Raffles Hotels & Resorts
Raffles Hotels & Resorts is a chain of luxury hotels which traces its roots to the 1887 opening of the original Raffles Hotel in Singapore. The company started to develop internationally in the late 1990s, it acquired Swissôtel in 2001; the hotel chain is owned by AccorHotels, which acquired FRHI Hotels & Resorts in 2016. As of November 2017, Raffles Hotels & Resorts operates 11 luxury hotels. Raffles Hotels & Resorts was formed in 1989 to restore and manage the historic Raffles Hotel; the corporation undertook the restructuring and management of the I. M Pei-designed Raffles City development, thus laying the foundation for Raffles Hotels & Resorts to become a hotel management company. After a complete restoration, the Raffles Hotel reopened on 16 September 1991. In 1997, the company opened the restored Grand Hotel d'Angkor in Siem Reap, marking the launch of its luxury resort brand. In April 2001, Raffles Holdings acquired Swissôtel from SAirGroup for 268 million euros, thus increasing its room capacity by 139% to 13,500 units in 17 countries.
In 2005, Colony Capital bought Raffles Holdings for $1 billion from the Singapore government. Raffles and Swissôtel joined Fairmont Hotels in the newly formed holding FRHI Hotels & Resorts in 2006. In June 2005, Raffles Hotels signed with the Wafi Group the construction contract of the Raffles Dubai, Raffles’ first property in the Middle East that opened two years in 2007. In March 2009, Raffles Hotels and Resorts signed an agreement with the King Holding Company to operate Le Royal Monceau in Paris, which reopened in 2010 after 2 years of renovation work. In 2015, AccorHotels announced the acquisition of Fairmont Raffles Hotels International, thus adding Raffles Hotels & Resorts, Fairmont Hotels & Resorts and Swissôtel to its luxury hotel brands collection. After Indian Hinduja Group and Spanish Obrascón Huarte Lain bought the War Office in London, they decided to transform the administrative building into a hotel and signed a deal with AccorHotels in June 2017 to add it to the Raffles portfolio of luxury hotels.
In 2015, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Singapore Sling, Raffles Hotels & Resorts partnered with London-based microdistillery Sipsmith to create a brand-made gin, the Raffles 1915 Gin. Official website
Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. Hilton Hotels Corporation, is an American multinational hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and resorts. Founded by Conrad Hilton in 1919, the corporation is now led by Christopher J. Nassetta. Hilton is headquartered in Virginia; as of September 2018, its portfolio includes more than 5,500 properties with over 894,000 rooms in 109 countries and territories. Prior to their December 2013 IPO, Hilton was ranked as the 36th largest held company in the United States by Forbes. Hilton has 15 brands across different market segments, including Conrad Hotels & Resorts, Canopy by Hilton, Curio - A Collection by Hilton, Hilton Hotels & Resorts, DoubleTree by Hilton, Embassy Suites Hotels, Hilton Garden Inn, Hampton by Hilton, Homewood Suites by Hilton, Home2 Suites by Hilton, Hilton Grand Vacations, Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts, Tru by Hilton, Tapestry Collection by Hilton, Motto by Hilton. On December 12, 2013, Hilton again became a public company, raising an estimated $2.35 billion in its second IPO.
At the time, The Blackstone Group held a 45.8 percent stake in the company. In October 2016, HNA Group agreed to acquire a 25 percent equity interest in Hilton from Blackstone; the transaction was expected to close in the first quarter of 2017. Hilton's largest stockholders are HNA Group and Wellington Management Group, which own 25%, 15.2%, 6.7% of Hilton common stock respectively. Hilton was founded by Conrad Hilton in Cisco, Texas, in 1919 and had its headquarters in Beverly Hills, from 1969 until 2009. In August 2009, the company moved to Tysons Corner, unincorporated Fairfax County, near McLean. In 1919, Conrad Hilton purchased his first hotel, the 40-room Mobley Hotel in Cisco and bought additional Texas hotels as years passed. In 1925, the Dallas Hilton became the first hotel to use the Hilton name. In 1927, Hilton expanded to Waco, where he opened the first hotel with air-conditioning in public areas and cold running water. In 1943, Hilton purchased the Roosevelt Hotel and the Plaza Hotel in New York, establishing the first hospitality company to span the contiguous United States.
The company incorporated in 1946 as the Hilton Hotels Corporation, subsequently began public trading of shares on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1947, the Roosevelt Hotel became the first hotel in the world to have televisions in its rooms. Hilton International was founded a few years in 1949, with the opening of the Caribe Hilton Hotel in Puerto Rico. Barman Ramon "Monchito" Marreno claimed. Hilton purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York in the same year; the Hotels Statler Company was acquired in 1954 for $111 million in what was the world's most expensive real estate transaction. One year Hilton created the world's first central reservations office, titled "HILCRON"; the reservations team in 1955 consisted of eight members on staff booking reservations for any of Hilton's 28 hotels. Reservations agents used the "availability board" to track records; the chalk board measured 30 feet by 6 feet and allowed HILCRON to make over 6,000 reservations in 1955. Bookings could be made for any Hilton via telegram, or Teletype.
In 1955, Hilton launched a program to ensure every hotel room would include air conditioning. In late 1955, Hilton opened the first post–World War II property in Istanbul. Hilton is credited with pioneering the airport hotel concept with the opening of the San Francisco Airport Hilton in 1959. In 1965, Hilton launched Lady Hilton, the first hotel concept created for women guests. To appeal to female travelers, a number of properties offered floors occupied by only women along with distinct amenities for their usage. In 1969, the first DoubleTree Hotel opened. However, Hilton was not affiliated with the brand until its acquisition of the parent company in 1999. Hilton purchased the Flamingo Las Vegas in 1970, which would become the first in the domestic gaming business to be listed on the NYSE. In 1979, founder Conrad Hilton died at the age of 91. Hilton Hotels Corporation created the Conrad Hotels brand in honor of Hilton. Hilton Honors, the company's guest loyalty program, was initiated in 1987.
In 1994, the Honors surpassed competing hotel loyalty programs by offering members both hotel credit points and airline credit miles. The company has been a sponsor of the United States Olympic Team; the company spun off its international operations into a separately traded company on December 1, 1964, known as "Hilton International Co." It was acquired in 1967 by Trans World Corp. the holding company for Trans World Airlines. In 1986, it was sold to UAL Corp. the holding company for United Airlines, which became Allegis Corp. in an attempt to re-incarnate itself as a full-service travel company, encompassing Westin Hotels and Hertz rental cars in addition to Hilton International and United Airlines. In 1987, after a corporate putsch, the renamed UAL Corp. sold Hilton International to Ladbroke Group plc, a British leisure and gambling company, which, in May 1999, adopted the name "Hilton Group plc." As a result, there were two separate independent companies operating hotels under the Hilton name.
Those Hilton Hotels outside the U. S. were, until 2006, styled as "Hilton International" hotels. Because the two chains were contractually forbidden to operate hotels in the other's territory under the Hilton name, for many years hotels run by Hilton International in the U. S. were called Vista International Hotels, while hotels operated by the American arm of Hilton outside the U. S. were named Conrad Hotels. In 1997, to minimize longtime consumer confusion, the American
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Hampton by Hilton
Hampton by Hilton known as Hampton Inn, is a brand of hotels trademarked by Hilton Worldwide. The Hampton hotel brand is a chain of moderately priced, upper midscale hotels with limited food and beverage facilities. Most Hampton hotels are independently owned and operated by franchisees, though a few are managed by Hilton. Hampton by Hilton is one of the largest hotel franchises in the U. S; the Hampton franchise includes more than 2,300 hotels throughout the United States and in nearly 20 other countries. The hotel chain was founded in 1984 as Hampton Inn, a budget hotel by the Holiday Corporation; the first hotel was a two-story, exterior-entrance building with 128 guest rooms located in Memphis, Tennessee. In late 1989, after some financial difficulties, Holiday Corporation prepared to sell its hallmark Holiday Inn hotels and started the holding company Promus Hotel Corporation, which included Hampton Inn, Embassy Suites, Homewood Suites. With this change, Promus re-invested in the Hampton Inn brand and began its change from a budget hotel to a middle-market hotel to compete with their freshly sold former brand.
The hotel chain was the first of the mid-price hotels to offer free continental breakfast and the first to introduce the "100 percent satisfaction guarantee." By 1990, the Hampton Inn chain included over 220 properties with more than 27,000 rooms. Hampton Inn and Suites was introduced in 1995, which featured two-room suite style hotel rooms complete with living room and kitchen areas. In 1999, the Promus Hotel Corporation was bought by Hilton Worldwide for $3.7 billion. In 2004, as part of the $100 million "Make it Hampton" initiative, Hampton began upgrading its hotels including the production of an alarm clock which featured an easy-to-set alarm and an mp3 player hook-up. Other changes made during the upgrade were the switch to white bedding, adding hot food items to continental breakfast options and free high-speed internet to rooms. In 2012, under the "Perfect Mix" initiative, the company completed upgrades to the lobbies of its hotels adding more social space. Hampton continued to renovate its spaces with a campaign introduced in 2013, directed towards younger clientele that included in-room mini-fridges, new bedside tables with power access, updated bathrooms, updated hotel exteriors.
Hampton by Hilton has been ranked in the top 5 in Entrepreneur's Franchise 500 from 2010-2015. Today Hampton is in the upper midscale lodging segment, designed to compete against Fairfield Inn by Marriott, Holiday Inn Express, Comfort Inn/Comfort Suites. Hampton by Hilton includes over 2,300 hotels around the world. An overwhelming majority of Hampton's properties are located in the United States. Hilton owns the Shady Grove Memphis, Tennessee Hampton hotel, manages many others; the rest of the hotels are independently operated by franchisees. The brand's first international location opened in Niagara Falls, Ontario in 1993. Starting in May 2007, the brand began to operate as Hampton by Hilton abroad at its locations in Canada and Latin America. In 2009, the first "Hampton by Hilton" signage was put in place in the United Kingdom with the opening of the brand's first European location; the brand continued to operate internationally as Hampton by Hilton until 2015, when Hilton announced that the official brand names of Embassy Suites and Hampton would include "by Hilton" at all of their locations.
In October 2014, the Hampton by Hilton brand launched in China through a licensing agreement with Plateno Hotels Group. The first of 400 Chinese Hampton hotels opened in 2015. A similar agreement with the Wasl Asset Management group will bring Hampton by Hilton to Dubai. Hampton by Hilton web site Hampton Global Media Center
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts is an international hotel chain owned by Marriott International. Sheraton operates over 500 hotels globally, including locations in North America, Asia Pacific and South America, the Middle East and the Caribbean; the origins of Sheraton Hotels date to 1933, when Harvard classmates Ernest Henderson and Robert Moore purchased the Continental Hotel in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1937, Henderson and Moore purchased the Standard Investing Company and made it the company through which they would run their hotels. In 1937, they purchased their second hotel, the first as part of the new company, the Stonehaven Hotel in Springfield, Massachusetts, a converted apartment building; the chain got its name from the third hotel the pair acquired, in Boston, which had a large lighted sign on the roof saying "Sheraton Hotel,", too expensive to change. Instead and Moore decided to call all of their hotels by that name. Henderson and Moore purchased Boston's famed Copley Plaza Hotel in 1944, continued expanding buying existing properties along the East Coast from Maine to Florida.
In 1947, Sheraton was the first hotel chain to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Sheraton Hotels merged with U. S. Realty and Improvement Corp. in 1948, forming Sheraton Corporation of America. In 1950, Sheraton expanded internationally, paying $4.8 million to purchase Cardy Hotels, a chain of six properties in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. In 1956, Sheraton paid $30 million to buy the Eppley Hotel Company, the largest held hotel business in the United States, with 22 properties across six Midwestern states. In 1957, which had focused on acquiring existing hotels, opened its first newly built hotel, the Philadelphia Sheraton Hotel. In 1958, Sheraton became the first hotel chain to centralize and computerize its reservations when it introduced Reservatron, the hotel industry's first automatic electronic reservations system. In 1959, Sheraton acquired its first properties outside North America, purchasing four hotels owned by the Matson Lines on Waikiki Beach in Honolulu, Hawaii.
The early 1960s saw the arrival of the first Sheraton hotels outside the US and Canada, with the opening of the Sheraton-Tel Aviv Hotel in Israel in March 1961. In 1962, the Sheraton Motor Inns franchise division was created to operate large highway motels providing free parking. In 1965, the 100th Sheraton property, the Sheraton-Boston Hotel, opened. In 1967, Sheraton unveiled a computer system for personalized reservations; the multinational conglomerate ITT purchased the chain in 1968, after which it was known as ITT Sheraton. In late 1969, ITT Sheraton introduced the hotel industry's first nationwide toll-free number, which displaced two hundred local Sheraton reservation numbers. In 1985, ITT Sheraton became the first western chain to operate a hotel bearing the name of an international companyin the People's Republic of China, when it assumed management of the Great Wall Hotel in Beijing, a financially troubled two-year-old Chinese-American joint venture, which became the Great Wall Sheraton.
On January 13, 1992, ITT Sheraton designated 28 of its premier hotels and 33 of the Sheraton Towers, the luxury "hotel-within-a-hotel" facilities located within Sheraton's largest and most exclusive hotels, as the ITT Sheraton Luxury Collection. The flagship of the division was The St Regis in New York City. In 1994, ITT Sheraton purchased a controlling interest in the Italian CIGA chain, the Compagnia Italiana Grandi Alberghi, or Italian Grand Hotels Company, seized from its previous owner, the Aga Khan, by its creditors; the chain had begun by operating hotels in Italy, but over-expanded across Europe just as a recession hit. The majority of these hotels were placed in the ITT Sheraton Luxury Collection, though a few were placed in the Sheraton division. After Sheraton's purchase by Starwood, The Luxury Collection was marketed as a separate division, though it contained a large number of hotels still named Sheraton. Most have been renamed over the last few years, there are only three such hotels remaining today - Sheraton Addis, Sheraton Grande Sukhumvit, Sheraton Kuwait.
In April 1995, ITT Sheraton introduced a new, mid-scale hotel brand, Four Points by Sheraton Hotels, to replace the designation of certain hotels as Sheraton Inns. In 1998, Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. acquired ITT Sheraton. Under Starwood's leadership, Sheraton began renovating many hotels and expanding the brand's footprint. In 2016, Marriott International purchased Starwood Hotels, the newly-merged company became the largest hotel and resort company in the world. Hawaii Bowl Sheraton Hotels and Resorts Eppley Hotel Company Holiday Inn List of chained-brand hotels List of hotels Sheraton on the Falls Sheraton Hawaii Bowl Official website Sheraton Roma new years event site Sheraton Residences
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu