Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Spain, South Africa, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Russia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country. Australian equivalent of post graduate diploma is called Graduate Diploma. AQF level of the graduate diploma is eight. New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. NZQA level of post graduate diploma is eight. A postgraduate diploma indicates master's-level studies, it constitutes as the first year of a two-year master's degree. A university degree is required. In Canada, a postgraduate certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances.
A University's degree or a master's degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of to focus on a concise subject, it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary: Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, Post-Baccalaureate or D. E. S. S.. See links to the Canadian education system. In India, there are a number of universities offering postgraduate diploma programs; these post-graduate diploma programs are one-year programs that are divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work, credit requirements. These are master's level programs; these programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for the better employment opportunity and industry readiness. It is designed to provide in-depth exposure to concepts, scientific principles, implementation methodology of new approaches.
Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Post-graduate diploma in Banking & Finance, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, are examples of courses offered in India. Certain institutes provide postgraduate diploma programs which satisfies the credit requirement for a master's program with increased number of lower credit courses for 2 years, this programs are provisionally considered equivalent to a master's level. Postgraduate diploma programs are meant for those with a bachelor's degree to gain an advanced technical grasp and to those with a master's degree to enhance their interdisciplinary/translation grasp. Referred to as PgD, the postgraduate diploma has been awarded by the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, since June 2005 in institutions associated with and accredited by the council; this postgraduate qualification is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 8 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelor's degree or vocational degrees, such as the Meister or Staatlich Geprüfter Betriebswirt in Germany.
Most institutions operate under the Recognition of Prior Experiential Learning scheme meaning applicants who do not meet the normal academic requirements may be considered based on publications, relevant work or research experience, which will involve an assessment centre or interview process. In Ireland, the vast majority of postgraduate diplomas require the same duration and level of studies as a Master's degree, namely EQF Level 9, yet additional coursework or an independent research project replace the thesis. While progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the Irish postgraduate diploma is accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 doctoral degree's in most countries. In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances: 1) as part of an independent program of studies; the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelor's degree. It is awarded by a university or a graduate school, it takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered.
It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a master's degree. Only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry; the postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System grading system. For example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International; the University of the Basque Country offers an English-language PgDip in International Election Observation and Electoral Assistance, run in cooperation with many organisations in the field of election monitoring, such as The Carter Center, Electoral Reform I
The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are selective and prestigious institutions. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission as graduates of bachelor degree programs, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate-level study, based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes for admission. Grandes écoles differ from public universities in France, which have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.. Grande écoles do not have large student bodies: most give admission to few hundred students each year. Arts et Métiers ParisTech has the largest student population, with 6,000 students. Studying in some grandes écoles after passing the competitive exams is considered part of public service.
Students pay low or no fees, are paid monthly stipends by some institutions. They are committed to ten years of public service; the business schools charge higher fees. Economically disadvantaged students in grandes écoles may have access to grants and subsidies, just as they would at a public university; the phrase'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École normale supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École centrale des travaux publics and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. The model was the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus; the system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit. Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase'Grande École', dated 1794, their forerunners were schools aimed at graduating civil servants, such as technical officers, mine supervisors and road engineers, shipbuilding engineers.
Five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery were established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai and the école du génie de Mézières, wherein mathematics and sciences were a major part of the curriculum taught by first-rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge. In 1802 Napoleon created the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr, considered a Grande École, although it trains only army officers. During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, such as École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris, L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in 1829. Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries.
Until 1864, a quarter of its students came from abroad. Conversely, the quality of French technicians astonished southeastern Europe, the Near East, Belgium; the system of grandes écoles expanded, enriched in 1826 by the Ecole des Eaux et Forêts at Nancy, the Ecole des Arts Industriels at Lille in 1854, the Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise in 1857, the National Institute of Agronomy, reconstituted in 1876 after a fruitless attempt between 1848 and 1855. The training of the lower grades of staff, who might today be called ‘production engineers’, was assured to an greater extent by the development of Ecoles d’Arts et métiers, of which the first was established at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806 and the second at Angers in 1811, with a third at Aix-en-Provence in 1841; each had room for 300 pupils. There is no doubt that in the 1860s France had the best system of higher technical and scientific education in Europe. During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, more Grandes écoles were established for education in businesses as well as newer fields of science and technology, including Rouen Business School in 1871, Sciences Po Paris in 1872, École nationale supérieure des télécommunications, Hautes Études Commerciales, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales École supérieure d'électricité and Supaero.
Since France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only, o
A decree is a rule of law issued by a head of state, according to certain procedures. It has the force of law; the particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President of the United States, for example, are decrees. In non-legal English usage, the term refers to any authoritarian decision. Documents or archives in the format of royal decrees or farming were issued by rulers. In Belgium, a decree is a law of regional parliament, e.g. the Flemish Parliament. The word décret "decree", is an old legal usage in France and is used to refer to executive orders issued by the French President or Prime Minister. Any such order must not violate the French Constitution or Civil Code, a party has the right to request an order be annulled in the French Council of State. Orders must be ratified by Parliament. Special orders known as décret-loi "decree-act" or "decree-law" considered an illegal practice under the 3rd and 4th Republic, were abolished and replaced by the ordinances under the 1958 Constitution.
Except for the reserve powers of the President, the executive can issue decrees in areas that the Constitution grants as the responsibility of Parliament only if a law authorizes it to do so. In other cases, orders are illegal and, should anyone sue for the order's annulment, it would be voided by the Council of State. There exists a procedure for the Prime Minister to issue ordinances in such areas, but this procedure requires Parliament's express consent. Orders issued by the Prime Minister take two forms: Orders. Sometimes, people refer to décrets en Conseil d'État improperly as décrets du Conseil d'État; this would imply that it is the Council of State that takes the decree, whereas the power of decreeing is restricted to the president or prime minister. Decrees may be classified into: Regulations, which may be: Application decrees, each of which must be authorized by one or more statutes to determine some implementation conditions of this or these statutes. Only the prime minister may issue regulatory or application decrees.
Presidential decrees are nominations or exceptional measures where law mandates a presidential decree, such as the dissolution of the French National Assembly and the calling of new legislative elections. Decrees are published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française or "French Gazette". A decree in the usage of the canon law of the Catholic Church has various meanings. Any papal bull, brief, or motu proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the pope. In this sense the term is quite ancient; the Roman Congregations were empowered to issue decrees in matters which come under their particular jurisdiction, but were forbidden from continuing to do so under Pope Benedict XV in 1917. Each ecclesiastical province and each diocese may issue decrees in their periodical synods within their sphere of authority. While in a general sense all documents promulgated by an ecumenical council can be called decrees. in a specific sense some of these documents, as at the Second Vatican Council, were called more constitutions or declarations.
Canon 29 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law offers a definition of general decrees: General decrees, by which a competent legislator makes common provisions for a community capable of receiving a law, are true laws and are regulated by the provisions of the canons on laws. The Holy See uses decrees from the pope such as papal bull, papal brief or motu proprio as legislative acts. According clause 77 of the Italian Constitution, "The Government may not, without an enabling act from the Houses, issue decrees having the force of ordinary law; when in extraordinary cases of necessity and urgency the Government adopts provisional measures having the force of law, it must on the same day present said measures for confirmation to the Houses which if dissolved, shall be summoned for this purpose and shall convene within five days. The decrees lose effect from their inception if they are not confirmed within sixty days from their publication; the Houses may however regulate by law legal relationships arising out of not confirmed decrees."
The effectiveness for sixty days produces the effects giving rights or expectations whose legal basis was in fact precarious when the conversion law never intervened. In Portugal, there are several types of decrees issued by the various bodies of sovereignty or by the bodies of self-government of autonomous regions. There are the following types of decrees: Decree-law: is a legislative act issued by the Government of Portugal under its legislative powers defined by Article 198 of the Portuguese Constitution.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
The Scuola Normale Superiore is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa and Florence attended by about 600 undergraduate and post graduate students. It was founded in 1810 with a decree by Napoleon as a branch of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, with the aim of training the teachers of the Empire to educate its citizens according to educational and methodological "norms". Eminent personalities from the world of science and politics have studied at the Normale, among them Giosuè Carducci, Carlo Rubbia, Enrico Fermi and Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, as well as Alessio Figalli, in more recent times. In 2013 the Florentine site was added to the historical site in Pisa, following the inclusion of the Institute of Human Sciences in Florence. Since 2018 the Scuola Normale Superiore has been federated with the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies in Pisa and with the Institute for Advanced Studies of Pavia, the only other two university institutions with special status that, in the Italian panorama, offer, in accordance with standards of excellence, both undergraduate and postgraduate educational activities.
It ranks first in Italy in the PCP parameter of the "Academic Ranking of World Universities", second among Italian universities in the “Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019", first in Italy in the Teaching parameter. The Scuola Normale Superiore was founded in 1810 by Napoleonic decree, as twin institution of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, itself dating back to the French Revolution jurisdiction; the term école normale was coined by Joseph Lakanal who, in submitting a report to the National Convention of 1794 on behalf of the Committee of Public Instruction, explained it as follows: "Normales: du latin norma, règle. Ces écoles doivent être en effet le type et la règle de toutes les autres." "This schools must indeed be the kind and rule of all others" The Napoleonic decree of 18 October 1810, concerning "public education establishments" in Tuscany – a province of the French empire from 1807 - established an "Academic student residence" in Pisa for university students.
Twenty-five places were made available for students of the Faculties of Arts and Sciences, to create a branch of the Parisian École Normale Supérieure in countries where the use of the Italian language was authorized. The Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa was thus established at the behest of Napoleon; the term "Normale" refers to its primary teaching mission, to train high school teachers to educate citizens according to coherent teaching and methodological "norms". On 22 February 1811 the first call was issued, but the Pisa-based Normale began its activity only in 1813, when the first students of Arts and Sciences attended the Scuola; the first site of the Scuola was the convent of San Silvestro in Pisa: it was a student residence halfway between a military order and a convent, in which the life of the students was characterized by strict disciplinary regulations similar to those of the French Scuola of reference regarding admissions, punishments and student clothing. Following the model of the École Normale Supérieure, the Scuola was entrusted to a "Director", assisted by the "Sub-director" and by the "Economo", in charge of administration, supervision of studies and the safeguarding of order.
The Normale was reserved at that time to the best high school students, aged between 17 and 24, who during their two years of studies obtained degrees at the faculties of Arts and Sciences of the Imperial University. The students had particular commitments and were obliged to take additional courses: they were supervised by four "ripetitori", chosen by the Director among the students of the Normale, who “repeated” the university lessons daily and coordinated the "conferences", which were a sort of seminar. With this qualifying training, after graduation the students committed themselves to teaching in secondary schools for at least ten years; the Napoleonic Scuola Normale had a short life: the only academic year was 1813/14, during which the physicist Ranieri Gerbi was Director. On 6 April 1814 Napoleon signed the act of abdication: the return of Grand Duke Ferdinand III to the throne of Tuscany coincided with the closure of the Scuola despite the various attempts to save it in the name of its function.
The period of closure of the Scuola after the Napoleonic phase was quite short. The Grand Duke's decree of 22 December 1817 re-established the ancient Ordine dei Cavalieri di Santo Stefano in Pisa: in 1843 the Council of the Order proposed to establish a "boarding school for young nobles" in the Palazzo della Carovana together with a Scuola Normale, it has to be said that in the previous period novice Knights were students of the University of Pisa and therefore the Palazzo was in effect, a "noble college". In order to study the feasibility of the new project, Grand Duke Leopold II of Lorraine nominated a commission, which re-established the original function of the Scuola Normale Superiore, that of preparing secondary school teachers. On 28 November 1846 a grand-ducal Motuproprio established the Scuola Normale Toscana called Imperial Regia Scuola Normale. On November 15, 1847, the new headquarters in Palazzo della Carovana were inaugurated; the new Scuola was "theoretical and practical", intended to "train teachers of secondary schools".
The boarding school was attended by students of Philosophy and Philology, while s
European University Institute
For European Institute established in 1951 in Saarbrücken, see Europa-Institut of Saarland University, for other uses, see European University The European University Institute in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective. The European University Institute has been founded in 1972 by the Member States of the European Community, it was born out of an atmosphere of cooperation, with notable advocacy for a European institute at the Hague Conference in 1948 and the European Cultural Conference the following year. Other priorities persisted however until the 1955 Messina Conference. With all six members of the European Coal and Steel Community were present, the German Secretary of State Walter Hallstein took the opportunity to call for a training centre for nuclear sciences; this was proposed under the Euratom Treaty.
The Italian government was enthusiastic and, recognising an academic need to study Europe, made determined action along with the European Commission and the European Parliament. However it was not until over a decade that the idea began to bear fruit, when in 1969 leaders met in The Hague and resolved to fund a European University Institute in Florence. By this point the idea had evolved from a centre for nuclear sciences to one focused on the human sciences, promoting a cultural exchange between member states. Plans were put into motion with conferences in Florence and Rome in 1970 and 1971, when it was decided that the institute would be reserved for post-graduate studies and not directly a Community institution; the six member states – Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands – signed a convention in 1972 establishing the EUI as a pillar for research and development. The EUI Convention entered into force in 1975, the Instituted opened its doors to its first 70 researchers in 1976; the mission, laid down in the 1970s, is to “foster the advancement of learning in fields which are of particular interest for the development of Europe”.
Denmark and the United Kingdom joined the Community in 1973, subsequently acceded to the convention establishing the EUI. In 1992, a new convention revising the 1972 convention establishing the EUI was signed by the 12 Community member states, it entered into force in 2007. As of February 2019, the EUI member states are: The remaining EU member states which are not EUI member states are: Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia; the Economics Department provides supervision to PhD students. The research activities of the Department reflect the interests of the faculty and are concentrated in micro and econometrics. Weekly research seminars are given by scholars from around the world; the teaching in the doctoral programme is based on formal coursework at a level which will allow researchers to pursue academic careers in universities or to follow professional opportunities in international organisations. In their third and fourth years researchers work on their thesis projects under the guidance of their supervisor while attending research workshops and seminars.
The Department of History and Civilization offers a programme of transnational and comparative European history. The doctoral programme studies the construction of Europe's boundaries and the diversity and complexity of experiences within them; the department's central concerns are the interlinking of European societies since the Renaissance and the complex cultural legacies that have shaped contemporary Europe. The HEC community is committed to exploring the place of Europe in the world through the study of empires, global processes and institutions; the variety of research approaches and themes, as well as the broad background of its professors, enable the Department to recruit high-quality Ph. D. candidates and to host outstanding research fellows. The Department of Law is international in character, it is committed to the study of law in a comparative and contextual manner, with a special focus on European and international law. Courses and seminars are interactive, research-oriented and designed to cover the main subject areas of the Department's work.
Researchers gain experience in presenting their work, are encouraged to participate in conferences and the Department's Working Groups. Within the department, the Academy of European Law offers advanced-level summer courses in Human Rights Law and EU Law, it manages research projects and runs a publications programme. The EUI Law Department jointly hosts, with Harvard Law School, the Summer School on Law and Logic; this summer school was launched in 2012 and is sponsored by CIRSFID-University of Bologna, the University of Groningen, the European Academy of Legal Theory, a grant from the Erasmus Lifelong Learning Programme. The research programme of the Department of Political and Social Sciences places emphasis on political and social change within Europe at the national, sub-national and transnational level; the research interests of the Department range across the four sub-disciplines of comparative politics, international relations, social and political theory. Courses in both quantitative and qualitative methods are available as options in the first and second year, while field work and data collection