Coronado is a resort city located in San Diego County, across the San Diego Bay from downtown San Diego. It was founded in the 1880s, its population was 24,697 at the 2010 census, up from 24,100 at the 2000 census. Coronado lies on an island connected to the mainland by a tombolo called the Silver Strand. In 1602 the explorer Sebastian Vizcaino drew its first map. In 2012 Dr. Stephen Leatherman, Director of the Laboratory for Coastal Research, ranked Coronado Beach as the best beach in the United States. Coronado is Spanish for "crowned one," and thus it is nicknamed The Crown City. Three ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city, including USS Coronado. Coronado was incorporated as a town on December 11, 1890; the land was purchased by Elisha Spurr Babcock, along with Hampton L. Story, Jacob Gruendike, their intention was to create a resort community, in 1886, the Coronado Beach Company was organized. By 1888, they had built the Hotel del Coronado, the city became a major resort destination.
They built a schoolhouse, formed athletic and baseball clubs. In 1900, a tourist/vacation area just south of the Hotel del Coronado was established by John D. Spreckels and named Tent City. Spreckels became the Hotel's Owner. Over the years the tents gave way to cottages, the last of, torn down in late 1940 or early 1941. In the 1910s, Coronado had streetcars running on Orange Avenue; these streetcars became a fixture of the city until their retirement in 1939. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.7 square miles. Geographically, Coronado is a peninsula or a "tied island". Coronado is connected to the mainland by a strip of land called the Silver Strand; the Silver Strand and North Island, form San Diego Bay. Since recorded history, Coronado was separated from North Island by a shallow inlet of water called the Spanish Bight; the development of North Island by the United States Navy prior to and during World War II led to the filling of the bight by July 1944, combining the land areas into a single body.
The Navy still operates Naval Air Station North Island on Coronado. On the southern side of the town is Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, a training center for Navy SEALs and Special warfare combatant-craft crewmen. Both facilities are part of the larger Naval Base Coronado complex. Coronado has increased in size due to dredge material being dumped on its shoreline and through the natural accumulation of sand; the "Country Club" area on the northwest side of Coronado, the "Glorietta" area and golf course on the southeast side of Coronado, most of the Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, most of the Strand Naval Housing, most of the Coronado Cays were built on dirt dredged from San Diego Bay. On New Year's Day 1937, during the Great Depression, the gambling ship SS Monte Carlo, known for "drinks and dolls," was shipwrecked on the beach about a quarter mile south of the Hotel del Coronado. In 1969, the San Diego–Coronado Bridge was opened, allowing much faster transit between the cities than bay ferries or driving via State Route 75 along the Silver Strand.
The city seems unable to alleviate the congestion along Highways 75 and 284 as traffic flows to and from San Diego and North Island.. Traffic during rush hour and throughout the summer flows at a slow pace. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Coronado has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that the City of Coronado had a population of 24,697. The racial makeup of Coronado was 20,074 White, 1,678 African American, 201 Native American, 925 Asian, 101 Pacific Islander, 762 from other races, 956 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,354 persons; as of the 2000 census, there were 24,100 people, 7,734 households, 4,934 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,121.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,494 housing units at an average density of 1,229.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.40% White, 5.15% African American, 0.66% Native American, 3.72% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 3.14% from other races, 2.63% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.83% of the population. There were 7,734 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 16.0% under the age of 18, 20.2% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 139.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 149.1 males. 48.2 % of those age 25 and over have higher. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city is $91,748, the median income for a family is $119,205. Real estate in the city of Coronado is expensive.
According to a recent county-wide zip code chart published in The San Diego Union-Tribune in August 2006, the median cost of a single-family home within the city's zip code of 92118 was $1,605,000. In 2010, Forbes.com fou
William Clark Gable was an American film actor and military officer, at his height during the 1930s and 1940s and referred to as "The King of Hollywood". He began his career as an extra in Hollywood silent films between 1924 and 1926, progressed to supporting roles with a few films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1930, he landed his first leading role in 1931 and was a leading man in more than 60 motion pictures over the following three decades. Gable was best known for Gone With The Wind, as Rhett Butler opposite co-star Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O'Hara, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for Frank Capra's It Happened One Night, was nominated for his role in Mutiny on the Bounty. He found success commercially and critically with Red Dust, Manhattan Melodrama, San Francisco, Test Pilot, Boom Town, The Hucksters and The Misfits, his final screen appearance. Gable appeared opposite some of the most popular actresses of the time. Joan Crawford was his favorite actress to work with, he partnered with her in eight films.
