Red Windsor (Cheese)
Red Windsor is a pale cream, English cheddar cheese, made using pasteurised cow's milk marbled with a wine a Bordeaux wine or a blend of port wine and brandy
Dorset is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the unitary authority areas of Bournemouth and Poole and Dorset. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, Hampshire to the east; the county town is Dorchester, in the south. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974 the county's border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch. Around half of the population lives in the South East Dorset conurbation, while the rest of the county is rural with a low population density; the county has a long history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorset's indigenous Celtic tribe, during the early Middle Ages, the Saxons settled the area and made Dorset a shire in the 7th century; the first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the eighth century, the Black Death entered England at Melcombe Regis in 1348.
Dorset has seen much civil unrest: in the English Civil War, an uprising of vigilantes was crushed by Oliver Cromwell's forces in a pitched battle near Shaftesbury. During the Second World War, Dorset was involved in the preparations for the invasion of Normandy, the large harbours of Portland and Poole were two of the main embarkation points; the former was the sailing venue in the 2012 Summer Olympics, both have clubs or hire venues for sailing, Cornish pilot gig rowing, sea kayaking and powerboating. Dorset has a varied landscape featuring broad elevated chalk downs, steep limestone ridges and low-lying clay valleys. Over half the county is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Three-quarters of its coastline is part of the Jurassic Coast Natural World Heritage Site due to its geological and palaeontologic significance, it features notable landforms such as Lulworth Cove, the Isle of Portland, Chesil Beach and Durdle Door. Agriculture was traditionally the major industry of Dorset but is now in decline and tourism has become important to the economy.
There are no motorways in Dorset but a network of A roads cross the county and two railway main lines connect to London. Dorset has ports at Poole and Portland, an international airport; the county has a variety of museums and festivals, is host to the Great Dorset Steam Fair, one of the biggest events of its kind in Europe. It is the birthplace of Thomas Hardy, who used the county as the principal setting of his novels, William Barnes, whose poetry celebrates the ancient Dorset dialect. Dorset derives its name from the county town of Dorchester; the Romans established the settlement in the 1st century and named it Durnovaria, a Latinised version of a Common Brittonic word meaning "place with fist-sized pebbles". The Saxons named the town Dornwaraceaster and Dornsæte came into use as the name for the inhabitants of the area from "Dorn"—a reduced form of Dornwaraceaster—and the Old English word "sæte" meaning people, it is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in AD 845 and in the 10th century the county's archaic name, "Dorseteschyre", was first recorded.
The first human visitors to Dorset were Mesolithic hunters, from around 8000 BC. The first permanent Neolithic settlers appeared around 3000 BC and were responsible for the creation of the Dorset Cursus, a 10.5-kilometre monument for ritual or ceremonial purposes. From 2800 BC onwards Bronze Age farmers cleared Dorset's woodlands for agricultural use and Dorset's high chalk hills provided a location for numerous round barrows. During the Iron Age, the British tribe known as the Durotriges established a series of hill forts across the county—most notably Maiden Castle, one of the largest in Europe; the Romans arrived in Dorset during their conquest of Britain in AD 43. Maiden Castle was captured by a Roman legion under the command of Vespasian, the Roman settlement of Durnovaria was established nearby. Bokerley Dyke, a large defensive ditch built by the county's post-Roman inhabitants near the border with modern-day Hampshire, delayed the advance of the Saxons into Dorset for 150 years. However, by the end of the 7th century Dorset had fallen under Saxon control and been incorporated into the Kingdom of Wessex.
The Saxons established a diocese at Sherborne and Dorset was made a shire—an administrative district of Wessex and predecessor to the English county system—with borders that have changed little since. In 789 the first recorded Viking attack on the British Isles took place in Dorset on the Portland coast, they continued to raid into the county for the next two centuries. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, feudal rule was established in Dorset and the bulk of the land was divided between the Crown and ecclesiastical institutions; the Normans consolidated their control over the area by constructing castles at Corfe and Dorchester in the early part of the 12th century. Over the next 200 years Dorset's population grew and additional land was enclosed for farming to provide the extra food required; the wool trade, the quarrying of Purbeck Marble and the busy ports of Weymouth, Melcombe Regis, Lyme Regis and Bridport brought prosperity to the county. However, Dorset was devastated by the bubonic plague in 1348 which arrived in Melcombe Regis on a ship from Gascony.
The disease, more known as the Black Death, created an epidemic that spread a
Berkswell is a hard cheese, made at Ram Hall Farm near Berkswell, West Midlands, England. It is made using unpasturised ewe animal rennet; the moulds of cheeses are left in plastic kitchen colanders which give the cheese its distinctive shape. Berkswell may be compared to a mature pecorino. In 2017, Berkswell won Supreme Champion at the Artisan Cheese Awards. Official site
Bowland cheese is a type of Lancashire cheese, with the cheese having been mixed with apple and cinnamon prior to setting. It is named after the Forest of Bowland, situated in the east of Lancashire in England; the idea of Bowland cheese was thought up by David Williams, the son of Godfrey Williams, owner of the delicatessen in Sandbach, Cheshire. It was produced in the back of the delicatessen on a small scale with the help of David's two assistants Karl Hollinshead and Matthew Barlow and became popular with the local people of Sandbach. Due to the amount of interest, the idea was taken to the local cheese fairs of Nantwich and Knutsford where it gained popularity. Now Bowland cheese supplies many supermarkets. Speciality Cheese Info
Shropshire Blue is a cow's milk cheese made in the United Kingdom. The cheese was first made in the 1970s at the Castle Stuart dairy in Inverness, Scotland by Andy Williamson, a cheesemaker who had trained in the making of Stilton cheese in Nottinghamshire; the cheese was first known as'Inverness-shire Blue' or'Blue Stuart', but was marketed as'Shropshire Blue', a name chosen to help increase its popularity, despite it having no link to the county of Shropshire. After the Castle Stuart dairy was closed down in 1980, the cheese was revived by Elliot Hulme and Harry Hanlin of Cheshire, but once again the manufacture soon ceased; the cheese is now made by the Long Clawson and the Cropwell Bishop and Colston Bassett dairies in Nottinghamshire. Since 2010, Shropshire Blue has been made by the Shropshire Cheese Company, a Shropshire Dairy Farm on the Welsh Border. An alternative claim to the first production of the cheese, from the Shropshire-based company Westry Roberts, suggests that the cheese originated in the county that it bears the name of in the 1970s.
A variant, called Ludlow Blue, is now being made in the county of Shropshire in a small artisan dairy. Ludlow Blue uses carotene as a colouring agent rather than annatto, which makes the colour more yellow. Shropshire Blue is a blue cheese uses vegetable rennet; the orange colour comes from the addition of a natural food colouring. Penicillium roqueforti produces the veining; the cheese has a deep orange-brown, natural rind and matures for a period of 10–12 weeks with a fat content of about 48 per cent. Made in a similar way to Stilton, it is a soft cheese with a sharp, strong flavour and a tangy aroma, it is sour but sharper than Stilton and creamier. List of British cheeses http://www.courierpress.com/news/2011/dec/20/cheese-top-ten-um-fourteen/ http://www.shropshirecheese.co.uk http://www.shropshirestar.com/lifestyle/dining-out/2011/12/06/food-review-of-the-acton-arms-morville-wv16-4rj/http://www.shropshirecheese.co.uk
Stinking Bishop cheese
Stinking Bishop is a washed-rind cheese produced since 1972 by Charles Martell and Son at Hunts Court Farm, Gloucestershire, in the south west of England. It is made from the milk of Gloucester cattle. By 1972 there were just 68 Gloucester breed heifers left in the world. Charles Martell bought up many of the surviving cows, began to produce cheese from their milk, not for its own sake, but to promote interest in the Gloucester breed. Since his own herd has expanded to 25 female cows, there has been a revival of interest by other farmers, which has increased the total numbers of cows to around 450; the small size of Martell's herd means that the Gloucester milk is combined and pasteurised with the milk of Friesian cattle from another farm nearby. The fat content is 48%; the colour of Stinking Bishop ranges from white/yellow to beige, with an orange to grey rind. It is moulded into wheels 2 kg in weight, 20 cm in diameter, 4 cm deep. Only about 20 tonnes are produced each year; the distinctive odour comes from the process.
This process makes it a monastic type of cheese which owes its origin to the Cistercian monks who once farmed the pastures of Hunts Court Farm whence it was launched in 1994. As with many monastic cheeses, this variety is matured in humid cave-like conditions. To increase the moisture content and to encourage bacterial activity, salt is not added until the cheese is removed from its mould. In 2017, Stinking Bishop launched a bid to become the Easter cheese, including a full-scale social media campaign, in-store media for their UK-wide stockists and a competition to win a tour around Hunts Court Farm. Stinking Bishop is therefore not produced for supermarkets, it has over 130 stockists across the UK, can be found in artisan food stores and delicatessens, as well as in Harrods and Selfridges. This cheese was brought to international attention in the 2005 Wallace & Gromit movie, The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, in which Gromit used it to revive Wallace from the dead. Demand for the cheese subsequently rose by 500%, forcing the cheesemaker to hire more people and increase production.
Chef Andrew Zimmern, host of the TV show Bizarre Foods, tasted Stinking Bishop during a visit to Harrods in London. In the 2011 Channel 4 show King Of... hosted by Claudia Winkleman, Stinking Bishop was named as the King of Cheese by Winkleman and her two guests. In the Monty Python Live version of the Cheese Shop sketch, Stinking Bishop is added to the list of cheeses after whose availability John Cleese's character enquires in vain. David Walliams talked about Stinking Bishop in his children's book, Grandpa's Great Escape. 2010, Gold Medal Winner at the British Cheese Awards Smoking Bishop List of British cheeses "Stinking Bishop". Charles Martell & Son - Cheesemakers and Distillers. "Stinky Cheese Maker Shuns'Wallace & Gromit' Spotlight". All Things Considered. NPR. 7 October 2005
Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus in the genus Penicillium. Widespread in nature, it can be isolated from soil, decaying organic matter, plants; the major industrial use of this fungus is the production of blue cheeses, flavouring agents, polysaccharides and other enzymes. The fungus has been a constituent of Roquefort, Danish blue, Cabrales and other blue cheeses that humans are known to have eaten since around AD 50, they were grouped into different species based on phenotypic differences, but combined into one species by Kenneth B. Raper and Thom; the P. roqueforti group got a reclassification in 1996 due to molecular analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. Divided into two varieties ― cheese-making and patulin-making ― P. roqueforti was reclassified into three species: P. roqueforti, P. carneum, P. paneum. The complete genome sequence of P. roqueforti was published in 2014. As this fungus does not form visible fruiting bodies, descriptions are based on macromorphological characteristics of fungal colonies growing on various standard agar media, on microscopic characteristics.
When grown on Czapek yeast autolysate agar or yeast-extract sucrose agar, P. roqueforti colonies are 40 mm in diameter, olive brown to dull green, with a velutinous texture. Grown on malt extract agar, colonies are 50 mm in diameter, dull green in color, with arachnoid colony margins. Another characteristic morphological feature of this species is its production of asexual spores in phialides with a distinctive brush-shaped configuration. Evidence for a sexual stage in P. roqueforti has been found based, in part, on the presence of functional mating-type genes and most of the important genes known to be involved in meiosis. In 2014, researchers reported inducing the growth of sexual structures in P. roqueforti, including ascogonia and ascospores. Genetic analysis and comparison of many different strains isolated from various environments around the world indicate that it is a genetically diverse species. P. Roqueforti is known to be one of the most common spoilage molds of silage, it is one of several different moulds that can spoil bread.
The chief industrial use of this species is the production of blue cheeses, such as its namesake Roquefort, Bleu de Bresse, Bleu du Vercors-Sassenage, Cabrales, Cashel Blue, Danish blue, polish Rokpol made from cow's milk, Fourme d'Ambert, Fourme de Montbrison, Lanark Blue, Shropshire Blue, Stilton, some varieties of Bleu d'Auvergne and Gorgonzola. Strains of the microorganism are used to produce compounds that can be employed as antibiotics and fragrances, uses not regulated under the U. S. Toxic Substances Control Act, its texture is chitinous. Considerable evidence indicates that most strains are capable of producing harmful secondary metabolites under certain growth conditions. Aristolochene is a sesquiterpenoid compound produced by P. roqueforti, is a precursor to the toxin known as PR toxin, made in large amounts by the fungus. PR-toxin has been implicated in incidents of mycotoxicoses resulting from eating contaminated grains. However, PR toxin is not stable in cheese and breaks down to the less toxic PR imine.
Secondary metabolites of P. roqueforti, named andrastins A-D, are found in blue cheese. The andrastins inhibit proteins involved in the efflux of anticancer drugs from multidrug-resistant cancer cells. P. Roqueforti produces the neurotoxin roquefortine C. However, the levels of roquefortine c in cheese made from it is too low to produce toxic effects; the organism can be used for the production of proteases and specialty chemicals, such as methyl ketones, including 2-heptanone. List of Penicillium species This article is based on text from a report of the United States Environmental Protection Agency