Whales are a distributed and diverse group of aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea excluding dolphins and porpoises. Whales and porpoises belong to the order Cetartiodactyla with even-toed ungulates and their closest living relatives are the hippopotamuses, having diverged about 40 million years ago; the two parvorders of whales, baleen whales and toothed whales, are thought to have split apart around 34 million years ago. The whales comprise eight extant families: Balaenopteridae, Cetotheriidae, Monodontidae, Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Whales are creatures of the open ocean. So extreme is their adaptation to life underwater. Whales range in size from the 2.6 metres and 135 kilograms dwarf sperm whale to the 29.9 metres and 190 metric tons blue whale, the largest creature that has lived. The sperm whale is the largest toothed predator on earth. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. Baleen whales have no teeth, they use their throat pleats to expand the mouth to take in huge gulps of water.
Balaenids have heads. Toothed whales, on the other hand, have conical teeth adapted to catching squid. Baleen whales have a well developed sense of "smell", whereas toothed whales have well-developed hearing − their hearing, adapted for both air and water, is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind; some species, such as sperm whales, are well adapted for diving to great depths to catch squid and other favoured prey. Whales have evolved from land-living mammals; as such whales must breathe air although they can remain submerged under water for long periods of time. Some species such as the sperm whale are able to stay submerged for as much as 90 minutes, they have blowholes located on top of their heads, through which air is expelled. They are warm-blooded, have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin. With streamlined fusiform bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers, whales can travel at up to 20 knots, though they are not as flexible or agile as seals. Whales produce a great variety of notably the extended songs of the humpback whale.
Although whales are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, migrate to the equator to give birth. Species such as humpbacks and blue whales are capable of travelling thousands of miles without feeding. Males mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species nurse their young for one to two years. Once relentlessly hunted for their products, whales are now protected by international law; the North Atlantic right whales nearly became extinct in the twentieth century, with a population low of 450, the North Pacific grey whale population is ranked Critically Endangered by the IUCN. Besides whaling, they face threats from bycatch and marine pollution; the meat and baleen of whales have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Whales have been depicted in various cultures worldwide, notably by the Inuit and the coastal peoples of Vietnam and Ghana, who sometimes hold whale funerals.
Whales feature in literature and film, as in the great white whale of Herman Melville's Moby Dick. Small whales, such as belugas, are sometimes kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks, but breeding success has been poor and the animals die within a few months of capture. Whale watching has become a form of tourism around the world; the word "whale" comes from the Old English whæl, from Proto-Germanic *hwalaz, from Proto Indo European *kwal-o-, meaning "large sea fish". The Proto-Germanic *hwalaz is the source of Old Saxon hwal, Old Norse hvalr, Swedish val, Middle Dutch wal, Dutch walvis, Old High German wal, German Wal; the obsolete "whalefish" has a similar derivation, indicating a time when whales were thought to be fish. Other archaic English forms include wal, whal, whaille, etc; the term "whale" is sometimes used interchangeably with dolphins and porpoises, acting as a synonym for Cetacea. Six species of dolphins have the word "whale" in their name, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae.
Each species has a different reason for it, for example, the killer whale was named "Ballena asesina"'killer whale' by Spanish sailors. The term "Great Whales" covers those regulated by the International Whaling Commission: the Odontoceti family Physeteridae; the whales are part of the terrestrial mammalian clade Laurasiatheria. Whales do not form a order.
Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claude Dornier. Over the course of its long lifespan, the company produced many designs for both the civil and military markets. Dornier Metallbau, Dornier Flugzeugwerke took over Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen production facilities when it failed in 1923. Dornier was well known between the two world wars as a manufacturer of large, all-metal flying boats and of land based airliners; the record-breaking 1924 Wal was used on many long distance flights and the Do X set records for its immense size and weight. Dornier's successful landplane airliners, including the Komet and Merkur which were used by Lufthansa and other European carriers during the 1920s and early 30s. Dornier built its aircraft outside Germany during much of this period due to the restrictions placed on German aircraft manufacturers by the Treaty of Versailles: locations included Altenrhein, Switzerland, 12km from Zeppelin's Lindau location.
