights this time, 17 and 18 October from Sydney, Nova Scotia. The flying boats went on to Lisbon and Travemünde. In April 1937, D-ARUN Zephir and D-ABYM Aeolus started their service on the South Atlantic mail route from Bathurst, now Banjul, Gambia to Natal, Brazil. Catapult ships were based in Bathurst and Fernando de Noronha to allow the aircraft to cross the Atlantic carrying a full load of mail. In June they were joined by V6 D-AROZ Pampero. Aeolus was lost on 30 July 1937, when it had to make an ocean landing due to engine problems and was damaged when Ostmark tried to retrieve the plane. Pampero and Zephir had to make ocean landings.
Pampero was lost at sea nearly without trace on 1 October 1938 with a crew of five. Lufthansa's fifth aircraft was the only Do 18F V7 D-ANNE Zyklon, that first took to the skies on 11 June 1937; this was the only Do 18 with a wider span. This was a special demand of Lufthansa Zyklon was used over the South Atlantic between September 1937 and March 1939; the Do 18s crossed the South Atlantic 73 times. Zyklon is not the aircraft that established the England to Brazil distance record from 27–29 March 1938 as stated; the record-setting aircraft D-ANHR was taken from the military production line and was specially prepared. It was flown as a builder's machine with a Lufthansa crew augmented by the works pilot Gundermann. On the way back to the South American station the seaplane tender Westfalen took the aircraft into the English Channel where it was catapulted to Brazil. On the record flight the conditions were not optimal and the Do 18 did not reach Rio de Janeiro as planned. In Luftwaffe service, it was obsolete by the outbreak of World War II, but, as the only military flying boat, 62 in five squadrons were in use on North Sea reconnaissance missions.
In 1940 some squadrons changed their base to Norway. The vulnerable and underpowered flying boat was soon relegated to training and the air/sea rescue role. In the middle of 1941, only one squadron was still operational on Do 18; the Blohm & Voss BV 138 had superseded the Dornier. A Do 18 was the first German aircraft to be shot down by British aircraft during the war, when one of a formation of three was caught over the North Sea by nine Fleet Air Arm Blackburn Skua fighter-bombers of 803 Naval Air Squadron flying from HMS Ark Royal on 26 September 1939; the flying boat was sunk by the destroyer HMS Somali. Do 18E Initial civil version, powered by 410 kW Jumo 205C-1 engines. Four built. Do 18F Long range civil version V7 D-ANNE Zyklon, with extended-span wings and increased take-off weight. One built. Do 18L The record-aircraft D-ANHR modified with BMW 132M radials. One converted; the Do 18D 79 built, was the first military version, po
A tip jet is a jet nozzle at the tip of some helicopter rotor blades, to spin the rotor, much like a Catherine wheel firework. Tip jets replace the normal shaft drive and have the advantage of placing no torque on the airframe, so no tail rotor is required; some simple monocopters are composed of nothing but a single blade with a tip rocket. Tip jets can use compressed air, provided by a separate engine, to create jet thrust. Other types use an afterburner-type system to burn fuel in the compressed air at the tip to enhance the thrust. Other designs includes ramjets or a complete turbojet engine. Some, known as Rocket On Rotor systems, are rocket tip jets that run off stored propellant such as hydrogen peroxide. If the helicopter's engine fails, the tip jets on the rotor increase the moment of inertia, hence permitting it to store energy, which makes performing a successful autorotation landing somewhat easier. However, the tip jet typically generates significant extra air drag, which demands a higher sink rate and means that a sudden transition to the landing flare must occur for survival, with little room for error.
The Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein investigated a tip jet design while studying aeronautical engineering at Manchester University. The Italian designer V Isacco built "Helicogyres" in the 1920s which used piston engines at the ends of the rotary wing and he foresaw that they might be replaceable by jets. During the Second World War a German, Friedrich von Doblhoff, suggested powering a helicopter with ramjets; the first tip jet-powered helicopter was the WNF 342 V1 in 1943. After the war two WNF 342 prototypes ended up with the Americans and Doblhoff joined McDonnell Douglas who subsequently produced the McDonnell XV-1; the engineer who had produced the tip jet engines, August Stephan, joined the Fairey Aviation company of the United Kingdom which used them in their Fairey Jet Gyrodyne and Fairey Rotodyne aircraft first flying in 1954 and 1957 respectively. Eugene Michael Gluhareff was an early pioneer of tip jets. Avimech Dragonfly DF-1 - American hydrogen peroxide powered helicopter Dornier Do 32 - German ultra-light cold-tip-jet helicopter, first flown on 29 June 1962: 4 built.
Dornier Do 132 - German cold-tip-jet helicopter project, cancelled in 1969. Fairey Ultra-light Helicopter - UK cold-tip-jet helicopter, with rotor driven by compressed air. First flew in 1955. Four built for military use but defence cuts left Fairey to continue development without support and there were no further orders. Fiat 7002 - Italian cold-tip-jet helicopter, first flew in only one built. McDonnell XV-1 - US cold-tip-jet compound gyrodyne, flew in 1954, but cancelled due to insufficient advantage over contemporary helicopters. Percival P.74 - used engines in fuselage to produce efflux at wingtips. Engines never produced sufficient power and so it never flew. Further progress with the design using more powerful engines was cancelled. Sud-Ouest Ariel - French cold-tip-jet powered helicopter, first flown in 1947. Sud-Ouest Djinn - French cold-tip-jet powered helicopter, first flown in 1953. VFW-Fokker H2 - German proof-of-concept autogyro adaptation of a Bensen B-8 autgyro with cold-tip-jet–started rotor VFW-Fokker H3 - German cold-tip-jet compound helicopter.
Hughes XH-17 - US tip-jet-burner-powered flying crane, cancelled due to inefficient design Doblhoff WNF 342 - German WWII compound helicopter with hot-tip-jet rotor propulsion. Fairey Jet Gyrodyne - UK hot-tip-jet–powered rotor compound gyroplane, providing data for the Fairey Rotodyne. First flown in 1954. Fairey Rotodyne - UK compound gyrodyne with rotor driven by hot tip jets for VTOL. 48-seater short-haul airliner design. First flew in 1957. Cancelled due to doubts about noise of tip jets in service. Hiller YH-32 Hornet - US ramjet helicopter, first flying 1950,'jet jeep' had good lifting capability but was otherwise poor. Mil V-7 - Soviet ramjet helicopter Focke-Wulf Fw Triebflügel German World War II interceptor design, using ramjets - not built NHI H-3 Kolibrie Dutch ramjet powered helicopter. American Helicopter XH-26 Jet Jeep Rotary Rocket Roton ATV - US re-usable rocket concept designed with rocket-tip-jet–powered rotor. None, apart from the Sud-Ouest Djinn, entered production. Aeolipile Rocket engine Jet engine Dragonfly tip jet helicopter from Swiss Copter http://www.gyropilot.co.uk/downloads/Rotodyne%202%20RTF%20Mod.pdf Accessed 1 February 2007
The Zeppelin-Lindau Rs. IV was a Riesenflugzeug monoplane all metal flying boat with a stressed skin hull an fuselage developed for the Imperial German Navy to perform long range patrols over the North Sea, it had been developed by Claudius Dornier while working for Zeppelin in the town of Lindau. Two aircraft were ordered by the German Kaiserliche Marine in January 1918; the first flight was made on 12 October 1918 and was converted shortly thereafter into a passenger aircraft sometime between October 1918, following damage sustained during its first flight, June 1919. When it was modified the pilot's position was moved to the hull instead of in the overhead fuselage in 1919; the sole completed example was scrapped on 17 April 1920 on orders from the Inter-Allied Military Control Commission, after a detailed examination of its construction had been made. Its design was based on the previous Rs. III, differing in having a narrower hull fitted with sponsons and stressed skin structure, with some minor tidying of the design.
It was a braced parasol monoplane with the fuselage mounted on the wing above both engine nacelles and hull. The four engines were mounted in push-pull pairs in nacelles large enough to allow in flight access between the hull and the wing; these were staggered to allow propeller disks to overlap so as to reduce adverse yaw when an engine was not running. It had the distinction of being first seaplane to have an all-metal stressed skin hull, the first seaplane to be fitted with Dornier's patented sponsons. German Empire Kaiserliche Marine - evaluation only Data from The German GiantsGeneral characteristics Crew: 5 Capacity: Length: 22.7 m overall Hull length: 14.2 m Hull beam: 3.65 m Sponson width: 8 m Height: 8.37 m Wing area: 226 m2 Empty weight: 7,237 kg Gross weight: 10,600 kg Fuel capacity: 3,000 l Powerplant: 4 × Maybach Mb. IVa 6 cylinder liquid cooled inline mounted as tandem pairs, 183 kW each Propellers: 4-bladed wooden fixed pitch propellers, 3.1 m diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 138 km/h Minimum control speed: 90 km/h Endurance: 10 hours Time to altitude: Wing loading: 46.5 kg/m2 Dornier-Zeppelin D.
IRelated development Zeppelin-Lindau Rs. I Zeppelin-Lindau Rs. II Zeppelin-Lindau Rs. III Dornier Gs. I Dornier WalAircraft of comparable role and era Short Singapore I Related lists List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft List of large aircraft List of experimental aircraft Idflieg aircraft designation system List of military aircraft of the Central Powers in World War I List of military aircraft of Germany by manufacturer
The Dornier Delphin was a 1920s German single-engine commercial flying boat built by Dornier Flugzeugwerke. As well as commercial users, single examples were acquired by the United States Navy and the British Royal Navy for evaluation; the Delphin I was developed in 1920. It was an all-metal single-engine high-wing monoplane flying boat, it had an enclosed cabin for four-passengers with the wing mounted above, the nacelle-mounted engine above that. It was powered by a 138 kW BMW IIIa inline engine; the pilot had an open cockpit on the upper surface of the hull behind the engine, which gave him a limited view forward. It first flew on the 24 November 1920. Dornier first tested the design concept and spontoons in place of wingtip floats, with a small three-seater named the Dragon FlyAn improved version, the Delphin II, first flew on 15 February 1924, was powered by either a 186 kW BMW engine or a 194 kW Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine; the enclosed cabin now had room for five passengers. Following the success of the Delphin II, a larger version, the Delphin III was developed from 1927.
It was powered by a 447 kW BMW VI engine and had a separate flight deck for the two-man crew and a cabin for ten passengers. A Delphin I was acquired by the United States Navy, a Delphin III by the Royal Navy, both of whom were interested in evaluating the metal construction. Delphin I Four-passenger version with open cockpit, powered by a 138 kW BMW IIIa inline engine Delphin II Five-passenger version, powered by either a 186 kW BMW engine or a 194 kW Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine. Delphin III Ten-passenger version, powered by 447 kW BMW VI engine General characteristics Crew: two Capacity: ten passengers Length: 14.35 m Wingspan: 19.60 m Height: 4.05 m Wing area: 62 m2 Empty weight: 2,900 kg Gross weight: 3,900 kg Powerplant: 1 × BMW VI inline piston engine, 447 kW Performance Maximum speed: 180 km/h Service ceiling: 4,500 m Armament Related lists List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing "The Dornier Cs. II Commercial Flying Boat", April 21, 1921
Dornier Do 26
The Dornier Do 26 was an all-metal gull-winged flying boat produced before and during World War II by Dornier Flugzeugwerke of Germany. It was operated by a crew of four and was intended to carry a payload of 500 kg or four passengers on the Lisbon to New York route; the elegant Do 26, sometimes referred to as the "most beautiful flying-boat built", was of all-metal construction. The hull had a defined step, its four engines, Junkers Jumo 205C diesels, were mounted in tractor/pusher pairs in tandem nacelles located at the joint between the dihedral and horizontal wing sections. The rear engines could be swung upwards through 10° during take-off and landing, to prevent contact between the three-blade airscrew and water spray created by the forward propellers; the tail unit was of conventional design, comprising a horizontal tailplane and a single, vertical fin with rudder. In 1937, Deutsche Lufthansa ordered three Do 26 aircraft, which were designed to be launched by catapult from special supply ships, for transatlantic air mail purposes.
The first, Do 26 A D-AGNT V1 Seeadler, was piloted on its maiden flight by Flight Captain Erich Gundermann on 21 May 1938. Both were completed and handed over to Deutsche Lufthansa before the outbreak of World War II. Due to opposition from the United States, the German airline was unable to operate these aircraft on the intended transatlantic route; the third aircraft, Do 26 B D-ASRA Seemöwe was completed shortly before the start of World War II. One notable Do 26 civilian mission was carried out by V2 Seefalke, when on 14 February 1939 the veteran Lufthansa pilot Flight Captain Siegfried Graf Schack von Wittenau embarked on a mercy flight to Chile, taking 580 kg of medical supplies for earthquake victims in Chile; the 10,700 km flight lasted 36 hours. All three Deutsche Lufthansa aircraft were impressed into military service in 1939 at the outbreak of World War II, as P5+AH, P5+BH and P5+CH respectively. Three other Do 26 aircraft were built as Do 26 C for the Luftwaffe with the more powerful 648 kW Junkers Jumo 205D engines.
Armament consisted of one 20 mm three 7.92 mm MG 15 machine guns. The Do 26s saw service in April and May 1940 in the Norwegian Campaign, transporting supplies and wounded to and from the isolated German forces fighting at Narvik under the command of General Eduard Dietl. During this campaign three of them were lost: On 8 May 1940, V2 was shot down by three Blackburn Skuas of 803 Naval Air Squadron, Fleet Air Arm, operating from the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal while carrying 18 Gebirgsjägers to the Narvik front. After a running fight V2 crash-landed in Efjorden in Ballangen. Siegfried Graf Schack von Wittenau, the crew and 18 soldiers, were captured in bloody fighting with Norwegian forces. One of the Skuas, flown by future Fleet Air Arm fighter ace Sub-Lieutenant Philip Noel Charlton, was hit by return fire from V2 and made an emergency landing at Tovik near Harstad. On 28 May 1940, both V1 and V3 were set ablaze with gunfire and sunk at their moorings at Sildvik in Rombaksfjord near Narvik, when discovered and attacked by three Hawker Hurricanes of No. 46 Squadron RAF led by the New Zealander Flight Lieutenant P.
G. "Pat" Jameson, DSO, bar shortly after landing. Three mountain guns destined for the German forces fighting in the mountains east of Narvik were lost with the destruction of V1 and V3, whilst one gun was recovered from one of the aircraft before it was lost. V5 was lost on 16 November 1940, killing its crew, after being launched at night from the catapult ship Friesenland in Brest, France; the fate of V4 and V6, which in 1944 were still assigned to the Test Unit in Travemünde, is unclear. Do 26A Two prototypes, and. Do 26B Third prototype. Do 26C Military variant for Luftwaffe, powered by Junkers Jumo 205D engines and armed with 1x 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon and three 7.92 mm MG 15 machine guns. Three aircraft built and V1, V2 and V3 were rebuilt to similar standard. GermanyDeutsche Lufthansa operated two Do 26A and one Do 26B between 1938 and 1939. All three were handed over to the Luftwaffe. Luftwaffe operated. Erprobungsstelle Travemünde KGr.z.b. V. 108 Küstenfliegergruppe 406 The wrecks of V1 Seeadler and V3 Seemöwe were located in Norwegian waters off Narvik after the war.
Seemöwe has been removed but the fuselage and wings of Seeadler remain in situ. Some components from Seeadler, including the cockpit instrument panel and a propeller, are on display at the Narvik War Museum. General characteristics Capacity: 500 kg payload Length: 24.5 m Wingspan: 30 m Height: 6.9 m Wing area: 120 m2 Empty weight: 10,200 kg Max takeoff weight: 20,000 kg Powerplant: 4 × Junkers Jumo 205C 6-cyl water-cooled opposed-piston 2-stroke diesel engine, 447
The Zeppelin-Lindau Rs. I was a large three-engined biplane flying boat designed by Claudius Dornier and built during 1914–15 on the German side of Lake Constance, it never progressed beyond taxiing trials. Claudius Dornier gained the attention of Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin while working on a proposed trans-atlantic airship during 1913, he appointed him as chief designer of the Zeppelin-Werke at Lindau, responsible for building large patrol flying boats. Dornier's first design to be built was the Rs. I; this was a large aircraft constructed of high-strength steel for stressed parts, Duralumin for low stress parts. The wings were on top of the hull and were braced with four sets per side of Warren strut style interplane structures comprising'V' struts, which obviated the need for drag inducing wire bracing; the wing structure was formed with built-up steel spars, four in the top wing and three in the lower wing, duralumin ribs riveted to the spars and braced internally. The fuselage was made up from formed steel members built up into a framework, covered with fabric or dural sheeting.
The powerplant arrangements were unorthodox, with the two outboard engines housed inside the fuselage, each driving a pusher propeller via shafts and bevel gearboxes, a central pusher engine in a nacelle between the wings. The Rs. I rolled out at Seemos for trials. On 23 October, during a taxi test, the port propeller and/or gearbox parted company with the aircraft, causing damage to the gearbox mountings and the upper wing; the opportunity was taken to move the outboard engines into nacelles identical to that of centre engine, mount them between the wings on an independent structure with catwalks to enable engineers to attend to engines in flight. This gave much better clearance from spray for the propellers, the cause of the port gearbox/propeller failure. Taxiing trials recommenced, but with little success. On 21 December 1915 a Foehn wind blew up during trials. Unable to beach the giant flying boat, attempts were made to ride out the storm on the lake, but the moorings gave and the Rs. I was dashed to pieces on the lakeside rocks.
The RsI is noteworthy for the construction materials used as well as its size. Data from The German GiantsGeneral characteristics Crew: at least 7 Length: 29 m Wingspan: 43.5 m Height: 7.2 m Wing area: 328.8 m2 Empty weight: 7,500 kg Gross weight: 4,763 kg Powerplant: 3 × Maybach HS, 179 kW each Aircraft of comparable role and era AD Seaplane Type 1000 Felixstowe F.2A Related lists List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft List of aircraft Notes BibliographyHaddow G. W. Grosz,P. M; the German Giants. Putnam, 3rd Ed. 1988 ISBN 0-85177-812-7 http://www.iren-dornier.com/en/aircraft.html
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design and software programming. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea; the word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, "original, primitive", from πρῶτος protos, "first" and τύπος typos, "impression". Prototypes explore different aspects of an intended design: A Proof-of-Principle Prototype serves to verify some key functional aspects of the intended design, but does not have all the functionality of the final product. A Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product.
A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, of the intended design. A Form Study Prototype is a preliminary type of visual prototype in which the geometric features of a design are emphasized, with less concern for color, texture, or other aspects of the final appearance. A User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research. A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the intended design, though it may be created with different techniques and different scale from final design. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the user interface of a software product; such prototypes are used for early testing of a software design, can be part of a software walkthrough to confirm design decisions before more costly levels of design effort are expended. In general, the creation of prototypes will differ from creation of the final product in some fundamental ways: Material: The materials that will be used in a final product may be expensive or difficult to fabricate, so prototypes may be made from different materials than the final product.
In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves and not yet available for use in a prototype. Process: Mass-production processes are unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. For example, a final product that will be made by plastic injection molding will require expensive custom tooling, so a prototype for this product may be fabricated by machining or stereolithography instead. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product. Verification: The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications; these tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, other techniques appropriate for ongoing production of a large quantity of the final product. Prototypes are made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that will apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the intended role for the prototype. For example, if a visual prototype is not able to use the same materials as the final product, they will attempt to substitute materials with properties that simulate the intended final materials. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to simulate the characteristics of their intended design, it is important to realize that by their definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the production design may have been sound. A counter-intuitive idea is that prototypes may perform acceptably whereas the production design may be flawed since prototyping materials and processes may outperform their production counterparts.
In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials and processes. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and refinement, it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes cannot eliminate all risk. There are pragmatic and practical limitations to the ability of a prototype to match the intended final performance of the product and some allowances and engineering judgement are required before moving forward with a production design. Building the full design is expensive and can be time-consuming when repeated several times—building the full design, figuring out what the problems are and how to solve them building another full design; as an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the initial prototypes, which implement part, but not all, of the complete design.
This allows designers and manufacturers to and inexpensively test the parts of the design that are most to have problems, solve those problems, build the full design. This counter-intuitive idea—that the quickest way to build something is, f