A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Calaveras County, California
Calaveras County the County of Calaveras, is a county in the northern portion of the U. S. state, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,171; the county seat is San Andreas. Angels Camp is the only incorporated city in the county. Calaveras is the Spanish word for skulls. Calaveras County is in both the Gold High Sierra regions of California. Calaveras Big Trees State Park, a preserve of Giant Sequoia trees, is in the county several miles east of the town of Arnold on State Highway 4. Credit for the discovery of giant sequoias here is given to Augustus T. Dowd, a trapper who made the discovery in 1852 while tracking a bear; when the bark from the "Discovery Tree" was removed and taken on a tour around the world, the trees became a worldwide sensation and one of the county's first tourist attractions. The uncommon gold telluride mineral calaverite was discovered in the county in 1861 and is named for it. Mark Twain set "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", in the county.
The county hosts an annual fair and Jumping Frog Jubilee, featuring a frog-jumping contest, to celebrate the association with Twain's story. Each year's winner is commemorated with a brass plaque mounted in the sidewalk of downtown Historic Angels Camp and this feature is known as the Frog Hop of Fame. In 2015, Calaveras County had the highest rate of suicide deaths in the United States, with 49.1 suicides per 100,000 people. The Spanish word calaveras means "skulls." The county takes its name from the Calaveras River. He believed they had either died of famine or been killed in tribal conflicts over hunting and fishing grounds. A more cause was a European epidemic disease, acquired from interacting with other tribes near the Missions on the coast; the Stanislaus River, which forms the southern boundary, is named for Estanislao, a Lakisamni Yokut who escaped from Mission San Jose in the late 1830s. He is reported to have raised a small group of men with crude weapons, hiding in the foothills when the Mexicans attacked.
The natives were decimated by Mexican gunfire. In 1836, John Marsh, Jose Noriega, a party of men, went exploring in Northern California, they made camp along a river bed in the evening, when they woke up the next morning, discovered that they had camped in the midst of a great quantity of skulls and bones. They gave the river the appropriate name: Calaveras; the writer Mark Twain spent 88 seminal days in the county, during which time he heard the story that became The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County in the Angel Hotel in 1865. This short story put Calaveras County on the map. Calaveras County was one of the original counties of the state of California, created in 1850 at the time of admission to the Union. Parts of the county's territory were reassigned to Amador County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864; the county's geography includes beautiful landmarks, rolling hills, giant valleys. It is known for its friendly communities, businesses such as agriculture management and construction engineering.
It has numerous caverns, such as Mercer Caverns, California Cavern and Moaning Cavern that are national destinations for tourists from across the country. Other attractions include a thriving wine making industry, including the largest of the Calaveras wineries: Ironstone Vineyards, mountain sports recreation and the performing arts. Gold prospecting in Calaveras County began in late 1848 with a camp founded by Henry and George Angel; the brothers first arrived in California as soldiers, serving under Colonel Frémont during the Mexican War. After the war's end, the brothers found themselves in Monterey where they heard of the fabulous finds in the gold fields, they set out for the mines. The company parted ways upon reaching what became known as Angels Creek; the brothers soon opened a trading post. By the end of the year, over one hundred tents were scattered about the creek and the settlement was referred to as Angels Trading Post shortened to Angels Camp. Placer mining soon gave out around the camp, but an extensive gold-bearing quartz vein of the area's Mother Lode was located by the Winter brothers during the mid-1850s, this brought in the foundations of a permanent town.
This vein followed Main Street from Angels Creek up to the southern edge of Altaville. Five major mines worked the rich vein: the Stickle, the Utica, the Lightner, the Angels, the Sultana; these mines reached their peaks during the 1880s and 1890s, when over 200 stamp mills crushed quartz ore brought in by hand cars on track from the mines. By the time hard rock mining was done, the five mines had producing a total of over $20 million in gold; the telluride mineral calaverite was first recognized and obtained in 1861 from the Stanislaus Mine, Carson Hill, Angels Camp, in Calaveras Co. California, it was named for the County of origin by chemist and mineralogist Frederick Augustus Genth who differentiated it from the known gold telluride mineral sylvanite, formally reported it as a new gold mineral in 1868. George J. Clarke Alexander Hunter According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,037 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry report lists the county's area in acres as 663,000, although the exact figure would
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
California's 4th congressional district
California's 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. Tom McClintock, a Republican, has represented the district since January 2009; the 4th district encompasses the Sierra from Truckee to the Sequoia National Forest. It consists of Alpine, Calaveras, El Dorado and Tuolumne counties plus portions of Fresno, Madera and Placer counties. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, the 4th district encompassed the northeast corner of the state, stretching from the eastern suburbs of Sacramento north to the Oregon border, it consisted of El Dorado, Modoc, Placer and Sierra counties plus portions of Butte and Sacramento counties. Under state legislation signed by Gov. Jerry Brown, California will hold its 2020 presidential primary in March rather than early June, as it has been since 2008. Intended to increase the populace state's influence in the primary process, with this shift California will now contribute 37 percent of the elected delegates on Super Tuesday, a factor which will have broad implications for the 2020 election cycle.
In December of 2018, Democrat Sean Frame filed a statement of candidacy with the Federal Election Commission, announcing his intention to seek the CA CD 4 seat in 2020. As of March 3rd, 2019 Frame remained the only challenger to incumbent Rep. Tom McClintock. George W. Bush won the district in 2004 with 61.3% of the vote. John McCain carried the district in 2008 with 53.98% of the vote while Barack Obama received 43.83%. As of 2006, Republicans had 48 percent of voter registrations, Democrats had 30 percent, Libertarians had 5 percent. A Democratic congressional candidate nearly won the district in 2008, losing by only half a percentage point and less than 1,600 votes, indicating that the district was much more competitive than it appeared to be, but in the more recent 2012 and 2014 elections the Republican candidate won over 60% of the vote indicating the District remains solidly Republican. New district boundaries for the 2012 elections shifted the population center to the east. Registered Democrats and Independents/Decline to State voters in the new district area outnumber registered Republicans by 12%.
However Republicans, Independents/Decline to State and small third parties outnumber Democrats well over a 2 to 1 ratio. There are 117,300 Democrats and 97,200 other. While 2018 saw 7 of California's Republican held House seats fall to Democrats, Republican Tom McClintock held his district by more than 8% over centrist Democrat Jessica Morse. In 2018, six Democratic candidates filed statements of candidacy with the Federal Election Commission, they were, in alphabetical order by last name: Regina Bateson. Martin and Wilcox dropped out with Wilcox endorsing Morse in February. Retired Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Charlie Brown, the Democratic nominee for this seat in 2006 and 2008, was "seriously considering" running in 2018, but decided in June 2017 against a third campaign. In January 2018, Brown endorsed Morse for the nomination. Bob Derlet, the Democratic nominee in 2016 endorsed Morse in January. On the Republican side, McClintock has one challenger, Mitchell Kendrick White, who filed with the FEC in January.
In February, the California Democratic Party endorsed Jessica Morse for the Democratic Nomination. However, the California jungle primary system means that only the two candidates with the most votes on June 5, regardless of party, will go on to the general election on November 6. Both Republicans and four Democrats appeared on the jungle primary ballot. Morse won the Democratic Primary in June of 2018, but in November, McClintock held the district with an 8+ advantage in November. In December of 2018, businessman and activist Sean Frame announced he would be a Democratic candidate in the 2020 race for California's 4th congressional district; as of April 2015, there are two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from California's 4th congressional district that are living. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 4th congressional district California Citizens Redistricting Commission: wedrawthelines.ca.gov 2012 final district maps
Murphys Murphys New Diggings Murphy's Camp, is an unincorporated village located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains in Calaveras County, United States. A former gold mining settlement, the main street today is lined with over two dozen wine tasting rooms and surrounded by local vineyards; the town is popular among tourists and transplants from the Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay Area. Murphys is known by its colloquial nickname as "Queen of the Sierra" and is one of the more affluent communities in Calaveras County. Popular attractions nearby include Bear Valley Ski Resort; the world's largest crystalline gold leaf is displayed just south of town at Ironstone Vineyards. The town hosts an annual Irish Days parade and street fair every March on Main Street, with some years seeing over 35,000 people in attendance; the population was 2,213 at the 2010 census, up from 2,061 at the 2000 census. John and Daniel Murphy were part of the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party, the first immigrant party to bring wagons across the Sierra Nevada to Sutter's Fort in 1844.
They earned a living as merchants, but like many others, began prospecting when the California Gold Rush began. They first started in Vallecito, known as "Murphys Old Diggings," before moving to another location in 1848 which became "Murphys New Diggings," "Murphy's Camp," and just "Murphys" in 1935; the placer mining in this location was wildly successful. Miners were limited to claims of 8 square feet and yet many were still able to become wealthy; the Murphy brothers themselves, made far more money as merchants than as miners. In fact, John was so successful that he left town at the end of 1849 and never returned, having amassed a personal fortune of nearly $2 million. $20 million in gold was discovered in Murphys and the surrounding area. Two of the richest diggings were named Owlburrow Flat. Murphys was a popular destination as a tourist resort, as the nearby giant sequoia trees in what is now Calaveras Big Trees State Park were a major draw, they continue to be so today. After visiting, John Muir wrote in his book, The Mountains of California: "MURPHY'S CAMP is a curious old mining-town in Calaveras County, at an elevation of 2,400 feet above the sea, situated like a nest in the center of a rough, gravelly region, rich in gold.
Granites, lavas, iron ores, quartz veins, auriferous gravels, remnants of dead fire-rivers and dead water-rivers are developed here side by side within a radius of a few miles, placed invitingly open before the student like a book, while the people and the region beyond the camp furnish mines of study of never-failing interest and variety." Like many other mining towns, fire was its bane and the town was destroyed three times by flames, in 1859, 1874, 1893. After the second major fire, there was little gold left to mine, so the town was never rebuilt to its boomtown condition. However, Murphys continued to thrive as a merchant center, supplying many of the silver mines in Nevada with provisions via Ebbetts Pass; the town is registered as California Historical Landmark #275. A "Hall of Comparative Ovations" built by a chapter of the clampers still stands in Murphys; the picture below labeled "Murphys' Famous Residents Wall" is a picture of the Wall of Comparative Ovations at the Old Timers Museum on Main Street.
The plaques on the wall are maintained by members of E Clampus Vitus. The first post office was established as Murphy's in 1851; the name was changed to Murphy in 1894, to Murphys in 1935. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.3 square miles, 99.98% of it land. This region experiences warm to hot, dry summers, with average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F, many days above 100 °F during summer months. Winters are mild, with occasional light snowfall in the early months. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Murphys has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Murphys had a population of 2,213. The population density was 214.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Murphys was 2,045 White, 9 African American, 17 Native American, 7 Asian, 10 Pacific Islander, 82 from other races, 43 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 223 persons; the Census reported that 2,213 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 1,053 households, out of which 219 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 505 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 81 had a female householder with no husband present, 37 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 41 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 7 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 378 households were made up of individuals and 226 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10. There were 623 families; the population was spread out with 401 people under the age of 18, 109 people aged 18 to 24, 327 people aged 25 to 44, 726 people aged 45 to 64, 650 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. There were 1,256 housing units at an average density of 121.7 per square mile, of which
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a