Foreign factories licence-building Dornier products included CMASA and Piaggio in Italy, CASA in Spain, Kawasaki in Japan, Aviolanda in the Netherlands. Once the Nazi government came to power and abandoned the treaty's restrictions, Dornier resumed production in Germany; the success of the Wal family encouraged the development of derivatives, of more advanced successors, such as the Do 18, Do 24 which saw service in several armed forces, including German, into World War II. Dornier's most important World War II military aircraft design was the Do 17, nicknamed The Flying Pencil, it first flew in 1934 as a mailplane for Lufthansa but due to its narrow fuselage it was not commercially viable and was passed over. Dornier developed it further as a military aircraft, with a prototype bomber flying in 1935, in 1937 it was used in by the German Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. Production continued in Germany and it was developed to fill multiple roles for the Luftwaffe; as a medium bomber it saw service during the early part of World War II during the Battle of Britain.
It was developed into a nightfighter to counter the RAF bomber offensive. Dornier developed the similar looking Do 217 from the Do 17 but it was a larger and new design. Dornier developed the fastest piston-engined fighter of the war, the twin-engined Do 335, too late to see service. After WWII aircraft production was again forbidden in Germany, Dornier relocated to Spain and to Switzerland where the firm provided aeronautical consultancy services until returning to Germany in 1954. Post-war, Dornier re-established itself with successful small STOL Do 28 transports. In 1974 it joined in a joint venture with French aircraft manufacturers Dassault-Breguet to develop the Alpha Jet; the plane was ordered as the new standard NATO trainer during the 80s. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited bought a production licence for the Dornier Do 228 and manufactured the aircraft for the Asian market sphere. By 2013 a total of 117 Dornier DO-228 aircraft had been produced by HAL with plans to build 20 more during 2013-14.
In 1985, Dornier became a member of the Daimler-Benz group integrating its aeronautic assets with the parent company. As part of this transaction, Lindauer Dornier GmbH was spun off, creating a separate, family-owned firm, concentrating on textile machinery design and manufacturing; the rest of the company was split into several subsidiaries for defence, satellites and aircraft. In 1996, the majority of Dornier Aircraft was acquired by Fairchild Aircraft, forming Fairchild Dornier; this company became insolvent in early 2002. Production of its 328 Jet was acquired by US company Avcraft. Asian groups continued to show interest in its 728 version in August 2004, but production had not restarted; the other subsidiaries became part of the EADS. Dornier Medtech manufactures medical equipment, such as the Dornier S lithotriptor, HM3, Compact Delta to treat kidney stones. Dornier MedTech manufactures laser devices for a wide range of applications; the Dornier family have project, the Dornier Seastar. It is a turboprop-powered amphibious aircraft built of composite materials.
This was developed by Claudius Dornier Jr. Dornier Gs Precursor to Wal destroyed by Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control Dornier Do A Libelle Dornier Spatz Landplane version of Do A Dornier Do B Merkur Development of Do C Dornier Do C Komet Dornier Do C 2, 3, 4 Fighter unrelated to earlier Do C, redesignated Do 10 Dornier Do D Dornier Do E Dornier Do F Dornier Do G Grief Dornier Do H Falke Dornier Do I Dornier Do J Wal Dornier Do K Dornier Do L Delphin Dornier Do N Design for Japanese as Kawasaki Ka 87 Dornier Do O Wal Custom built version of Do J Dornier Do P Dornier Do R.2 and R.4 Superwal Dornier Do S Dornier Do T Dornier Do U Dornier Do X Dornier Do Y Additional unbuilt projects include 3 different Schneider Trophy racers from 1924, 1928 and 1931 and a large multi-engine seaplane similar to the Do X
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between the Allied Powers, it was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which had directly led to World War I. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties. Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty; the treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required "Germany accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage" during the war; this article, Article 231 became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers.
