Noir fiction is a literary genre related to hardboiled genre, with a distinction that the protagonist is not a detective, but instead either a victim, a suspect, or a perpetrator. Other common characteristics include a self-destructive protagonist. A typical protagonist of noir fiction is dealing with the legal, political or other system, no less corrupt than the perpetrator, by whom the protagonist is either victimized and/or has to victimize others on a daily basis, leading to a lose-lose situation. In the English-speaking world, the term originated as a cinematic one. Film noir refers to cinematic works influenced by novels of the hardboiled tradition, exhibiting postwar disillusionment and realism as influenced by German Expressionism. "Noir" was popularized in the 1980s as applied to fiction by editor Barry Gifford of the crime fiction publisher Black Lizard. But, as Eddie Duggan points out in his 1999 article on Cornell Woolrich, the word "noir" was used by the Paris-based publisher Gallimard in 1945 as the title for its Série Noire imprint.
Woolrich's biographer, Francis M. Nevins, suggests the series title may have been inspired by Woolrich's own'Black' novel series (The Bride Wore Black. Duggan discusses the distinction between so-called "noir fiction" and hard-boiled writing. James M. Cain – regarded as the third major figure of the early hardboiled genre – is regarded as an American pioneer of the noir genre, he debuted as a crime novelist in 1934. Other important American writers in the noir genre include Cornell Woolrich, Dorothy B. Hughes, Jim Thompson, David Goodis, Charles Williams, Elmore Leonard. Mediterranean Noir refers to noir fiction in a Mediterranean setting. Sex and physical violence figure prominently in Mediterranean Noir narratives. Social and historical issues specific to the region – governmental corruption and instability and racial strife – are underlying plot considerations. Prominent authors of the movement include Jean-Claude Izzo, Andrea Camilleri, Massimo Carlotto, Eduardo Mendoza, Batya Gur and Enrico Teodorani.
According to the Italian publisher Sandro Ferri, Mediterranean Noir is remarkable for its attention to a unique duality of Mediterranean life: The prevailing vision in the novels belonging to the genre known as Mediterranean noir is a pessimistic one. Authors and their literary inventions look upon the cities of the Mediterranean and see places that have been broken and distorted by crime. There is always a kind of dualism. On one hand, there is the Mediterranean lifestyle-- fine wine and fine food, conviviality, blue skies and limpid seas-- an art of living brought to perfection. On the other hand, corruption and abuses of power. W. R. Burnett, part of the first wave of hardboiled writers along with Hammett and Cain, wrote in a style that split the difference featuring heroic gangsters as his leads; the five novels featuring alcoholic detective Bill Crane, written by Jonathan Latimer over the course of the 1930s, constitute one of the earliest literary series of hardboiled screwball comedy.
The work of Charles Willeford has sometimes been referred to as hardboiled or noir fiction. But it is more helpfully characterized as "neo-noir," as Willeford's crime writing employs the conventions of hardboiled literature without critiquing them. Of latter-day hardboiled novelists who feature detective protagonists, the most prominent to write in a noir mode is James Ellroy. In terms of character and worldview, Patricia Highsmith is a quintessential writer of noir fiction—her work has been the source for numerous movie adaptations, both American and European, but her style sets her apart: far from "lean" and "direct," it is characteristically dense and subtle. Urban Noir focuses on the "underbelly" of life in a variety of major cities, including London, Shanghai and Boston. Johnny Temple, founder of Akashic Books, cites a common urban noir thread as "authors whose life circumstances place them in environments vulnerable to crime." Akashic has published noir anthologies for more than 50 cities and features short stories from some of the best known urban noir writers.
They have published pieces by mainstream and crime/mystery writers known for occasional noir incursions, such as Don Winslow, Joyce Carol Oates, Michael Connelly, Dennis Lehane, Elmore Leonard and Lee Child. International crime fiction highlights the political nature of the genre. "Noir fiction serves to deconstruct the security state by exposing its acts and public, of hypocrisy and brutality." Dirty Snow by Georges Simenon, set in Nazi-occupied France, is an example of Existential Noir. Film noir Nordic noir Tartan Noir Duggan, Eddie. "Life's a bitch: paranoia and sexuality in the novels of David Goodis". Crimetime: 14–20 – via Academia.edu. Eddie Duggan'Writing in the darkness: the world of Cornell Woolrich' CrimeTime 2.6 pp. 113–126. Duggan, Eddie "Dashiell Hammett: Detective, Writer". Crimetime: 101–114 – via Academia.edu. Paul Duncan. Noir Fiction: Dark Highways. Pocket Essentials. ISBN 978-1-903047-11-8. Michelle Emanuel. From Surrealism to Less-Exquisite Cadavers: Léo Malet and the Evolution of the French Roman Noir.
Rodopi Bv Editions. ISBN 978-90-420-2080-1. Claire Gorrara; the Roman Noir in Post-War French Culture: Dark Fictions. Oxford University Press on Demand. ISBN 978-0-19-924609-0. Gorrara, Claire, "French Crime Fiction: From Genre Mineur To Patrimoine Culturel", in French Studies, 2007, Vol. LXI: pp. 209 – 214 Gorrara, Claire, "Narratives of Protest and the Roman Noir in Post-1968 Fr
David Morrell is a Canadian-American novelist, best known for his debut 1972 novel First Blood, which would become the successful Rambo film franchise starring Sylvester Stallone. He has written 28 novels, his work has been translated into 26 languages, he wrote the 2007–2008 Captain America comic book miniseries The Chosen. Morrell was born on the 24 April 1943 in Kitchener, Canada, he decided to become a writer at the age of 17, after being inspired by the writing in the classic television series Route 66. In 1966, Morrell received his B. A. in English from St. Jerome's University and moved to the United States to study with Hemingway scholar Philip Young at Pennsylvania State University, where he would receive his M. A. and Ph. D. in American literature. During his time at Penn State he met science fiction writer Philip Klass, better known by the pseudonym William Tenn, who taught the basics of writing fiction. Morrell began work as an English professor at the University of Iowa in 1970. In 1972, his novel First Blood was published.
Morrell continued to write many other novels, including The Brotherhood of the Rose, the first in a trilogy of novels, adapted into a 1989 NBC miniseries starring Robert Mitchum. He gave up his tenure at the university in 1986. Morrell is the co-president of the International Thriller Writers organization. Morrell's teenaged son Matthew died of Ewing's sarcoma, a rare form of bone cancer, in 1987; the trauma of his loss influenced Morrell's work, in particular in his creative fiction memoir about Matthew, Fireflies. The protagonist of Morrell's novel Desperate Measures experiences the loss of a son. Morrell is a graduate of the National Outdoor Leadership School for wilderness survival as well as the G. Gordon Liddy Academy of Corporate Security, he is an honorary lifetime member of the Special Operations Association and the Association of Former Intelligence Officers. According to his website, he has been trained to handle firearms, crisis negotiation, assuming identities, executive protection, defensive driving, among numerous other action skills that he describes in his novels.
He earned an FAA licence to pilot his own small plane as part of research for his 2009 novel, The Shimmer. Morrell became an American citizen in 1993, he lives in New Mexico. Morrell was presented with the 2009 ThrillerMaster Award from the ITW. First Blood ISBN 0-446-36440-1 Rambo: First Blood Part II - novelization of the film of the same name ISBN 0-515-08399-2 Rambo III - novelization of the film of the same name ISBN 0-515-09333-5 The Brotherhood of the Rose ISBN 0-449-20661-0 The Fraternity of the Stone ISBN 0-449-20973-3 The League of Night and Fog ISBN 0-449-21371-4 The Abelard Sanction in Thriller: Stories To Keep You Up All Night ed. James Patterson ISBN 1-74116-335-8 Creepers ISBN 1-59315-357-0 Scavenger ISBN 1-59315-483-6 Murder as a Fine Art ISBN 0-316-21678-X The Opium Eater: A Thomas De Quincey Story Inspector of the Dead ISBN 0-316-32393-4 Ruler of the Night ISBN 978-0-316-30790-1 Testament ISBN 0-446-69191-7 Last Reveille ISBN 0-446-36442-8 The Totem ISBN 0-446-36446-0 Blood Oath ISBN 0-312-95345-3 The Hundred-Year Christmas - illustrated by R. J. Krupowicz ISBN 0-937986-57-7 Fifth Profession ISBN 1-59737-769-4 The Covenant of the Flame ISBN 0-446-36292-1 Assumed Identity ISBN 0-446-60070-9 Desperate Measures ISBN 0-446-60239-6 The Totem - unabridged ISBN 0-446-36446-0 Extreme Denial ISBN 0-446-60396-1 Double Image ISBN 0-446-60696-0 Black Evening ISBN 0-446-60864-5 Burnt Sienna ISBN 0-446-60960-9 Long Lost ISBN 0-446-61194-8 The Protector ISBN 0-446-61403-3 Nightscape ISBN 0-7553-2174-X The Spy Who Came for Christmas ISBN 1-59315-701-0 The Shimmer ISBN 1-59315-580-8 The Naked Edge ISBN 1-937760-22-7 John Barth: An Introduction ISBN 0-271-01220-X Fireflies ISBN 1-937760-29-4 Lessons from a Lifetime of Writing: A Novelist Looks at His Craft ISBN 1-58297-270-2 Captain America: The Chosen The Amazing Spider-Man #700.1 & 700.2 Savage Wolverine #23 "Morrell, David" by Adam Meyer, in David Pringle, St. James Guide to Horror and Gothic writers.
Detroit, MI: St. James Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55862-206-3. Official website Biography for David Morrell on IMDb David Morrell at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database International Thriller Writers The story behind Murder as a Fine Art - Online Essay by David Morrell at Upcoming4.me
Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood that they elicit: suspenseful excitement.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension. These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.
Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha