Oreo is a brand of cookie consisting of two chocolate wafers with a sweet crème filling, marketed as "Chocolate Sandwich Cookie". Introduced in 1912, Oreo is the bestselling cookie in the United States; as of 2018, the version sold in the U. S. is made by the Nabisco division of Mondelez International. Oreos are available in over one hundred different countries. Many different varieties of Oreo cookies have been produced, limited edition runs have become popular in the 21st century; the origin of the name Oreo is unknown, but there are many hypotheses, including derivations from the French word or, meaning gold, or the Greek word ωραίο, meaning tasty, nice or well done. Others believe that the cookie was named Oreo because the name was short and easy to pronounce. Another theory is that the name derives from a genus of the laurel family. Food writer Stella Parks notes in her book BraveTart: Iconic American Desserts that the original design of the Oreo includes a laurel wreath; the "Oreo Biscuit" was first developed and produced by the National Biscuit Company in 1912 at its Chelsea, Manhattan factory in the current-day Chelsea Market complex, located on Ninth Avenue between 15th and 16th Streets.
Today, this same block of Ninth Avenue is known as "Oreo Way". The name Oreo was first trademarked on March 14, 1912, it was launched as an imitation of the Hydrox cookie manufactured by Sunshine company, introduced in 1908. The original design on the face of the Oreo featured a wreath around the edge of the cookie and the name "OREO" in the center. In the United States, they were sold for 25 cents a pound in novelty metal canisters with clear glass tops; the first Oreo was sold on March 1912, to a grocer in Hoboken, New Jersey. The Oreo Biscuit was renamed in 1921 to "Oreo Sandwich". A new design for the face of the cookie was launched in 1924. In 1920, a second lemon crème-filled variety of the Oreo was introduced, as an alternative to the white crème-filled variety, but this was discontinued in 1924 and the original flavor was the only version available for the next several decades; the modern Oreo cookie filling was developed by Nabisco's principal food scientist, Sam Porcello, who retired from Nabisco in 1993.
Porcello held five patents directly related to his work on the Oreo. In the early 1990s, health concerns prompted Nabisco to replace the lard in the crème filling with hydrogenated vegetable oil. Oreo cookies are popular with people that have certain dietary restrictions, such as vegans, as the crème filling does not use any animal products. However, there is still a risk of cross-contamination from other dairy-containing products made in the same production areas.. From January 2006, Nabisco replaced the trans fat in the Oreo cookie with non-hydrogenated vegetable oil. Nabisco began a marketing campaign in 2008, advertising the use of Oreo cookies in an online game called DSRL, introduced the week before Super Bowl XLII. DSRL had been endorsed by football brothers Peyton Eli Manning. Another campaign was launched for Golden Double Stuf Oreo cookies, in which the Manning brothers were challenged by Donald Trump and a character called "Double Trump", played by Darrell Hammond; the Mannings won both races.
Another advertisement featured a "Hooded Menace" threatening to take over the DSRL, with Eli Manning and Stufy needing some help, which aired on September 14, 2010. Six days it was announced that Shaquille O'Neal and Apolo Ohno had joined Oreo's DSRL veterans Eli Manning and Venus Williams. In April 2011, Oreo announced its special edition Oreo cookies with blue crème to promote the 2011 3D computer animated film Rio; the promotion included stickers inside each package of cookies. Two contests were announced: by completing an album of stickers, consumers could win three movie passes and medium snack bar combos; the promotion was available in Ecuador and Colombia, ended on May 30, 2011. In June 2012, Oreo posted an advertisement displaying an Oreo cookie with rainbow colored crème to celebrate LGBT Pride month; the advertisement prompted some negative comments, but Kraft stood by their promotion, stating that "Kraft Foods has a proud history of celebrating diversity and inclusiveness. We feel the Oreo ad is a fun reflection of our values."
This was followed during 2012 by a series of adverts commemorating other holidays and events, including a blue and red crème Oreo to honor Bastille Day, a stream of cookie crumbs marking the appearance of the Delta Aquariids meteor shower, a cookie with a jagged bite taken out of it to promote Shark Week on The Discovery Channel. Oreo cookies are distributed worldwide through a variety of sales and marketing channels. A
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another in their sequence of amino acids, dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, which results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are considered to be proteins and are called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides; the individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, encoded in the genetic code.
In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids. Shortly after or during synthesis, the residues in a protein are chemically modified by post-translational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, stability and the function of the proteins. Sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors. Proteins can work together to achieve a particular function, they associate to form stable protein complexes. Once formed, proteins only exist for a certain period and are degraded and recycled by the cell's machinery through the process of protein turnover. A protein's lifespan covers a wide range, they can exist for years with an average lifespan of 1 -- 2 days in mammalian cells. Abnormal or misfolded proteins are degraded more either due to being targeted for destruction or due to being unstable. Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in every process within cells.