In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks. At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes, predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a "Carthaginian peace"—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently; the result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European powers, the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932.
Although it is referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place at the Quai d'Orsay. On 28 June 1914 the Bosnian-Serbs assassinated the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary in the name of Serbian nationalism; this caused a escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed by the entry of most European powers into First World War. Two alliances faced off, the Triple Entente. Other countries entered as fighting ranged across Europe, as well as the Middle East and Asia. In 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire; the new Bolshevik government under Vladimir Lenin in March 1918 signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, favourable to Germany. Sensing victory before American armies could be ready, Germany now shifted forced to the Western Front and tried to overwhelm the Allies, it failed. Instead the Allies won decisively on the battlefield and forced an armistice in November 1918 that resembled a surrender.
On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against the Central Powers. The motives were twofold: German submarine warfare against merchant ships trading with France and Britain, which led to the sinking of the RMS Lusitania and the loss of 128 American lives; the American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions. On 8 January 1918, President Woodrow Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, it outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy. While the term was not used self-determination was assumed, it called for a negotiated end to the war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the Central Powers from occupied territories, the creation of a Polish state, the redrawing of Europe's borders along ethnic lines, the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states.
It called for a democratic peace uncompromised by territorial annexations. The Fourteen Points were based on the research of the Inquiry, a team of about 150 advisors led by foreign-policy advisor Edward M. House, into the topics to arise in the expected peace conference. After the Central Powers launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front, the new Soviet Government of Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany on 3 March 1918; this treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles of territory and 62 million people. This loss equated to a third of the Russian population, a quarter of its territory, around a third of the country's arable land, three-quarters of its coal and iron, a third of its factories, a quarter of its railroads. During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse. Desertion rates within the German army began to increase, civilian strikes drastically reduced
Plus Ultra (aircraft)
Plus Ultra is a Dornier Do J flying boat which completed the first transatlantic flight between Spain and South America in January 1926 with a crew of Spanish aviators, that included: Ramón Franco, Julio Ruiz de Alda Miqueleiz, Juan Manuel Duran, Pablo Rada. The Plus Ultra departed from Palos de la Frontera, in Huelva, Spain on January 22 and arrived in Buenos Aires, Argentina on January 26, it stopped over at Gran Canaria, Cape Verde, Fernando de Noronha, Rio de Janeiro and Montevideo. The 10,270 km journey was completed in 39 minutes; the flight of the Plus Ultra followed the route taken, in 1922, by the Portuguese aviators Sacadura Cabral and Gago Coutinho, in the first Trans-Atlantic flight over the South Atlantic. The plane was used to deliver airmail, it is on display in a museum in the city of Luján, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Spirit of St. Louis Bird of Paradise Miss Veedol Bremen Question Mark L'Oiseau Blanc The Flight of the Plus Ultra The Plus Ultra at the museum in Luján
Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen was a Norwegian aviation pioneer, military officer, polar explorer and businessman. Among his achievements, he is regarded a founder of the Royal Norwegian Air Force. Riiser-Larsen was born in Norway. In 1909, aged nineteen, he joined the Norwegian Naval Academy. In 1915 he became a 1st lieutenant in the newly formed Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service. After World War I, he served as the acting head of the RNoNAS's factory until a more senior officer was appointed. In 1921, he joined the Aviation Council part of the Norwegian Ministry of Defence, as a secretary; this gave him the opportunity to study the fledgling military and civil aviation infrastructure for which the Council was responsible. He became a frequent pilot on the air routes used by the new aviation companies. Riiser-Larsen's years of polar exploration began in 1925 when his compatriot Roald Amundsen, the famed polar explorer, asked him to be his deputy and pilot for an attempt to fly over the North Pole. Riiser-Larsen secured the use of two Dornier Do J Wal seaplanes.
The expedition, was forced to land close to the Pole, badly damaging one of the planes. After twenty-six days on an ice shelf, first trying to shovel tons of snow to create an airstrip, until someone suggested the easier way of tramping the snow surface, the expedition's six members squeezed themselves into the remaining plane. Riiser-Larsen somehow managed to coax the overloaded plane into the air and flew the expedition back to the coast of Northern Svalbard; the following year, Riiser-Larsen rejoined Amundsen for another attempt to fly over the Pole, this time with Italian aeronautical engineer Umberto Nobile in his renamed airship, the Norge. Leaving Spitsbergen on 11 May 1926, the Norge completed the crossing two days landing near Teller, Alaska; the flight is considered by many to be the first successful flight over the North Pole, as the other claimants, Frederick Cook, Robert Peary and Richard Byrd, were unable to verify their attempts in full. In 1928, Riiser-Larsen became involved in searching the Arctic for Nobile after he had made a successful flight to the Siberian islands and visited the North Pole once more, but crashed near the coast of the North Eastern part of Svalbard.
Riiser-Larsen became involved in a search for Amundsen, when he as passenger in a French naval flying boat went missing while he was en route to join the search for Nobile. Nobile and most of his team were found, but Amundsen was not; the Norvegia expeditions were a sequence of Antarctic expeditions financed by the Norwegian shipowner and whaling merchant Lars Christensen during the late 1920s and 1930s. Ostensibly their goal was scientific research and the discovery of new whaling grounds, but Christensen requested permission from the Norwegian Foreign Office to claim for Norway any uncharted territory, found. By the end of the second expedition, two small islands in the Southern Ocean, Bouvet Island and Peter I Island, had been annexed. In 1929 Christensen decided to include aeroplanes in the next expedition and appointed Riiser-Larsen its leader. Riiser-Larsen supervised and took part in mapping most of the Antarctic in this and three further expeditions. More territory was annexed, this time the large area of the continent known as Queen Maud Land.
In 1939, the Norwegian military was downsized and Riiser-Larssen was among those officers finding themselves out of work. However, he was offered a new job by the shipping company Fred. Olsen & Co. as manager of its newly formed airline, DNL. He invited some former naval pilots to join the airline and soon made it the most successful in Norway. In 1946, DNL would be one of the four Scandinavian airlines merged to create the present-day Scandinavian Airlines System. During the Nazi German occupation of Norway, Riiser-Larsen rejoined the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service. However, both the Norwegian Army and Royal Norwegian Navy Air Services were overwhelmed by the Wehrmacht before he saw combat. Instead, he accompanied the Norwegian cabinet and military leaders into exile in London, before moving on to Canada, to become the first commander of the Royal Norwegian Air Force training camp dubbed Little Norway in Ontario. At the beginning of 1941, Riiser-Larsen returned to London to take up the post of Commander in Chief of the Naval Air Service.
By the end of the war, many of the pilots under his command had become critical of his leadership. He resigned, from the Air Force in 1946. In 1947, Riiser-Larsen again became the head of DNL, a few months before it merged with DDL, SIL and ABA to create SAS, he was the director of the Norwegian region of Scandinavian Airlines Systems 1950-55. He became an advisor to the SAS executive and a regional manager with responsibility for transcontinental air routes. One of these routes, although established after his retirement in 1955, represented the "fulfilment of a vision": the route to North America over the North Pole. In 1951 Riiser-Larsen was chosen as the president of the World Movement for Federal World Government. Riiser-Larsen died in 1965, four days before his seventy-fifth birthday, was buried at Vår Frelsers gravlund in Oslo. Riiser-Larsen Peninsula Riiser-Larsen Sea Riiser-Larsen Ice Shelf Mount Riiser-Larsen Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, Femti År for Kongen, Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1958
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Sylt is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline. It is the largest island in North Frisia; the northernmost island of Germany, it is known for its tourist resorts, notably Westerland and Wenningstedt-Braderup, as well as for its 40-kilometre-long sandy beach. It is covered by the media in connection with its exposed situation in the North Sea and its ongoing loss of land during storm tides. Since 1927, Sylt has been connected to the mainland by the Hindenburgdamm causeway. In latter years, it has been a resort for the German jet set and tourists in search of occasional celebrity sightings. With 99.14 square kilometres, Sylt is the fourth-largest German island and the largest German island in the North Sea. Sylt is located from 9 to 16 kilometres off the mainland, to which it is connected by the Hindenburgdamm. Southeast of Sylt are the islands of Föhr and Amrum, to the north lies the Danish island of Rømø.
The island of Sylt extends for 38 kilometres in a north-south direction. At its northern point at Königshafen, it is only 320 metres wide, its greatest width, from the town of Westerland in the west to the eastern Nössespitze near Morsum, measures 12.6 kilometres. On the western and northwestern shore, there is a 40-kilometre-long sandy beach. To the east of Sylt, is the Wadden Sea, which belongs to the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park and falls dry during low tide; the island's shape has shifted over time, a process, still ongoing today. The northern and southern spits of Sylt are made up of infertile sand deposits, while the central part with the municipalities of Westerland, Wenningstedt-Braderup and Sylt-Ost consists of a geestland core, which becomes apparent in the form of the Red Cliff of Wenningstedt; the geestland facing the Wadden Sea turns into fertile marshland around Sylt-Ost. Sylt has only been an island since the Grote Mandrenke flood of 1362; the so-called Uwe-Düne is the island's highest elevation with 52.5 metres above sea level.
The island in its current form has only existed for about 400 years. Like the mainland geestland, it was formed of moraines from the older ice ages, thus being made up of a till core, now apparent in the island's west and centre by the cliff and beach; this sandy core began to erode as it was exposed to a strong current along the island's steep basement when the sea level rose 8000 years ago. During the process, sediments were accumulated south of the island; the west coast, situated 10 kilometres off today's shore, was thus moved eastward, while at the same time the island began to extend to the north and south. After the ice ages, marshland began to form around this geestland core. In 1141, Sylt is recorded as an island, yet before the Grote Mandrenke flood it belonged to a landscape cut by tidal creeks and, at least during low tide, it could be reached on foot, it is only since this flood that the creation of a spit from sediments began to form the current characteristic shape of Sylt. It is the northern and southern edges of Sylt which were, still are, the subject of greatest change.
For example, Listland was separated from the rest of the island in the 14th century and from the 17th century onwards the Königshafen began to silt up as the "elbow" spit began to form. In addition to the constant loss of land, the inhabitants during the Little Ice Age were constrained by sand drift. Dunes shifting to the east threatened settlements and arable land and had to be stopped by the planting of marram grass in the 18th century. Though, material breaking off the island was washed away and the island's extent continued to decrease. Records of the annual land loss exist since 1870. According to them, Sylt lost an annual 0.4 metres of land in the north and 0.7 metres in the south from 1870 to 1951. From 1951 to 1984, the rate increased to 0.9 metres and 1.4 metres while shorelines at the island's edges at Hörnum and List are more affected. Severe storm surges of the last decades have endangered Sylt to the point of breaking in two, e.g. Hörnum was temporarily cut off from the island in 1962.
Part of the island near Rantum, only 500m wide is threatened. Measures of protection against the continuous erosion date back to the early 19th century when groynes of wooden poles were constructed; those were built at right angles into the sea from the coast line. They were replaced by metal and by armoured concrete groynes; the constructions did not have the desired effect of stopping the erosion caused by crossways currents. "Leeward erosion", i.e. erosion on the downwind side of the groynes prevented sustainable accumulation of sand. In the 1960s breaking the power of the sea was attempted by installing tetrapods along the groyne bases or by putting them into the sea like groynes; the four-armed structures, built in France and many tons in weight, were too heavy for Sylt's beaches and were unable to prevent erosion. Therefore, they were removed from the Hörnum west beach in 2005. Since the early 1970s the only effective means so far has been flushing sand onto the shore. Dredging vessels are used to pump a mixture of sand and water to a beach where it is spread by bulldozers.
Thus storm floods would only erase the artificial accumulation of sand, while the shoreline proper remains intact and erosion is slowed down. Thi