National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade is a 1989 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg, from a story co-written by executive producer George Lucas. It is the third installment in the Indiana Jones franchise. Harrison Ford reprises the title role and Sean Connery plays Indiana's father, Henry Jones, Sr. Other cast members featured include Alison Doody, Denholm Elliott, Julian Glover, River Phoenix, John Rhys-Davies. In the film, set in 1938, Indiana searches for his father, a Holy Grail scholar, kidnapped by Nazis. After the mixed reaction to Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Spielberg chose to tone down the gore in the next installment. During the five years between Temple of Doom and Last Crusade, he and executive producer Lucas reviewed several scripts before accepting Jeffrey Boam's. Filming locations included Spain, West Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States; the film was released in North America on May 24, 1989 to positive reviews and a financial success, earning $474.2 million at the worldwide box office totals.
It won an Academy Award for Best Sound Effects Editing. It is the first film in the franchise to receive a PG-13 rating, as the previous installments were rated PG, because the PG-13 rating did not exist at the time those films were released. In 1912, thirteen-year-old Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr is horseback riding with his Boy Scout troop at Arches National Park in Utah. While scouting caves, Indy discovers a group of grave robbers who have found a golden crucifix belonging to Coronado and steals it from them, hoping to donate it to a museum; the men give chase through a passing circus train, leaving Indy with a bloody cut across his chin from a bullwhip and a new phobia of snakes. Indy escapes, but the local sheriff makes him return the cross to the robbers, who turn it over to a mysterious benefactor wearing a Panama Hat. Impressed with Indy's bravery, the leader of the robbers gives Indy his fedora, tells him that he may have lost this battle, but that he does not have to like it. In 1938, Indy battles "Panama Hat" and his henchmen on a ship off the coast of Portugal.
A violent gale ensues, Indy escapes overboard just before the ship explodes. He donates it to Marcus Brody's museum. Indy is introduced to Walter Donovan, who informs him that his father, Henry Jones, Sr. has vanished while searching for the Holy Grail, using an incomplete inscription from a stone tablet as his guide. Indy receives Henry's Grail diary via mail from Venice. Realizing that he would not have sent the diary unless he was in trouble and Marcus travel to Venice, where they meet Henry's Austrian colleague Dr. Elsa Schneider. Beneath the library where Henry was last seen and Elsa discover a set of half-flooded catacombs that house the tomb of a First Crusade knight, which contains a complete version of the inscription that Henry had used, revealing the location of the Grail, they flee when the petroleum-saturated waters of the catacombs are set aflame by the Brotherhood of the Cruciform Sword, a secret society that protects the Grail from evildoers. Indy and Elsa capture one of the Brotherhood, who tells Indy where Henry is being held after Indy explains that his only goal is to find Henry, not the Grail.
Marcus reveals a map drawn by Henry of the route to the Grail. Indy removes the map from the diary, gives it to Marcus for safekeeping, sends him to İskenderun, the city built on the ruins of Alexandretta, to rendezvous with their old friend Sallah. Indy and Elsa head to a Nazi-controlled castle. Indy finds Henry, but learns that both Elsa and Donovan are working with the Nazis and are using the Joneses to find the Grail for them. Meanwhile, Marcus is captured while waiting with Sallah. After escaping from the castle, Henry tells Indy that the Grail is guarded by three booby traps and his diary contains the clues needed to pass them safely, they recover the diary from Elsa at a book burning rally in Berlin coming face-to-face with Hitler. They board a Zeppelin to leave Germany, but the Nazis discover the Joneses are aboard and they escape in a parasite biplane, they crash. The two meet up with Sallah in Hatay; the Nazis are moving toward the Grail's location, using the map possessed by Marcus. In exchange for a Rolls-Royce, the Sultan of Hatay has given the Nazis full access to his equipment for the expedition, including a large tank.
Indy and Sallah find the Nazi expedition, ambushed by the Brotherhood. During the battle, Henry is captured by SS Colonel Ernst Vogel while attempting to rescue Marcus from the tank. Indy pursues the tank on horseback and, with the aid of Sallah, saves Marcus, he is caught up in a fight with Vogel, escapes before the tank goes over a cliff, sending Vogel to his death. Indy, Henry and Sallah catch up with the surviving Nazis, led by Donovan and Elsa, who have found the temple where the Holy Grail is kept but are unable to pass through the three protective booby traps. Donovan shoots and mortally wounds Henry in order to force Indy to risk his life in the traps to find the Grail and use its healing power to save him. Using the information in the diary and followed by Donovan and Elsa, Indy safely overcomes the traps and reaches the Grail's chamber, guarded by a knight, he has been kept alive for 700 years by the power of the Grail, hidden among dozens of false grails. Elsa selects a golden chalice studded with emeralds for Donovan, who ages into dust after drinking from it, pr
Arches National Park
Arches National Park is a national park in eastern Utah, United States. The park is adjacent to the Colorado River, 4 miles north of Utah. More than 2,000 natural sandstone arches are located in the park, including the well-known Delicate Arch, as well as a variety of unique geological resources and formations; the park contains the highest density of natural arches in the world. The park consists of 76,679 acres of high desert located on the Colorado Plateau; the highest elevation in the park is 5,653 feet at Elephant Butte, the lowest elevation is 4,085 feet at the visitor center. The park receives an average of less than 10 inches of rain annually. Administered by the National Park Service, the area was named a national monument on April 12, 1929, was redesignated as a national park on November 12, 1971; the park received more than 1.6 million visitors in 2018. The national park lies above an underground evaporite layer or salt bed, the main cause of the formation of the arches, balanced rocks, sandstone fins, eroded monoliths in the area.
This salt bed is thousands of feet thick in places, was deposited in the Paradox Basin of the Colorado Plateau some 300 million years ago when a sea flowed into the region and evaporated. Over millions of years, the salt bed was covered with debris eroded from the Uncompahgre Uplift to the northeast. During the Early Jurassic, desert conditions prevailed in the region and the vast Navajo Sandstone was deposited. An additional sequence of stream-laid and windblown sediments, the Entrada Sandstone, was deposited on top of the Navajo. Over 5,000 feet of younger sediments were deposited and have been eroded away. Remnants of the cover exist in the area including exposures of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale; the arches of the area are developed within the Entrada formation. The weight of this cover caused the salt bed below it to liquefy and thrust up layers of rock into salt domes; the evaporites of the area formed more unusual linear regions of uplift. Faulting occurred and whole sections of rock subsided into the areas between the domes.
In some places, they turned on edge. The result of one such 2,500-foot displacement, the Moab Fault, is seen from the visitor center; as this subsurface movement of salt shaped the landscape, erosion removed the younger rock layers from the surface. Except for isolated remnants, the major formations visible in the park today are the salmon-colored Entrada Sandstone, in which most of the arches form, the buff-colored Navajo Sandstone; these are visible in layer-cake fashion throughout most of the park. Over time, water seeped into the surface cracks and folds of these layers. Ice formed in the fissures and putting pressure on surrounding rock, breaking off bits and pieces. Winds cleaned out the loose particles. A series of free-standing fins remained. Wind and water attacked these fins until, in some, the cementing material gave way and chunks of rock tumbled out. Many damaged fins collapsed. Others, with the right degree of hardness and balance, survived despite their missing sections; these became the famous arches.
Although the park's terrain may appear rugged and durable, it is fragile. More than 1 million visitors each year threaten the fragile high-desert ecosystem; the problem lies within the soil's crust, composed of cyanobacteria, algae and lichens that grow in the dusty parts of the park. Factors that make Arches National Park sensitive to visitor damage include being a semiarid region, the scarce, unpredictable rainfall, lack of deep freezing, lack of plant litter, which results in soils that have both a low resistance to, slow recovery from, compressional forces such as foot traffic. Methods of indicating effects on the soil are cytophobic soil crust index, measuring of water infiltration, t-tests that are used to compare the values from the undisturbed and disturbed areas. Humans have occupied the region since the last ice age 10,000 years ago. Fremont people and Ancient Pueblo People lived in the area until about 700 years ago. Spanish missionaries encountered Ute and Paiute tribes in the area when they first came through in 1775, but the first European-Americans to attempt settlement in the area were the Mormon Elk Mountain Mission in 1855, who soon abandoned the area.
Ranchers and prospectors settled Moab in the neighboring Riverine Valley in the 1880s. Word of the beauty of the surrounding rock formations spread beyond the settlement as a possible tourist destination; the Arches area was first brought to the attention of the National Park Service by Frank A. Wadleigh, passenger traffic manager of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Wadleigh, accompanied by railroad photographer George L. Beam, visited the area in September 1923 at the invitation of Alexander Ringhoffer, a Hungarian-born prospector living in Salt Valley. Ringhoffer had written to the railroad in an effort to interest them in the tourist potential of a scenic area he had discovered the previous year with his two sons and a son-in-law, which he called the "Devil's Garden". Wadleigh was impressed by what Ringhoffer showed him, suggested to Park Service director Stephen T. Mather that the area be made a national monument; the following year, additional support for the monument idea came from Laurence Gould, a University of Michigan graduate student studying the geology of the nearby La Sal Mountains, shown the scenic area by local physician Dr. J. W. "Doc" Williams.
A succession of government investigators examined the area, in part due to confusion
A natural arch, natural bridge, or rock arch is a natural rock formation where an arch has formed with an opening underneath. Natural arches form where inland cliffs, coastal cliffs, fins or stacks are subject to erosion from the sea, rivers or weathering. Most natural arches are formed from narrow fins and sea stacks composed of sandstone or limestone with steep vertical, cliff faces; the formations become narrower due to erosion over geologic time scales. The softer rock stratum erodes away creating rock shelters, or alcoves, on opposite sides of the formation beneath the harder stratum, or caprock, above it; the alcoves erode further into the formation meeting underneath the harder caprock layer, thus creating an arch. The erosional processes exploit weaknesses in the softer rock layers making cracks larger and removing material more than the caprock; the choice between bridge and arch is somewhat arbitrary. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society identifies a bridge as a subtype of arch, water-formed.
By contrast, the Dictionary of Geological Terms defines a natural bridge as a "natural arch that spans a valley of erosion."The largest natural arch, by a significant margin, is the Xianren Bridge in China, with a span of 122 ± 5 meters. On coasts two different types of arches can form depending on the geology. On discordant coastlines rock types run at 90° to the coast. Wave refraction concentrates the wave energy on the headland, an arch forms when caves break through the headland. Two examples of this type of arch are London Arch—previously known as London Bridge—in Victoria and Neill Island in the Andaman Islands, India; when these arches collapse, they form stacks and stumps. On concordant coastlines rock types run parallel to the coastline, with weak rock such as shale protected by stronger rock such as limestone; the wave action along concordant coastlines breaks through the strong rock and erodes the weak rock quickly. Good examples of this type of arch are the Durdle Door and Stair Hole near Lulworth Cove on Dorset's Jurassic Coast in south England.
When Stair Hole collapses it will form a cove. Weather-eroded arches begin their formation as deep cracks. Erosion occurring within the cracks wears away exposed rock layers and enlarges the surface cracks isolating narrow sandstone walls which are called fins. Alternating frosts and thawing cause crumbling and flaking of the porous sandstone and cut through some of the fins; the resulting holes become weathering. The arches collapse leaving only buttresses that in time will erode. Many weather-eroded arches are found in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, all located in southern Utah, United States; some natural bridges may look like arches, but they form in the path of streams that wear away and penetrate the rock. Pothole arches form by chemical weathering as water collects in natural depressions and cuts through to the layer below. Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah protects the area surrounding three large natural bridges, all of which were formed by streams running through canyons, the largest of, named Sipapu Bridge with a span of 225 feet.
The Rainbow Bridge National Monument's namesake was formed by flowing water which created the largest known natural bridge in the Western Hemisphere with a span of 234 feet, based on a laser measurement made in 2007. Xianren Bridge known as Fairy Bridge, in Guangxi, China is the world's largest known natural bridge with a span recorded at 400 feet by the Natural Arch and Bridge Society in October 2010, with a precision of ±15 feet. Natural bridges can form from natural limestone caves, where paired sinkholes collapse and a ridge of stone is left standing in between, with the cave passageway connecting from sinkhole to sinkhole. Like all rock formations, natural bridges are subject to continued erosion, will collapse and disappear. One example of this was the double-arched Victorian coastal rock formation, London Bridge, which lost an arch after storms increased erosion. Moon Hill in Yangshuo, Guizhou Province, China, is an example of an arch formed by the remnant of a karst limestone cave. In a few places in the world, natural arches are utilized by humans as transportation bridges with highways or railroads running across them.
In Virginia, US Route 11 traverses Natural Bridge. Two additional natural arch roadways are found in Kentucky; the first arch, a cave erosion arch made of limestone, is located in Carter Caves State Resort Park and it has a paved road on top. The second arch, a weather-eroded sandstone arch with a dirt road on top, is located on the edge of Natural Bridge State Park in Kentucky; the latter arch is called White's Branch Arch and the road going over it is referred to as the Narrows Road. In Europe, the Romanian village of Ponoarele has a road 60 m long and 13 m wide, passing over a stone arch 4 m thick, 20 m high, with a 9 m span; the arch is called God's Bridge. In South America, the railroad from Lima, Peru crosses the Rio Yauli on a natural bridge near kilometer 214.2 as it approaches the city of La Oroya, Peru. Aloba Arch, Chad Boatswain Bird Island, Ascension Island Bogenfels, Namibia Goedehoop natural rock bridge, South Africa Hole-in-the-Wall, Eastern Cape, South Africa Tassili n'Ajjer and Tadrart Rouge, two mountain ranges with many arches, Algeria Tukuyu natural bridge, Ta
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. Wheelchairs come in a wide variety of formats to meet the specific needs of their users, they may include specialized seating adaptions, individualized controls, may be specific to particular activities, as seen with sports wheelchairs and beach wheelchairs. The most recognised distinction is between powered wheelchairs, where propulsion is provided by batteries and electric motors, manually propelled wheelchairs, where the propulsive force is provided either by the wheelchair user/occupant pushing the wheelchair by hand, or by an attendant pushing from the rear; the earliest records of wheeled furniture are an inscription found on a stone slate in China and a child's bed depicted in a frieze on a Greek vase, both dating between the 6th and 5th century BCE. The first records of wheeled seats being used for transporting disabled people date to three centuries in China. A distinction between the two functions was not made for another several hundred years, until around 525 CE, when images of wheeled chairs made to carry people begin to occur in Chinese art.
Although Europeans developed a similar design, this method of transportation did not exist until 1595 when an unknown inventor from Spain built one for King Phillip II. Although it was an elaborate chair having both armrests and leg rests, the design still had shortcomings since it did not feature an efficient propulsion mechanism and thus, requires assistance to propel it; this makes the design more of a modern-day highchair or portable throne for the wealthy rather than a modern-day wheelchair for the disabled. In 1655, Stephan Farffler, a 22-year-old paraplegic watchmaker, built the world's first self-propelling chair on a three-wheel chassis using a system of cranks and cogwheels. However, the device had an appearance of a hand bike more than a wheelchair since the design included hand cranks mounted at the front wheel; the invalid carriage or Bath chair brought the technology into more common use from around 1760. In 1887, wheelchairs were introduced to Atlantic City so invalid tourists could rent them to enjoy the Boardwalk.
Soon, many healthy tourists rented the decorated "rolling chairs" and servants to push them as a show of decadence and treatment they could never experience at home. In 1933 Harry C. Jennings, Sr. and his disabled friend Herbert Everest, both mechanical engineers, invented the first lightweight, folding, portable wheelchair. Everest had broken his back in a mining accident. Everest and Jennings saw the business potential of the invention and went on to become the first mass-market manufacturers of wheelchairs, their "X-brace" design is still albeit with updated materials and other improvements. The X-brace idea came to Harry from the men’s folding “camp chairs / stools”, rotated 90 degrees, that Harry and Herbert used in the outdoors and at the mines. There are a wide variety of types of wheelchair, differing by propulsion method, mechanisms of control, technology used; some wheelchairs are designed for general everyday use, others for single activities, or to address specific access needs. Innovation within the wheelchair industry is common, but many innovations fall by the wayside, either from over-specialization, or from failing to come to market at an accessible price-point.
The iBot is the best known example of this in recent years. A self-propelled manual wheelchair incorporates a frame, one or two footplates and four wheels: two caster wheels at the front and two large wheels at the back. There will also be a separate seat cushion; the larger rear wheels have push-rims of smaller diameter projecting just beyond the tyre. Manual wheelchairs have brakes that bear on the tyres of the rear wheels, however these are a parking brake and in-motion braking is provided by the user's palms bearing directly on the push-rims; as this causes friction and heat build-up on long downslopes, many wheelchair users will choose to wear padded wheelchair gloves. Manual wheelchairs have two push handles at the upper rear of the frame to allow for manual propulsion by a second person, however many active wheelchair users will remove these to prevent unwanted pushing from people who believe they are being helpful. Everyday manual wheelchairs come in two major varieties, folding or rigid.
Folding chairs are low-end designs, whose predominant advantage is being able to fold by bringing the two sides together. However this is an advantage for part-time users who may need to store the wheelchair more than use it. Rigid wheelchairs, which are preferred by full-time and active users, have permanently welded joints and many fewer moving parts; this reduces the energy required to push the chair by eliminating many points where the chair would flex and absorb energy as it moves. Welded rather than folding joints reduce the overall weight of the chair. Rigid chairs feature instant-release rear wheels and backrests that fold down flat, allowing the user to dismantle the chair for storage in a car. A few wheelchairs attempt to combine the features of both designs by providing a fold-to-rigid mechanism in which the joints are mechanically locked when the wheelchair is in use. Many rigid models are now made with ultralight materials such as aircraft-grade aluminium and titanium, wheelchairs of
Grand County, Utah
Grand County is a county on the east central edge of Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,225, its county seat and largest city is Moab. Evidence of indigenous occupation up to 10,000BCE has been seen in Grand County; the present city of Moab is the site of pueblo farming communities of the 12th centuries. These groups were vanished when the first European explorers entered the country; the European-based settlement of the area began with arrival of Mormon pioneers in 1847. By 1855 they had sent missionary-settlers into eastern Utah Territory. An Elk Mountain Mission closed after a few months due to Indian raids. For several decades thereafter, the future Moab area was visited only by prospectors. Permanaent settlement began in 1877; these early settlers, coming in from the north, encountered the deep canyon walls of the Grand River and were unable to take wagons over, or around, the steep canyon walls. They dismantled the wagons and lowered them by rope to the river valley.
They drove their oxen over a canyon rim, down deep sand dunes. After the wagons were reassembled and supplies reloaded, they made their way through the deep sand to the river, they found a place to ford the river, below the present bridge in north Moab. They established a ferry at the crossing site, which remained in use until the first bridge was built in 1921. In 1881 the area was known as Grand Valley, Moab was a "wild west" town. A 1991 visitor to Moab said it was known as the toughest town in Utah because the area and surrounding country has many deep canyons, rivers and wilderness areas, becoming a hideout for outlaws; the local economy was based on farming and livestock. Mining came in at the end of the 19th century, the railroad arrived; the first school in the county was started in 1881. Mormon settlers began planting fruit trees by 1879, by 1910 Moab was a significant fruit-production center. Due to the distances involved, the settlers of eastern Emery County found it difficult to conduct county business in that county's seat.
By March 13, 1890 their petitions caused the Utah Territory legislature to designate the eastern portion of the county as a separate entity, to be named Grand County, named for the Grand River. The county boundaries were adjusted in 1892 and in 2003. Exploration for deep petroleum deposits began in the 1920s, this industry has made significant contribution to the economy since that time. Other significant industries include uranium mining, filmmaking. Grand County lies on the east side of Utah, its east border abuts the west border of the state of Colorado. The Green River flows southward through the eastern part of central Utah, its meandering course defines the western border of Grand County; the Colorado River enters the east side of Grand County from Colorado, flowing southwestward toward its confluence with the Green in San Juan County, south of Grand. The Dolores River enters Grand County from Colorado, flowing westward to its confluence with the Colorado River near Dewey. Grand County terrain is arid and spectacularly carved by water and wind erosion, exposing red rock formations that have created a solid tourist industry.
The area is little used for agriculture. The terrain is filled with hills and protuberances, but slopes to the south and to the west, its highest point is Mount Waas in the SE part of the county, at 12,336' ASL. The county has a total area of 3,684 square miles, of which 3,672 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Deserts and plateaus make up the scenery, with few settlements apart from the city of Moab, a Colorado River oasis. Arches National Park lies in the southern part of the county, just north of Moab. A northern portion of Canyonlands National Park lies in the southwest corner of the county. Canyonlands Field northwest of Moab United States Interstate I-70 US-191 Utah State Highway UT-128 Utah State Highway UT-313 Pace Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 8,485 people, 3,434 households, 2,170 families in the county; the population density was 2.31/sqmi. There were 4,062 housing units at an average density of 1.11/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 92.65% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 3.85% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races.
5.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,434 households out of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.60% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.80% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.06. The county population contained 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 12.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,387, the median income for a family was $39,095. Males had a median income of $31,000 versus $21,769 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,356. About 10.90% of families and 14.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.20% of those under age 18 and 8.40% of those age 65 or over.
Grand County has