Myrna Loy worked with him seven times, he was paired with Jean Harlow in six productions. He starred with Lana Turner in four features, with Norma Shearer and Ava Gardner in three each; the Misfits united him with Marilyn Monroe in her last completed screen appearance. Gable is considered one of the most consistent box-office performers in history, appearing on Quigley Publishing's annual Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll 16 times, he was named the seventh-greatest male star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute. William Clark Gable was born in Cadiz, Ohio to William Henry "Will" Gable, an oil-well driller, his wife Adeline, his father was his mother a Roman Catholic. Gable was named William after his father, but he was always called Clark or sometimes Billy, he was listed as a female on his birth certificate. He is of Pennsylvania Dutch and German ancestry. Gable was six months old, when he was baptized at a Roman Catholic church in Ohio, his mother died when he was ten months old from a brain tumor, although the official cause of death was given as an epileptic fit.
His father refused to raise him Catholic. The dispute was resolved when his father agreed to allow him to spend time with his maternal uncle Charles Hershelman and his wife on their farm in Vernon Township, Pennsylvania. In April 1903, Gable's father married Jennie Dunlap, whose family came from the small neighboring town of Hopedale, Ohio; the marriage produced no children. Gable was a shy child with a loud voice, his stepmother raised him to be well-groomed. He took up brass instruments and was the only boy in the men's town band when he was 13, he was mechanically inclined and loved to repair cars with his father, who insisted that he do "manly" things such as hunting and hard physical work. Gable loved language, he would recite Shakespeare among trusted company the sonnets, his father agreed to buy a 72-volume set of The World's Greatest Literature to improve his son's education, but he claimed that he never saw him use it. His father had financial difficulties in 1917 and decided to try his hand at farming, the family moved to Ravenna, Ohio near Akron.
His father insisted that he work the farm, but Gable soon left to work in Akron for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. At 17, Gable was inspired to be an actor after seeing the play The Bird of Paradise, but he was not able to make a real start until he turned 21 and inherited some money, his stepmother had died, his father moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma to go back to the oil business. Gable toured as well as working the oil fields and as a horse manager, he found work with several second-class theater companies, thus making his way across the Midwest to Seaside, Oregon working as a logger, to Portland, where he worked as a necktie salesman in the Meier & Frank department store. In Portland, he met Laura Hope Crews, a stage and film actress who encouraged him to return to the stage with another theater company. Twenty years Crews played Aunt Pittypat alongside Gable's Rhett Butler in Gone With the Wind. Gable's acting coach Josephine Dillon was a theater manager in Portland, she paid to have his teeth repaired and his hair styled, guided him in building up his chronically undernourished body, taught him better body control and posture.
She spent considerable time training his high-pitched voice, which he managed to lower, to gain better resonance and tone. As his speech habits improved, his facial expressions became more convincing. After a long period of training, Dillon considered him ready to attempt a film career. Gable and Dillon went to Hollywood in 1924 with her financing, she became his manager and his wife though she was 17 years his senior, he changed his stage name from W. C. Gable to Clark Gable and found work as an extra in silent films such as Erich von Stroheim's The Merry Widow, The Plastic Age starring Clara Bow, Forbidden Paradise starring Pola Negri, a series of two-reel comedies called The Pacemakers, he appeared as an extra in Fox's The Johnstown Flood. A 17 year-old Carole Lombard appeared as an extra in that film, as well, although they were not in the same scene, he appeared as a bit player in a series of shorts. However, he was not offered any major film roles, he became lifelong friends with Lionel Barrymore, who initiall
Merian C. Cooper
Merian Caldwell Cooper was an American aviator, United States Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, screenwriter, film director, producer. Cooper was the founder of the Kościuszko Squadron during the Polish–Soviet War and was a Soviet prisoner of war for a time, he was a notable movie producer, got his start with film as part of the Explorers Club, traveling the world and documenting adventures. He was a member of the board of directors of Pan American Airways, but his love of film always took priority. During his film career, he worked for companies such as Pioneer Pictures, RKO Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, he is credited as co-inventor of the Cinerama film projection process. Cooper's most famous film was the 1933 movie King Kong, he was awarded an honorary Oscar for lifetime achievement in 1952 and received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960. Merian Caldwell Cooper was born in Jacksonville, Florida, to the lawyer John C. Cooper and the former Mary Caldwell, he was the youngest of three children.
At age six, Cooper decided that he wanted to be an explorer after hearing stories from the book Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa. He was educated at The Lawrenceville School in New Jersey and graduated in 1911. After graduation, Cooper received a prestigious appointment to the U. S. Naval Academy, but was expelled during his senior year for "hell raising and for championing air power". In 1916, Cooper worked for the Minneapolis Daily News as a reporter. In the next few years, he worked at the Des Moines Register-Leader and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. In 1916, Cooper joined the Georgia National Guard to help chase Pancho Villa in Mexico, he was called home in March 1917. He worked for the El Paso Herald on a 30-day leave of absence. After returning to his service, Cooper was appointed lieutenant. Instead, he went to the Military Aeronautics School in Atlanta to learn to fly. Cooper graduated from the school as the top in his class. In October 1917, Cooper went to France with the 201st Squadron.
He attended flying school in Issoudun. While flying with his friend, Cooper was knocked out during a 200-foot plunge. After the incident, Cooper had to relearn how to fly. Cooper requested to go to Clermont-Ferrand to be trained as a bomber pilot, he became a pilot on the 20th Aero Squadron. Cooper served as a DH-4 bomber pilot with the United States Army Air Service during World War I. On September 26, 1918, his plane was shot down; the plane caught fire, Cooper spun the plane to suck the flames out. Cooper survived, although he suffered burns, injured his hands, was presumed dead. German soldiers took him to a prisoner reserve hospital. Captain Cooper remained in the Air Service after the war, he became the head of the Poland division. From late 1919 until the 1921 Treaty of Riga, Cooper was a member of a volunteer American flight squadron, the Kościuszko Squadron, which supported the Polish Army in the Polish-Soviet War. On July 13, 1920, his plane was shot down and he spent nearly nine months in a Soviet prisoner of war camp where the writer Isaac Babel interviewed him.
He escaped just before the war made it to Latvia. For his valor he was decorated by Polish commander-in-chief Józef Piłsudski with the highest Polish military decoration, the Virtuti Militari. During his time as a POW, Cooper wrote an autobiography: Things Men Die For; the manuscript was published by G. P. Putnam's Sons in New York in 1927. However, in 1928 Cooper regretted releasing certain details about "Nina" with whom he had had relations outside of wedlock. Cooper asked Dagmar Matson, who had the manuscript, to buy all the copies of the book possible. Matson found all 5,000 copies, printed; the books were destroyed, while Matson each kept a copy. An interbellum Polish film directed by Leonard Buczkowski, Gwiaździsta eskadra, was inspired by Cooper's experiences as a Polish Air Force officer; the film was made with the cooperation of the Polish army and was the most expensive Polish film prior to World War II. After World War II, all copies of the film found in Poland were destroyed by the Soviets.
After returning from overseas in 1921, Cooper got a job working the night shift at The New York Times. He was commissioned to write articles for Asia magazine. Cooper was able to travel with Ernest Schoedsack on a sea voyage on the Wisdom II; as part of the journey, he traveled to Abyssinia, or the Ethiopian Empire, where he met their prince regent, Ras Tefari known as Emperor Haile Selassie I. The ship left Abyssinia in February 1923. On their way home, the crew narrowly missed being attacked by pirates, the ship was burned down, his three-part series for Asia was published in 1923. After returning home, Cooper researched for the American Geographical Society. In 1924, Cooper joined Schoedsack and Marguerite Harrison who had embarked on an expedition that would be turned into the film Grass, they returned the same year. Cooper became a member of the Explorers Club of New York in January 1925 and was asked to give lectures and attend events due to his extensive traveling. Grass was acquired by Paramount Pictures.
This first film of Cooper and Schoedsack gained the attention of Jesse Lasky, who commissioned the duo for their second film, Chang. They produced the film The Four Feathers, filmed among the fighting tribes of the Sudan. These
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a non-profit, tertiary 958-bed hospital and multi-specialty academic health science center located in the Beverly Grove neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Part of the Cedars-Sinai Health System, the hospital employs a staff of over 2,000 physicians and 10,000 employees. A team of 2,000 volunteers and more than 40 community groups support. Cedars-Sinai focuses on biomedical research and technologically advanced medical education—based on an interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians and clinical researchers; the facility has research centers covering cardiovascular, gene therapy, neuroscience, surgery, organ transplantation, stem cells, biomedical imaging and cancer—with more than 800 research projects underway. Certified as a level I trauma center for adults and pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai trauma-related services range from prevention to rehabilitation and are provided in concert with the hospital's Department of Surgery. Cedars-Sinai is affiliated with the California Heart Center, University of Southern California and David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.
As of 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Cedars-Sinai #4 in the western United States, with number one being the UCSF Medical Center. Cedars-Sinai earned national rankings in 12 adult specialties including #5 for gastroenterology, #9 in cardiology and heart surgery, #9 in orthopedics, #10 in urology, #12 in gynecology, #14 in diabetes and endocrinology, #14 in neurology and neurosurgery. Located in the Harvey Morse Auditorium, Cedars-Sinai's patient care is depicted in the Jewish Contributions to Medicine mural; the heart transplantation program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center has experienced unprecedented growth since 2010. Statistically, Cedars-Sinai performs more annual heart transplants than any other medical center in the world, having performed 95 heart transplants in 2012 and 87 in 2011. Founded and financed by businessman Kaspare Cohn, Cedars-Sinai was established as the Kaspare Cohn Hospital in 1902. At the time, Cohn donated a two-story Victorian home at 1441 Carroll Avenue in the Angeleno Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles to the Hebrew Benevolent Society to create the hospital as a memorial to his brother Samuel.
The hospital had just 12 beds when it opened on September 21, 1902, its services were free. From 1906 to 1910, Dr. Sarah Vasen, the first female doctor in Los Angeles, acted as superintendent. In 1910, the hospital relocated and expanded to Stephenson Avenue, where it had 50 beds and a backhouse containing a 10-cot tubercular ward, it transformed from a charity-based hospital to a general hospital and began to charge patients. The hospital relocated again in 1930 to 4833 Fountain Avenue, where it was renamed Cedars of Lebanon after the religiously significant Lebanon Cedars, which were used to build King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in the Bible. Cedars of Lebanon could accommodate 279 patients. In 1918, the Bikur Cholim Society opened a second Jewish hospital, the Bikur Cholim Hospice, when the Great Influenza Pandemic hit America. In 1921, the hospice relocated to an eight-bed facility in Boyle Heights and was renamed Bikur Cholim Hospital. In 1923 the Bikur Cholim Hospital became Mount Sinai Home for the Incurables.
On November 7, 1926, a newly named Mount Sinai Hospital moved to a 50-bed facility on Bonnie Beach Place. In 1950, Emma and Hyman Levine donated their property adjacent to Beverly Hills, by 1955 the construction completed and Mount Sinai Hospital opened at 8700 Beverly Boulevard. Cedars of Lebanon and Mount Sinai Hospitals merged in 1961 to form Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Donations from the Max Factor Family Foundation allowed the construction of the current main hospital building, which broke ground on November 5, 1972, opened on April 3, 1976. In 1994, the Cedars-Sinai Health System was established, comprising the Cedars-Sinai Medical Care Foundation, the Burns and Allen Research Institute and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; the Burns and Allen Research Institute, named for George Burns and his wife, Gracie Allen, is located inside the Barbara and Marvin Davis Research Building. Opened in 1996, it houses biomedical research aimed at discovering genetic and immunological factors that trigger disease.
In 1994, the original building was demolished. In 2006, Cedars-Sinai added the Saperstein Critical Care Tower with 150 ICU beds. In 2008, Cedars-Sinai served 54,947 inpatients and 350,405 outpatients, there were 77,964 visits to the emergency room. Cedars-Sinai received high rankings in 11 of the 16 specialties, ranking in the top 10 for digestive disorders and in the top 25 for five other specialties as listed below. In 2013, Cedars-Sinai opened its 800,000-square-foot Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion, which consists of eight stories of program space located over a six-story parking structure, on the eastern edge of its campus at the corner of San Vicente Boulevard and Gracie Allen Drive. Designed by architectural firm HOK, the Pavilion brings patient care and translational research together in one site; the Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion houses the Cedars-Sinai's neurosciences programs, the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute and Regenerative Medicine Institute laboratories, as well as outpatient surgery suites, an imaging area and an education center.
In 2018, famous Marvel-creator Stan Lee dies at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the nationwide U. S. News Best Hospitals 2013–14 report: Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the 2009 Los Angeles area residents' "Most Preferred Hospital for All Health Needs" ranking: In 2013, Cedars-Sinai Hospital was ranked
The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1590 and 1592. The play begins with a framing device referred to as the induction, in which a mischievous nobleman tricks a drunken tinker named Christopher Sly into believing he is a nobleman himself; the nobleman has the play performed for Sly's diversion. The main plot depicts the courtship of the headstrong, obdurate shrew. Katherina is an unwilling participant in the relationship; the subplot features a competition between the suitors of Katherina's younger sister, seen as the "ideal" woman. The question of whether the play is misogynistic or not has become the subject of considerable controversy among modern scholars and readers; the Taming of the Shrew has been adapted numerous times for stage, opera and musical theatre. The 1999 high school comedy film 10 Things I Hate About You is loosely based on the play. Prior to the first act, an induction frames the play as a "kind of history" played in front of a befuddled drunkard named Christopher Sly, tricked into believing that he is a lord.
The play is performed in order to distract Sly from his "wife,", Bartholomew, a servant, dressed as a woman. In the play performed for Sly, the "shrew" is Katherina, the eldest daughter of Baptista Minola, a lord in Padua. Numerous men, including Gremio and Tranio, deem Katherina an unworthy option for marriage because of her notorious assertiveness and willfulness. On the other hand, men such as Hortensio and Gremio are eager to marry her younger sister Bianca. However, Baptista has sworn; the plot thickens when Lucentio, who has come to Padua to attend university, falls in love with Bianca. Overhearing Baptista say that he is on the lookout for tutors for his daughters, Lucentio devises a plan in which he disguises himself as a Latin tutor named Cambio in order to woo Bianca behind Baptista's back and meanwhile has his servant Tranio pretend to be him. In the meantime, accompanied by his servant Grumio, arrives in Padua from Verona, he explains to Hortensio, an old friend of his, that since his father's death he has set out to enjoy life and wed.
Hearing this, Hortensio recruits Petruchio as a suitor for Katherina. He has Petruchio present Baptista a music tutor named Litio, thus and Hortensio, attempt to woo Bianca while pretending to be the tutors Cambio and Litio. To counter Katherina's shrewish nature, Petruchio pretends that any harsh things she says or does are kind and gentle. Katherina agrees to marry Petruchio after seeing that he is the only man willing to counter her quick remarks. After the wedding, Petruchio takes Katherina to his home against her will. Once they are gone and Tranio formally bid for Bianca, with Tranio outbidding Gremio. However, in his zeal to win he promises much more than Lucentio possesses; when Baptista determines that once Lucentio's father confirms the dowry and Tranio can marry, Tranio decides that they will need someone to pretend to be Vincentio, Lucentio's father. Meanwhile, Tranio persuades Hortensio that Bianca is not worthy of his attentions, thus removing Lucentio's remaining rival. In Verona, Petruchio begins the "taming" of his new wife.
She is refused clothing because nothing -- according to Petruchio -- is good enough for her. He disagrees with everything that she says, forcing her to agree with everything that he says, no matter how absurd. Along the way, they meet Vincentio, on his way to Padua, Katherina agrees with Petruchio when he declares that Vincentio is a woman and apologises to Vincentio when Petruchio tells her that he is a man. Back in Padua and Tranio convince a passing pedant to pretend to be Vincentio and confirm the dowry for Bianca; the man does so, Baptista is happy for Bianca to wed Lucentio. Bianca, aware of the deception secretly elopes with the real Lucentio to get married. However, when Vincentio reaches Padua, he encounters the pedant. Tranio appears, the pedant acknowledges him to be his son Lucentio. In all the confusion, the real Vincentio is set to be arrested, when the real Lucentio appears with his newly betrothed Bianca, revealing all to a bewildered Baptista and Vincentio. Lucentio explains everything, all is forgiven by the two fathers.
Meanwhile, Hortensio has married a rich widow. In the final scene of the play there are three newly married couples; because of the general opinion that Petruchio is married to a shrew, a good-natured quarrel breaks out amongst the three men about wh
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia