James Dixon Barnes is a Scottish-Australian rock singer and songwriter. His career both as a solo performer and as the lead vocalist with the rock band Cold Chisel has made him one of the most popular and best-selling Australian music artists of all time; the combination of 14 Australian Top 40 albums for Cold Chisel and 13 charting solo albums, including nine No. 1s, gives Barnes the highest number of hit albums of any Australian artist. James Swan was born in Scotland, he arrived in Adelaide, South Australia as a 5-year-old on 21 January 1962 with his parents Jim and Dorothy Swan and siblings John, Dorothy and Alan. Another sister, was born in 1962, the family settled in Elizabeth, South Australia, his father, Jim Swan, was a prizefighter and his older brother John Swan, known as Swanee worked as a rock singer. John encouraged and taught Jim how to sing as he was not interested. Shortly afterward, Barnes' parents divorced, his mother Dorothy soon remarried, to a clerk named Reg Barnes. Barnes was raised a Protestant, considers himself a Buddhist.
In September 2009 he revealed. Barnes took an apprenticeship in a foundry with the South Australian Railways in 1973, but the love he and his brother had for music led him to join a band. Swanee was now playing drums with Fraternity. Barnes took over the role but his tenure with the band was brief and before long he had joined a harder-edged band called Orange, featuring organist and songwriter Don Walker, guitarist Ian Moss, drummer Steve Prestwich and bassist Les Kaczmarek. Within a short time the group had changed its name to "Cold Chisel" and began to develop a strong presence on the local music scene. Barnes' relationship with the band was volatile and he left several times, leaving Moss to handle vocal duties until he returned. After a temporary move to Armidale, New South Wales while Walker completed his engineering studies there, Cold Chisel moved to Melbourne in August 1976, three months shifted base to Sydney. Progress was slow and Barnes announced he was leaving once again in May 1977 to join Swanee in a band called Feather.
However, his farewell performance with Cold Chisel went so well that he changed his mind and decided to stay in the band, a month WEA signed the band. By 1980 Cold Chisel was the biggest band in Australia and Barnes had developed a notorious reputation as a hard-drinking wild man who drank more than two bottles of vodka a day, much of it onstage during performances. While in Canberra in November 1979, however, he met Jane Mahoney, the stepdaughter of an Australian diplomat. Barnes began a relationship with her and they started living together, but in March 1980 she began to feel overwhelmed by the rock lifestyle and followed her family to Tokyo, where her father was posted. Barnes wrote the song "Rising Sun" about this; the pair married in Sydney on 22 May 1981 and Jane gave birth to their first child Mahalia, named after Mahalia Jackson, on 12 July 1982. The couple have four children. Barnes had fathered a son, singer David Campbell, due to the young age of his parents at the time of his birth, was being raised by his grandmother, but while Barnes maintained contact with him, Campbell did not become aware that Barnes was his father and not a family friend until the mid-1980s.
The singer had never been careful with money and the increasing pressure on him to provide for his young family caused more tension between him and the rest of Cold Chisel. Despite being hugely successful in Australia, the group had still not been able to crack the market internationally. A disastrous tour of the United States in 1981 pulled them further apart. While the 1982 album Circus Animals provided Cold Chisel with its second consecutive No. 1 album, Barnes returned from the band's German tour in 1983 broke. He asked for a $10,000 advance from the band's management but was refused, as the terms of the group's contract meant that if one member was given such a sum, the rest of them were entitled to the same amount. At a meeting in August, it was decided; the group had begun to fragment, with Ray Arnott having replaced Steve Prestwich earlier in the year. Sessions for the final album were spread across different studios as various members refused to work together, but at the end of the year The Last Stand farewell tour became the highest-grossing concert-series by an Australian band ever.
The group gave its final performance in Sydney on 12 December 1983 precisely ten years after its original formation. The resultant film of that show remains the best-selling live-concert film of any Australian band. Barnes had recorded seven albums including two live albums, he was arguably now Australia's highest-profile rock singer. Barnes launched his own career less than a month, he assembled a band that included Arnott, former Fraternity bass player Bruce Howe and guitarists Mal Eastick and Chris Stockley and began touring and writing for a solo album. Signing to Mushroom Records, Barnes released his first solo album Bodyswerve, he was now billing himself as Jimmy Bar
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use; the term xylophone may be used to include all such instruments such as the marimba and the semantron. However, in the orchestra, the term xylophone refers to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba, these two instruments should not be confused; the term is popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types. For example, the Pixiphone and many similar toys described by the makers as xylophones have bars of metal rather than of wood, so are in organology regarded as glockenspiels rather than as xylophones; the bars of metal sound more high-pitched than the wooden ones. The modern western xylophone has bars of rosewood, padauk, or various synthetic materials such as fiberglass or fiberglass-reinforced plastic which allows a louder sound.
Some can be as small a range as 2 1⁄2 octaves but concert xylophones are 3 1⁄2 or 4 octaves. The xylophone is a transposing instrument: its parts are written one octave below the sounding notes. Concert xylophones have tube resonators below the bars to sustain. Frames are made of wood or cheap steel tubing: more expensive xylophones feature height adjustment and more stability in the stand. In other music cultures some versions have gourds that act as Helmholtz resonators. Others are "trough" xylophones with a single hollow body. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, and, as still practiced today, placing the bars adjacent to each other in a ladder-like layout. Ancient mallets were made of willow wood with spoon-like bowls on the beaten ends. Xylophones should be played with hard rubber, polyball, or acrylic mallets. Sometimes medium to hard rubber mallets hard core, or yarn mallets are used for softer effects. Lighter tones can be created on xylophones by using wooden-headed mallets made from rosewood, birch, or other hard woods.
The instrument has obscure ancient origins. According to Nettl, it originated in southeast Asia and came to Africa c. AD 500 when a group of Malayo-Polynesian speaking peoples migrated to Africa. One piece of evidence for this is the similarity between East African xylophone orchestras and Javanese and Balinese gamelan orchestras. This, however has been questioned by ethnomusicologist and linguist Roger Blench who posits an independent origin in Africa; the earliest evidence of a true xylophone is from the 9th century in southeast Asia, while a similar hanging wood instrument, a type of harmonicon, is said by the Vienna Symphonic Library to have existed in 2000 BC in what is now part of China. The xylophone-like ranat was used in Hindu regions. In Indonesia, few regions have their own type of xylophones. In North Sumatra, The Toba Batak people use wooden xylophones known as the Garantung. Java and Bali use xylophones in gamelan ensembles, they still have traditional significance in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and regions of the Americas.
Myanmar xylophone is known as Pattala and is made of bamboo. The term marimba is applied to various traditional folk instruments such as the West Africa balafon. Early forms were constructed of bars atop a gourd; the wood is first roasted around a fire before shaping the key to achieve the desired tone. The resonator is tuned to the key through careful choice of size of resonator, adjustment of the diameter of the mouth of the resonator using wasp wax and adjustment of the height of the key above the resonator. A skilled maker can produce startling amplification; the mallets used to play dibinda and mbila have heads made from natural rubber taken from a wild creeping plant. "Interlocking" or alternating rhythm features in Eastern African xylophone music such as that of the Makonde dimbila, the Yao mangolongondo or the Shirima mangwilo in which the opachera, the initial caller, is responded to by another player, the wakulela. This doubles an rapid rhythmic pulse that may co-exist with a counter-rhythm.
The mbila is associated in southern Mozambique. It is not to be confused with the mbira; the style of music played on it is believed to be the most sophisticated method of composition yet found among preliterate peoples. The gourd-resonated, equal-ratio heptatonic-tuned mbila of Mozambique is played in large ensembles in a choreographed dance depicting a historical drama. Ensembles consist of around ten xylophones of four sizes. A full orchestra would have two bass instruments called gulu with three or four wooden keys played standing up using heavy mallets with solid rubber heads, three tenor dibinda, with ten keys and played seated, the mbila itself, which has up to nineteen keys of which up to eight may be played simultaneously; the gulu uses dibinda Masala apple shells as resonators. They accompany the dance with long compositions called ngomi or mgodo and consist of about 10 pieces of music grouped into 4 separate movements, with an overture, in different tempos and styles; the ensemble leader serves as poet, composer and performer, creating a text, improvising a melody based on the features of the Chopi tone language and composin
Soul Deeper... Songs from the Deep South
Soul Deeper... Songs From the Deep South is an album by Australian rock singer Jimmy Barnes. Following the success of his 1991 album Soul Deep, Barnes returned with another album of soul covers. A special 2CD edition was released, it was certified Platinum by ARIA in Australia. "Land of 1000 Dances" – 2:35 "Chain of Fools" – 3:21 "What Becomes of the Broken Hearted" – 3:36 "To Love Somebody" – 3:51 "634-5789" – 3:06 "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" – 2:56 "I Put a Spell on You" – 2:42 "Money" – 2:33 "Hold On, I'm Coming" – 2:41 "Dancing in the Street" – 2:57 "All the Young Dudes" – 3:24 "Respect" – 2:35Limitted edition 2CD"Rip It Up" – 2:10 "I'll Go Crazy" – 2:46 "Who's Making Love" – 3:18 "Is This Love" – 5:24 "Hound Dog" – 2:44 Soul Deeper... Songs from the Deep South peaked at number 3 in Australia. Credits adapted from AllMusic. Jimmy Barnes: Primary artist Sweet Pea Atkinson: Backing vocals Alexandra Brown: Backing vocals Mark Dearnley: Engineering, mixing James Gadson: Drums Howard Karp: Assistant engineer Mark Lizotte: Guitar Reggie McBride: Bass Cameron Moss: Design Dana Pilson: Production coordination Johnny Lee Schell: Guitar Jean Smith: Photography Lee Thornburg: Trombone, trumpet Mick Weaver: Keyboards David Woodford: Saxophone
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Mahalia Violet Barnes is an Australian singer-songwriter and manager, the daughter of Scottish-Australian rock singer Jimmy Barnes and Jane Mahoney. She began performing as part of children's pop group The Tin Lids with siblings, Eliza-Jane'E. J.', Elly-May and Jackie, but has since become a backup singer in her own right. She most has sung backup for Joe Bonamassa in the studio, live. Mahalia Violet Barnes was born on 12 July 1982 in Sydney, she is the daughter of Jimmy Barnes an Australian rock singer, Jane Mahoney, the stepdaughter of an Australian diplomat. The pair married in Sydney on 22 May 1981, Barnes was named after United States gospel singer, Mahalia Jackson; when she was eight, Barnes joined younger siblings, Eliza-Jane'E. J.' and Jackie for the recording sessions of their father's Two Fires album. Their voices are among the children's choir that features on the track "When Your Love is Gone". From the age of nine she formed part of the children's singing group The Tin Lids with siblings Eliza-Jane'E.
J.', Elly-May and Jackie. The Tin Lids recorded three albums between 1994, all of which achieved platinum sales. One of their albums, Snakes & Ladders was nominated for the ARIA Award for Best Children's Album in 1993. Barnes has an older half-brother, David Campbell, through her father. Barnes performs regular live gigs around Australia and backs other artists including R&B singer Jade MacRae, live Sydney band The Hands and her father Jimmy, she has worked for MacRae, The Hands, Gary Pinto and her uncle Johnny Diesel. She has contributed to Reece Mastin and his Change Colours album. Barnes's debut album Volume 1 with the Soul Mates was released in June 2008. Barnes auditioned for the first season of the Australian version of The Voice with the song "Proud Mary", the episode of, broadcast on 22 April 2012 on the Nine Network. All coaches pressed their buttons realised that she was in fact Jimmy Barnes' daughter. Mahalia chose to join Joel Madden's team. Mahalia was eliminated in the battle ring when she was pitted against Prinnie Stevens, close to Mahalia.
Barnes became Reece Mastin's manager in early 2015. She contributed to his Change Colours album, they had been friends before she became his manager, he has worked with the whole Barnes family, with all of them making a cameo on his new record, including daughter Ruby Rodgers with Ben Rodgers, the bassist on the record Change Colours. Rodgers plays guitar and bass at his love performances. SoloLive at the Basement Mahalia Barnes & The Soul Mates Volume 1 Ooh Yeah! - The Betty Davis Songbook With Jimmy BarnesTwo Fires Double Happiness Och Aye the G'nu With The Tin LidsHey Rudolph AUS: No. 6 Christmas Day AUS: No. 40 Walk the Dinosaur Snakes & Ladders School Song Dinosaur Dreaming Dinosaurs in Space Prinnie + MahaliaCome Together With Reece MastinChange Colours | Backing Vocals and Composition Mahalia Barnes on IMDb Official Myspace page
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul