Horace Mann School
Horace Mann School is an independent college preparatory school in the Bronx, founded in 1887. Horace Mann is a member of the Ivy Preparatory School League, educating students from the New York metropolitan area from nursery school to the twelfth grade; the Upper and Lower Divisions are located in Riverdale, a neighborhood of the Bronx, while the Nursery School is located in Manhattan. The John Dorr Nature Laboratory, a 275 acres campus in Washington Depot, serves as the school's outdoor and community education center. Tuition for the 2014–15 school year was $43,300 from nursery through twelfth grade, making it the second most expensive private school in New York City. Tuition for the 2018-2019 school year from pre-kindergarten through grade twelve is $51,000. Niche, a website where students review their own schools, places Horace Mann at #4 in its list of 2018 Best Private High Schools in New York. Horace Mann's motto is Magna est veritas et prævalet, a Latin phrase meaning "Great is the truth, it prevails".
The phrase comes from the King James version of the Old Testament, whose contemporary translation is "Magna est veritas et prævalebit," or will prevail. The school was founded in 1887 by Nicholas Murray Butler as a co-educational experimental and developmental unit of Teachers College at Columbia University, its first location was 9 University Place in Manhattan's Greenwich Village. The school moved in 1901 to 120th Street in Morningside Heights. Horace Mann became independent of the Columbia University and Teachers College in 1940; the Teachers College therefore created the Lincoln School, located on 110th Street, across the street from Central Park, to continue its experiments in teaching. The school split into separate all-male and all-female schools and in 1914, the Boys' School moved to 246th Street in Riverdale and during the 1940s it severed formal ties with Columbia University and became Horace Mann School; the Horace Mann School for Girls remained at Teachers College, merged with the Lincoln School in 1940, closed in 1946.
The New York School for Nursery Years became the Horace Mann School for Nursery Years in 1968, was co-ed. In 1972, Horace Mann merged with the Barnard School for Boys, next door in Riverdale, to form the Horace Mann-Barnard Lower School for kindergarten through grade six, located on the former Barnard School campus. At that point, only the lower school was mixed. In 1975, the Horace Mann School returned to its roots as a co-educational learning environment and began admitting girls to the Upper School; the Class of 1976 is Horace Mann School's last all-male class. In 1999, the sixth grade moved from the Horace Mann-Barnard campus to the main 246th Street campus and formed a distinct Middle Division along with the seventh and eighth grades; the school is a private "nonprofit organization under the Education Law of New York State and holds a charter from the New York State Board of Regents a 501 3 organization authorized by the Internal Revenue Service". There are four divisions of Horace Mann, all co-educational: a Nursery Division located on 90th Street in Manhattan, a Lower Division on the Horace Mann campus on Tibbett Avenue in Riverdale, a Middle Division on the 246th Street campus in Riverdale, an Upper Division on the 246th Street campus.
There is the John Dorr Nature Laboratory, located on 275 acres of land in Washington Depot, used for extended field trips for classes of students starting in second grade and an orientation program for new students entering the Middle or Upper Divisions. The Dorr facility was renovated and is LEED-certified by the U. S. Green Building Council. Current tuition for students in the Lower Division through the Upper Division is $40,000 a year. Financial aid at the school is based on need. For the 2012–2013 academic year, 16.4% of the students received more than $8.3 million in aid. Each division of the school has its own Division Head; the Middle and Upper Divisions have separate student government bodies. The entire school is overseen by a Head of School; the ninth and current Head is Thomas M. Kelly, who served as Superintendent of Schools in Valhalla, New York; the current Horace Mann Nursery Division Head is Marcia Levy, who replaced Patricia Zuroski when she was appointed to the position of Director of Diversity Initiatives.
The current Lower Division Head is Dina Neuwirth, replacing Wendy Steinthal, who departed in June 2016. The current Middle Division Head is Thomas M. Kelly, replacing Robin Ann Ingram who departed in 2018; the current Upper Division head is Dr. Jessica Levenstein, who replaced Dr. David Schiller in 2016. Glenn Sherratt is the current Director of the John Dorr Nature Laboratory; the school offers twenty Advanced Placement courses, twenty-six Honors courses, six foreign languages. Its 260 faculty members hold 27 doctoral degrees, it is, removing APs for the 2018 - 2019 school year because the school feels that their own courses are more challenging than ones offered by AP. Students in the Upper Division are required to study English, world history, United States history, chemistry, or physics or both, geometry and trigonometry, meet various requirements in the arts, computer science and counseling, physical education. Students must go beyond these basic requirements in at least some, if not subjects.
They are required to take at least through the levels-three courses of either Chinese, Italian, J
Organisation of the League of Nations
The League of Nations was established with three main constitutional organs: the Assembly. The two essential wings of the League were the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Labour Organization; the relations between the Assembly and the Council were not explicitly defined, their competencies, with a few exceptions, were much the same. Each body might deal with any matter within the sphere of competence of the League or affecting the peace in the world. Particular questions or tasks might be referred either to the Assembly. Reference might be passed on from one body to another; the Permanent Secretariat, established at the seat of the League at Geneva, comprised a body of experts in various spheres under the direction of the General Secretary. The principal Sections of the Secretariat were: Political; each Section was responsible for all official secretarial work related to its particular subject and prepared and organized all meetings and conferences held in that connection.
The staff of the League's secretariat was responsible for preparing the agenda for the Council and Assembly and publishing reports of the meetings and other routine matters acting as the civil service for the League. The secretariat was considered to be too small to handle all of the League's administrative affairs. For example, the total number of officials classed as members of the Secretariat was 75 in September 1924; the total staff, including all the clerical services, comprised about 400 persons. In general, the League documents may be classified into the following categories: document on public sale, documents not on public sale, classified, e.g. confidential and secret. The specific feature of the documents emanating from the League of Nations was their classification according to the persons they were addressed to and not according to their subjects; the Assembly consisted of representatives of all Members of the League. Each state was allowed up to one vote; the Assembly had its sessions at Geneva and met on yearly basis on the first Monday of September according to the Rules of Procedure of the Assembly, adopted at Its Eleventh Meeting, 30 November 1920.
A special session of the Assembly might be summoned at the request of a Member, provided a majority of the Members concurred. The special functions of the Assembly included the admission of new Members, the periodical election on non-permanent Members of the Council, the election with the Council of the judges of the Permanent Court, the control of the budget. In practice the Assembly had become the general directing force of League activities; the Plenary Meetings of the First Assembly were held from 15 November to 18 December in Geneva, Switzerland. At the opening session, there were 41 states. Six states were admitted during the meetings and were represented during the session. In total, thirty one plenary meeting were held; the principal questions during the first session were: organization of the Secretariat, establishment of a new Organization to deal with Health question, new organism to deal with Communication and transit, a new Economic and Financial Organization, admission of new Member states, relations between the Council and the Assembly, nomination of the non-permanent Members of the Council, establishment of the Permanent Court of International Justice, the first and second budgets of the League, conflict between Poland and Soviet Russia, repatriation of prisoners of war, etc.
HE M. Paul Hymans, Belgium M. Giuseppe Motta, Switzerland The Assembly at its Fifth Plenary Meeting elected the six Vice-Presidents. Thirty nine states have taken part in the ballot, so the required majority was 20 votes; the sixth Vice-President was elected at a second ballot with 22 votes. The Rt Hon Arthur Balfour, British Empire; the Hon. Sir Eric Drummond The General Committee of the Assembly was constituted of the President and the 12 Vice-Presidents with Sir Eric Drummond, the Secretary-General. Constitutional questions Chairman: The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour Technical Organisations Chairman: H. E. M Tittoni Permanent Court of International Justice Chairman: H. E. M. Léon Bourgeois Organisation of the Secretariat and Finances of the League Chairman: H. E. M. Quinones de Léon Admission of New Members into the League Chairman: H. E. M. Huneeus Gana Mandates Questions and the Economic Weapon Chairman: H. E. M. Branting The League Council acted as a type of executive body directing the Assembly's business.
The Council began with four permanent members and four non-permanent members which were elected by the Assembly for a three-year period. The first four non-permanent members were Belgium, Brazil and Spain; the United States was meant to be the fifth permanent member, but the US Senate voted on 19 March 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, thus preventing American participation in the League. The first session of the Council was held in Paris at the Ministry of foreign Affairs on 16 January 1920; the following members of the League were represented: Belgium, The British empire, Greece, Italy and Spain. The French re
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
Anna Pauline "Pauli" Murray was an American civil rights activist who became a lawyer, a women's rights activist, Episcopal priest, author. Drawn to the ministry, in 1977 Murray was the first African-American woman to be ordained as an Episcopal priest, in the first year that any women were ordained by that church. Born in Baltimore, Murray was orphaned when young, she was raised by her maternal grandparents in Durham, North Carolina. At the age of 16, she moved to New York City to attend Hunter College, graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English in 1933. In 1940, Murray sat in the whites-only section of a Virginia bus with a friend, they were arrested for violating state segregation laws; this incident, her subsequent involvement with the socialist Workers' Defense League, led her to pursue her career goal of working as a civil rights lawyer. She enrolled in the law school at Howard University, where she became aware of sexism, she called it "Jane Crow", alluding to the Jim Crow laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Murray graduated first in her class, but she was denied the chance to do post-graduate work at Harvard University because of her gender. She earned a master's degree in law at University of California, in 1965 she became the first African American to receive a Doctor of Juridical Science degree from Yale Law School; as a lawyer, Murray argued for women's rights. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Chief Counsel Thurgood Marshall called Murray's 1950 book, States' Laws on Race and Color, the "bible" of the civil rights movement. Murray served on the 1961–1963 Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, being appointed by John F. Kennedy. In 1966 she was a co-founder of the National Organization for Women. Ruth Bader Ginsburg named Murray as a coauthor of a brief on the 1971 case Reed v. Reed, in recognition of her pioneering work on gender discrimination; this case articulated the "failure of the courts to recognize sex discrimination for what it is and its common features with other types of arbitrary discrimination."
Murray held faculty or administrative positions at the Ghana School of Law, Benedict College, Brandeis University. In 1973, Murray left academia for activities associated with the Episcopal Church, she became an ordained priest among the first generation of women priests. Murray struggled in her adult life with issues related to her sexual and gender identity, describing herself as having an "inverted sex instinct", she had a annulled marriage to a man and several deep relationships with women. In her younger years, she had passed as a teenage boy. A 2017 biographer retroactively classified her as transgender. In addition to her legal and advocacy work, Murray published two well-reviewed autobiographies and a volume of poetry, her volume of poetry, Dark Testament, was republished in 2018. Murray was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 20, 1910. Both sides of her family were of mixed racial origins, with ancestors including black slaves, white slave owners, Native Americans and free black people.
The varied features and complexions of her family were described as a "United Nations in miniature". Murray's parents: schoolteacher William H. Murray and nurse Agnes Murray, both identified as black. In 1914, Agnes died of a cerebral hemorrhage. After Murray's father began to have emotional problems as a result of typhoid fever, relatives took custody of his children. William was committed to a psychiatric institution, where he received no meaningful treatment. Three-year-old Pauli Murray was sent to North Carolina, to live with her mother's family. There, she was raised by her maternal aunts, Sarah Fitzgerald and Pauline Fitzgerald Dame, as well as her maternal grandparents and Cornelia Fitzgerald, she attended St. Titus Episcopal Church with her mother's family, as had her mother before Murray was born. In 1923, her father, committed to the Hospital for the Negro Insane of Maryland, died as a result of being beaten by a white guard. Murray had wanted to rescue him when she was 13 when he died.
Murray lived in Durham until the age of 16, at which point she moved to New York to finish high school and prepare for college. There she lived with the family of her cousin Maude; the family was passing for white in their white neighborhood. Murray's presence discomfited Maude's neighbors, however, as Murray was more visibly of partial African descent, she graduated with her second high school diploma and honors in 1927, enrolled at Hunter College for two years. Murray married William Roy Wynn, known as Billy Wynn, in secret on November 30, 1930, but soon came to regret the decision; the historian Rosalind Rosenberg wrote: Their honeymoon weekend, spent in a "cheap West Side Hotel", was a disaster, an experience that she attributed to their youth and poverty. The truth was more complicated; as Pauli explained in notes to herself a few years she had felt repelled by the act of sexual intercourse. Part of her had wanted to be a "normal" woman. "Why is it when men try to make love to me, something in me fights?" she wondered.
Murray and Wynn only spent a few months together before both leaving town. They did not see one another again before Murray contacted him to have their marriage annulled on March 26, 1949. Inspired to attend Columbia University by a favorite teacher, Murray was turned away because the university did not admit women, she did not have the funds to attend its partner women's school of Barnard College. Instead she attended Hunter College, a free city university, where she was
Kathleen Doyle Bates is an American actress and director. Bates began her career on the stage, was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Play in 1983 for her performance in'night, Mother. For her portrayal of Annie Wilkes in the 1990 film Misery, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, she followed this with roles in Fried Green Tomatoes, Dolores Claiborne, Titanic. She received her second and third Academy Award nominations for Primary Colors and About Schmidt, in the category of Best Supporting Actress, she is the recipient of two Golden Globes, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, three American Comedy Awards, two BAFTA nominations. Bates' television work has resulted in 14 Emmy Award nominations, including two for her role as Harriet "Harry" Korn on the NBC series Harry's Law, a win for her portrayal of Delphine LaLaurie on the third season of American Horror Story. In 2012, she received the Emmy for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for her appearance on the ninth season of Two and a Half Men.
She received Emmy, Golden Globe and SAG Award nominations for her portrayal of Miss Hannigan in the 1999 television adaptation of Annie. Her directing credits include several episodes of the HBO series Six Feet Under. Bates was born in Memphis, the youngest of three daughters of mechanical engineer Langdon Doyle Bates and homemaker Bertye Kathleen, her paternal grandfather was author Finis L. Bates, her great-great-grandfather was an Irish emigrant to New Orleans, who served as President Andrew Jackson's doctor. She graduated early from White Station High School and from Southern Methodist University, where she majored in Theatre and became a member of the Alpha Delta Pi sorority, she moved to New York City in 1970 to pursue an acting career. Bates' history of Broadway appearances includes Lanford Wilson's Fifth of July and the Robert Altman-directed Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean with Karen Black and Cher. Bates originated the role of Lenny in the first production of Crimes of the Heart at the Actors Theatre of Louisville in 1979.
She was nominated for a Tony Award in 1983 for her stage role in the Pulitzer Prize-winning play'night, Mother with Anne Pitoniak. The stage production ran for more than a year. One of her other successful New York stage productions was, Off Broadway, in Terrence McNally's Frankie and Johnny in the Clair de Lune which ran 533 performances and for which she won an Obie Award for Best Actress in 1988. McNally wrote the play for Bates and F. Murray Abraham, who had to drop out and was replaced by Kenneth Welsh; the play was filmed as Frankie and Johnny, starring Al Pacino and Michelle Pfeiffer. She succeeded Amy Irving in the Off-Broadway production of The Road to Mecca in 1988. Bates' first feature film role was in the 1971 Miloš Forman comedy Taking Off, in which she sings an original song "Even Horses Had Wings.” Bates' next feature was the Dustin Hoffman film Straight Time. In 1977, Bates made her Soap opera debut as Phyllis on NBC's soap opera The Doctors. From 1983 to 1984, she played prison inmate Belle Bodelle on All My Children and from 1984 to 1985, she played Evelyn Maddox on One Life to Live.
In 1990 she appeared again with Hoffman in Warren Beatty's Dick Tracy as a stenographer. She appeared in films like The Morning After and Summer Heat, while guest-starring on television's L. A. Law, she landed the role of obsessed fan Annie Wilkes, who holds her favorite author captive, in the 1990 thriller film Misery, based on the Stephen King novel. Bates received her first Academy Award nomination for that role. Soon after, she starred with Jessica Tandy in the acclaimed 1991 movie Fried Green Tomatoes, based on the novel by comedic actress Fannie Flagg. In 1995 Bates played the title character in Dolores Claiborne, a film adaptation of another Stephen King novel, although she was not nominated for an Oscar. In 1997 Bates played Molly Brown in James Cameron's Titanic. Based on the 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic, the film went on to earn more than $1.8 billion in box-office receipts worldwide. Bates excelled in her role as the acid-tongued "dustbuster" political advisor Libby Holden in the 1998 drama film Primary Colors, adapted from the book in which political journalist Joe Klein novelized his experiences on the Presidential campaign trail in 1991–1992.
For this performance, she received her second Academy Award nomination, for Best Supporting Actress. In 2002 she received her third nomination, for About Schmidt. More she and Terry Bradshaw played the parents of Matthew McConaughey's character in the 2006 film Failure to Launch. Bates was featured in an uncredited cameo in the miniseries of Stephen King's The Stand. Bates has been nominated for an Emmy Award twelve times, she was first nominated for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie, for her performance as Jay Leno's manager Helen Kushnick in HBO's The Late Shift, has been nominated in the same category as Miss Hannigan in Disney's remake of Annie, for the HBO Franklin Roosevelt biopic Warm Springs. She was nominated for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Movie for Lifetime Television's Ambulance Girl, which she directed, received a Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or Movie nomination for Alice, she appeared in ten episodes of the HBO cable television series Six Feet Under for which she received an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series, as Bettina, in 2003.
She was nomi
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American political figure and activist. She served as the First Lady of the United States from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945 during her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office, making her the longest serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952. President Harry S. Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements. Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American Roosevelt and Livingston families and a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, she had an unhappy childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended Allenwood Academy in London and was influenced by its headmistress Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U. S. she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in 1905. The Roosevelts' marriage was complicated from the beginning by Franklin's controlling mother and after Eleanor discovered her husband's affair with Lucy Mercer in 1918, she resolved to seek fulfillment in leading a public life of her own.
She persuaded Franklin to stay in politics after he was stricken with a paralytic illness in 1921, which cost him the normal use of his legs, began giving speeches and appearing at campaign events in his place. Following Franklin's election as Governor of New York in 1928, throughout the remainder of Franklin's public career in government, Roosevelt made public appearances on his behalf, as First Lady, while her husband served as President, she reshaped and redefined the role of First Lady. Though respected in her years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness on civil rights for African-Americans, she was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, write a monthly magazine column, host a weekly radio show, speak at a national party convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband's policies, she launched an experimental community at Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners widely regarded as a failure.
She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the civil rights of African Americans and Asian Americans, the rights of World War II refugees. Following her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life, she became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights and oversaw the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, she chaired the John F. Kennedy administration's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as "one of the most esteemed women in the world". In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 at 56 West 37th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to socialites Anna Rebecca Hall and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt. From an early age she preferred to be called by Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions Valentine Gill "Vallie" Hall III and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her "Granny". Anna was somewhat ashamed of her daughter's plainness. Roosevelt had two younger brothers: Hall, she had a half brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her father's affair with Katy Mann, a servant employed by the family. Roosevelt was born into a world of immense wealth and privilege, as her family was part of New York high society called the "swells", her mother died from diphtheria on December 7, 1892, Elliott Jr. died of the same disease the following May. Her father, an alcoholic confined to a sanitarium, died on August 14, 1894, after jumping from a window during a fit of delirium tremens, he died from a seizure. Roosevelt's childhood losses left her prone to depression throughout her life, her brother Hall suffered from alcoholism. Before her father died, he implored her to act as a mother towards Hall, it was a request she made good upon for the rest of Hall's life.
Roosevelt doted on Hall, when he enrolled at Groton School in 1907, she accompanied him as a chaperone. While he was attending Groton, she wrote him daily, but always felt a touch of guilt that Hall had not had a fuller childhood, she took pleasure in Hall's brilliant performance at school, was proud of his many academic accomplishments, which included a master's degree in engineering from Harvard. After the deaths of her parents, Roosevelt was raised in the household of her maternal grandmother, Mary Livingston Ludlow of the Livingston family in Tivoli, New York; as a child, she was insecure and starved for affection, considered herself the "ugly duckling". However, Roosevelt wrote at 14 that one's prospects in life were not dependent on physical beauty: "no matter how plain a woman may be if truth and loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her."Roosevelt was tutored and with the encouragement of her aunt Anna "Bamie" Roosevelt, she was sent to Allenswood Academy at the age of 15, a private finishing school in Wimbledon, outside London, where she was educated from 1899 to 1902.
The headmistress, Marie Souvestre, was a noted educator who sought to cultivate in