Many proteins are enzymes that are vital to metabolism. Proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized. Digestion breaks the proteins down for use in the metabolism. Proteins may be purified from other cellular components using a variety of techniques such as ultracentrifugation, precipitation and chromatography. Methods used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L-α- amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, a variable side chain are bonded.
Only proline differs from this basic structure as it contains an unusual ring to the N-end amine group, which forces the CO–NH amide moiety into a fixed conformation. The side chains of the standard amino acids, detailed in the list of standard amino acids, have a great variety of chemical structures and properties; the amino acids in a polypeptide chain are linked by peptide bonds. Once linked in the protein chain, an individual amino acid is called a residue, the linked series of carbon and oxygen atoms are known as the main chain or protein backbone; the peptide bond has two resonance forms that contribute some double-bond character and inhibit rotation around its axis, so that the alpha carbons are coplanar. The other two dihedral angles in the peptide bond determine the local shape assumed by the protein backbone; the end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus.
The words protein and peptide are a little ambiguous and can overlap in meaning. Protein is used to refer to the complete biological molecule in a stable conformation, whereas peptide is reserved for a short amino acid oligomers lacking a stable three-dimensional structure. However, the boundary between the two is not well defined and lies near 20–30 residues. Polypeptide can refer to any single linear chain of amino acids regardless of length, but implies an absence of a defined conformation. Proteins can interact with many types of molecules, including with other proteins, with lipids, with carboyhydrates, with DNA, it has been estimated. Smaller bacteria, such as Mycoplasma or spirochetes contain fewer molecules, on the order of 50,000 to 1 million. By contrast, eukaryotic cells are larger and thus contain much more pro
Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. The programme centres on Coronation Street in Weatherfield, a fictional town based on inner-city Salford. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in 1902 and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII; the show airs six times a week: Monday and Friday 7:30-8 pm and 8:30-9 pm. Since 2017, ten sequential classic episodes of the series from 1986 onwards have been broadcast weekly on ITV3; the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warren's initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the station's founder Sidney Bernstein, but he was persuaded by producer Harry Elton to produce the programme for 13 pilot episodes. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, is now a significant part of British culture; the show has been one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television and wider ITV network.
Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCityUK and shown in all ITV regions, as well as internationally. On 17 September 2010, it became the world's longest-running television soap opera and was listed in Guinness World Records. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's sixtieth anniversary. Influenced by the conventions of the kitchen sink drama, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth, working-class community, combined with light-hearted humour and strong characters; the show averages 8 million viewers per episode. The first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, was not a critical success. Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial, won over by Coronation Street's ordinary characters; the programme made use of Northern English language and dialect. Early episodes told the story of student Kenneth Barlow, who had won a place at university, thus found his working-class background—as well as his parents and Ida —something of an embarrassment.
The character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, the decline of similar communities. In an episode from 1961, Barlow declares: "You can't go on just thinking about your own street these days. We're living with people on the other side of the world. There's more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends." Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, in British and global soap history. At the centre of many early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, her friends: timid Minnie Caldwell, bespectacled Martha Longhurst; the trio were likened to the Greek chorus, the three witches in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, as they would sit in the snug bar of the Rovers Return, passing judgement over family and each other. Headstrong Ena clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals.
Elsie resented Ena's gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the following year in 1962, he left in 1963, but returned three years in 1966. He left again and returned 42 years in 2008. In March 1961, Coronation Street reached No. 1 in the television ratings and remained there for the rest of the year. Earlier in 1961, a Television Audience Measurement showed that 75% of available viewers tuned into Corrie, by 1964 the programme had over 20 million regular viewers, with ratings peaking on 2 December 1964, at 21.36 million viewers. Storylines throughout the decade included a mystery poison-pen letter received by Elsie Tanner, the 1962 marriage of Ken Barlow and Valerie Tatlock, the death of Martha Longhurst in 1964, the birth of the Barlow twins in 1965, Elsie Tanner's wedding to Steve Tanner and a train crashing from the viaduct, Steve Tanner's murder in 1968, a coach crash in 1969. In spite of rising popularity with viewers, Coronation Street was criticised by some for its outdated portrayal of the urban working class, its representation of a community, a nostalgic fantasy.
After the first episode in 1960, the Daily Mirror printed: "The programme is doomed from the outset... For there is little reality in this new serial, which we have to suffer twice a week." By 1967, critics were suggesting that the programme no longer reflected life in 1960s Britain, but reflected how life was in the 1950s. Granada hurried to update the programme, with the hope of introducing more issue-driven stories, including Lucille Hewitt becoming addicted to drugs, Jerry Booth being in a storyline about homosexuality, Emily Nugent having an out-of-wedlock child, introducing a black family, but all of these ideas were dropped for fear of upsetting viewers; the show's production team was tested when many core cast members left the programm
Mondelēz International, Inc. is an American multinational confectionery and beverage company based in Illinois which employs about 83,000 people around the world. It consists of the global snack and food brands of Kraft Foods Inc. after the October 2012 spin-off of its North American grocery-foods products. The Mondelez name, adopted in 2012, was suggested by Kraft Foods employees and is derived from the Latin word mundus and delez, a fanciful modification of the word "delicious"; the company, headquartered near Chicago, manufactures chocolate, biscuits, gum and powdered beverages. Mondelez International's portfolio includes several billion-dollar brands such as Belvita, Chips Ahoy!, Oreo, Ritz, TUC, Triscuit, LU, Club Social and Peek Freans. The company has an annual revenue of about $26 billion and operates in 160 countries; the company ranked No. 117 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Mondelez Canada holds the rights to Christie Brown and Company, which consists of brands such as Mr. Christie and Dad's Cookies.
Its head office is in Mississauga, with operations in Toronto, Hamilton and Montreal, Quebec. Mondelez International is rooted in the National Dairy Products Corporation, founded on December 10, 1923, by Thomas H. McInnerney and Edward E. Rieck; the company was formed to execute a rollup strategy in the fragmented United States ice cream industry, with acquisitions it expanded into the full range of dairy products. McInnerney operated the Hydrox Corporation, a Chicago ice-cream company. In 1923 he went to Wall Street to ask investment bankers to finance his plan to consolidate the United States ice-cream industry. McInnerney encountered resistance, with one banker disparaging the dairy industry, he persevered. As a result, National Dairy was formed with the merger of McInnerney's Hydrox with the Rieck-McJunkin Dairy Company of Pittsburgh; the company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange, with its initial public offering of 125,000 shares oversubscribed. National Dairy grew through a large number of acquisitions.
The company acquired more than 55 firms between 1923 and 1931, including: Born in Stevensville, Ontario in 1874, James L. Kraft emigrated to the United States in 1903 and began a wholesale door-to-door cheese business in Chicago, his first year of operations was "dismal", when he lost a horse. However, the business took hold and Kraft was joined by his four brothers to form the J. L. Kraft and Bros. Company in 1909. In 1912, the company established a headquarters in New York City to prepare for international expansion. By 1914 thirty-one varieties of cheese were sold across the US and Kraft opened a subsidiary cheese factory in Illinois. In 1915 the company developed pasteurized processed cheese, which did not require refrigeration and had a longer shelf life than conventional cheese; the following year Kraft began national advertising and made its first acquisition, a Canadian cheese company. In 1924, the company changed its name to the Kraft Cheese Company and was listed on the Chicago Stock Exchange.
Two years it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Kraft began to consolidate the US dairy industry through acquisition, competing with National Dairy and Borden. Acquisitions included: In 1928 Kraft acquired the Phenix Cheese Company, manufacturer of Philadelphia cream cheese, changed its name to Kraft Phenix; the following year, The New York Times reported that Kraft Phenix, the Hershey Company, Colgate were considering a merger. By 1930, Kraft Phenix controlled 40 percent of the cheese market in the US and was the country's third-largest dairy company after National Dairy and Borden; that year the company began operating after a merger with Fred Walker & Co.. At the 1930 acquisition, National Dairy had sales of $315 million, compared with $85 million for Kraft Phenix. National Dairy management ran the company. After the acquisition, the company was known as National Dairy and its management ran the company until 1969, when it was renamed Kraftco. Although the company's sales were dairy products, its product lines began to diversify from dairy products to caramel candies, macaroni-and-cheese dinners and margarine.
During the 1950s, it began to move away from low-value-added-commodity dairy products such as fluid milk. In 1933, National Dairy began advertising on radio. Two years Sealtest ice cream was introduced as a national brand, replacing the company's regional brands. During World War II, the company sent Britain four million pounds of cheese weekly. Around this time, Thomas McInnerney and James L. Kraft died. In 1947 the company sponsored Kraft Television Theatre; the product advertised on the program, MacLaren's Imperial Cheese, was selected because "... not only had no advertising appropriation whatsoever, but had not been distributed for several years". According to internal documents of J. Walter Thompson, "Although there was no other advertising support for it whatsoever, still grocery stores could not keep up with the demand."During the 1960s Kraft introduced fruit jellies, fruit preserves, marshmallo
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the SI unit of energy is the joule, the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field, the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass and energy are related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy, any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase the object's total mass just as it increases its total energy. For example, after heating an object, its increase in energy could be measured as a small increase in mass, with a sensitive enough scale.
Living organisms require exergy to stay alive, such as the energy. Human civilization requires energy to function, which it gets from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, or renewable energy; the processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth. The total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified into potential energy, kinetic energy, or combinations of the two in various ways. Kinetic energy is determined by the movement of an object – or the composite motion of the components of an object – and potential energy reflects the potential of an object to have motion, is a function of the position of an object within a field or may be stored in the field itself. While these two categories are sufficient to describe all forms of energy, it is convenient to refer to particular combinations of potential and kinetic energy as its own form. For example, macroscopic mechanical energy is the sum of translational and rotational kinetic and potential energy in a system neglects the kinetic energy due to temperature, nuclear energy which combines utilize potentials from the nuclear force and the weak force), among others.
The word energy derives from the Ancient Greek: translit. Energeia, lit.'activity, operation', which appears for the first time in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century BC. In contrast to the modern definition, energeia was a qualitative philosophical concept, broad enough to include ideas such as happiness and pleasure. In the late 17th century, Gottfried Leibniz proposed the idea of the Latin: vis viva, or living force, which defined as the product of the mass of an object and its velocity squared. To account for slowing due to friction, Leibniz theorized that thermal energy consisted of the random motion of the constituent parts of matter, although it would be more than a century until this was accepted; the modern analog of this property, kinetic energy, differs from vis viva only by a factor of two. In 1807, Thomas Young was the first to use the term "energy" instead of vis viva, in its modern sense. Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described "kinetic energy" in 1829 in its modern sense, in 1853, William Rankine coined the term "potential energy".
The law of conservation of energy was first postulated in the early 19th century, applies to any isolated system. It was argued for some years whether heat was a physical substance, dubbed the caloric, or a physical quantity, such as momentum. In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the generation of heat; these developments led to the theory of conservation of energy, formalized by William Thomson as the field of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics aided the rapid development of explanations of chemical processes by Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Walther Nernst, it led to a mathematical formulation of the concept of entropy by Clausius and to the introduction of laws of radiant energy by Jožef Stefan. According to Noether's theorem, the conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time. Thus, since 1918, theorists have understood that the law of conservation of energy is the direct mathematical consequence of the translational symmetry of the quantity conjugate to energy, namely time.
In 1843, James Prescott Joule independently discovered the mechanical equivalent in a series of experiments. The most famous of them used the "Joule apparatus": a descending weight, attached to a string, caused rotation of a paddle immersed in water insulated from heat transfer, it showed that the gravitational potential energy lost by the weight in descending was equal to the internal energy gained by the water through friction with the paddle. In the International System of Units, the unit of energy is the joule, named after James Prescott Joule, it is a derived unit. It is equal to the energy expended in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre; however energy is expressed in many other units not part of the SI, such as ergs, British Thermal Units, kilowatt-hours and kilocalories, which require a conversion factor when expressed in SI units. The SI unit of energy rate is the watt, a joule per second. Thus, one joule is one watt-second, 3600 joules equal one wa
Cadbury Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International since 2010. It is the second-largest confectionery brand in the world after Mars. Cadbury is internationally headquartered in Uxbridge, West London, operates in more than 50 countries worldwide, it is known for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in 2013 The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports. Cadbury was established in Birmingham, England in 1824, by John Cadbury who sold tea and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons George. George developed the Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the chocolate was the company's best-selling product.
Cadbury, alongside Rowntree's and Fry, were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Cadbury was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in 1854, it has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Elizabeth II since 1955. Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons in 1919, Schweppes in 1969, known as Cadbury Schweppes until 2008, when the American beverage business was split as Dr Pepper Snapple Group. Cadbury was a constant constituent of the FTSE 100 on the London Stock Exchange from the index's 1984 inception until the company was bought by Kraft Foods in 2010. In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers".
In 1847, Cadbury's competitor Fry's of Bristol produced the first chocolate bar. Cadbury introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849, that same year and Fry's chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham; the Cadbury brothers opened an office in London, in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s. John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, the company was losing money. By 1866, Cadbury was profitable again; the brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, by increasing the quality of their products. The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean.
The firm began exporting its products in the 1850s. In 1861, the company created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — and in 1868 they were sold in boxes in the shape of a heart for Valentine's Day. Boxes of filled chocolates became associated with the holiday. In 1878, the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham; the move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk, inward shipped by canal, cocoa, brought in by rail from London and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres of countryside 5 miles south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year. In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'.
By 1900 the estate included 314 houses set on 330 acres of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate. In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company. In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper, it was a great sales success, became the company's best selling product by 1914. The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War.
More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male employees joined the British Armed Forces, to support the British war effort, Cadbury provided chocolate and clothing to the troops. George Cadbury handed over two com