The quinarius was a small silver Roman coin valued at half a denarius. The quinarius was struck for a few years, along with the silver sestertius, at this time the quinarius was valued at 5 asses. The coin was reintroduced in 101 BC as a replacement for the victoriatus, for a few years following its reintroduction, large quantities of quinarii were produced, mostly for circulation in Gaul. The coin was produced sporadically until the 3rd century, the term gold quinarius or quinarius aureus is used to describe the half-aureus, which is valued at 12.5 denarii. This term has no ancient authority
The siliqua is the modern name given to small, Roman silver coins produced in the 4th century A. D. and later. When the coins were in circulation, the Latin word siliqua was a unit of weight defined as one twenty-fourth of the weight of a Roman solidus, siliqua vicesima quarta pars solidi est, ab arbore, cuius semen est, vocabulum tenens. A siliqua is one-twentyfourth of a solidus and the name is taken from the seed of a tree, the term siliqua comes from the siliqua graeca, the seed of the carob tree, which in the Roman weight system is equivalent to 1/6 of a scruple. The term has been applied in modern times to various silver coins on the premise that the coins were valued at 1/24 of the gold solidus and therefore represented a siliqua of gold in value. Since gold was worth about 14 times as much as silver in ancient Rome, there is little historical evidence to support this premise. The term is one of convenience, as no name for these coins is indicated by contemporary sources, thin silver coins to the 7th century which weigh about 2 to 3 grams are known as siliquae by numismatic convention.
The majority of examples suffer striking cracks or extensive clipping, Roman currency Hoxne Hoard, a hoard of 14,212 silver siliquae dating from the early 5th century
When exactly they were first made is uncertain. Popular tradition ascribes them to Servius Tullius, but due to the quality of art found on even the earliest specimens. A date in the midst of the 5th century BC is generally agreed on, designs featured are that of a bull, an eagle, and other religious symbols. The earliest asses signata were not cast in Rome proper, but in central Italy, Etruria and they bore the image of a branch with side branches radiating from it, and were called Ramos Seccos. They did not equate to a set standard, varying from about 600 to 2500 grams when complete. They were usually broken into subdivisions, and there are very few specimens surviving today. The surviving ramo secco bars are usually quarter, half or three bars, or minor smaller pieces which could be classified as asses rudes. The same fragmentation into smaller change applies to asses signata issued by the city of Rome and they weighed approximately 5 as when whole. They could technically be termed a quincussis, although they are not marked with any value, Ramos seccos were not issued by governing bodies, and could have been made at any foundry facility.
Italo Vecchi, Italian Cast Coinage, A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, London 2013
The uncia was a Roman currency worth 1/12 of an as. By derivation, it was the name of a coin valued at one-twelfth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. Obverse types of the include a knucklebone, a barleycorn. In imperial times the uncia was briefly revived under Trajan and Hadrian and this coin was about 11–14 mm in diameter and weighed about 0. 8–1.2 grams. It featured the bust of the emperor on the obverse with no inscription, if this issue belonged to the imperial system, meaning it was not a provincial piece, it would be an uncia. This issue may have made only for circulation in the East. Duella Roman currency Roman Republican coinage
A radiant or radiate crown, known as a solar crown or sun crown, is a crown, diadem, or other headgear symbolizing the sun or more generally powers associated with the sun. It typically takes the form of either a disc to represent the sun. In the iconography of ancient Egypt, the crown is taken as a disc framed by the horns of a ram or cow. It is worn by such as Horus in his solar or hawk-headed form, Hathor. It may be worn by pharaohs, in Ptolemaic Egypt, the solar crown could be a radiate diadem, modeled after the type worn by Alexander the Great in art from the mid-2nd century BC onward. It was perhaps influenced by contact with the Shunga Empire, the solar crown worn by Constantine, the first emperor to convert to Christianity, was reinterpreted as representing the Holy Nails. Crown of justification Crowns of Egypt Halo Horned deity
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time resulting in a loss of value of currency. When the price rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods. Consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange. A chief measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index. The opposite of inflation is deflation, Inflation affects economies in various positive and negative ways. Economists generally believe that high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by a growth of the money supply. However, money supply growth does not necessarily cause inflation, some economists maintain that under the conditions of a liquidity trap, large monetary injections are like pushing on a string. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied, low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities.
However, the view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Today, most economists favor a low and steady rate of inflation, the task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is usually given to monetary authorities. Rapid increases in quantity of the money or in the money supply have occurred in many different societies throughout history. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without needing to increase the amount of used to make them. When the cost of each coin is lowered in this way and this practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered. As the relative value of the coins becomes lower, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and these goods and services would experience a price increase as the value of each coin is reduced. Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money in order to create fiat currency, during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, and reacted by printing more money, leading to inflation.
Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty initially rejected the use of paper money, large infusions of gold or silver into an economy led to inflation. This was largely caused by the influx of gold and silver from the New World into Habsburg Spain. The silver spread throughout a previously cash-starved Europe and caused widespread inflation, demographic factors contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic
The sestertius, or sesterce, was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions, during the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. The name is derived from semis and tertius, third, in which third refers to the third as, the sestertius was introduced c.211 BC as a small silver coin valued at one-quarter of a denarius. A silver denarius was supposed to weigh about 4.5 grams, valued at ten grams, in practice, the coins were usually underweight. When the denarius was retariffed to sixteen asses, the sestertius was accordingly revalued to four asses and it was produced sporadically, far less often than the denarius, through 44 BC. In or about 23 BC, with the reform of Augustus. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1/100 Aureus, the sestertius was produced as the largest brass denomination until the late 3rd century AD. Most were struck in the mint of Rome but from AD64 during the reign of Nero and Vespasian, Lyon sestertii can be recognised by a small globe, or legend stop, beneath the bust.
The brass sestertius typically weighs in the region of 25 to 28 grammes, is around 32–34 mm in diameter, the distinction between bronze and brass was important to the Romans. Their name for brass was orichalcum, spelled aurichalcum, meaning gold-copper, because of its shiny, orichalcum was considered, by weight, to be about double the value of copper. This is why the half-sestertius, the dupondius, was around the size and weight as the bronze as. Sestertii continued to be struck until the late 3rd century, although there was a deterioration in the quality of the metal used. Later emperors increasingly relied on melting down older sestertii, a process led to the zinc component being gradually lost as it burned off in the high temperatures needed to melt copper. The shortfall was made up with bronze and even lead, sestertii tend to be darker in appearance as a result and are made from more crudely prepared blanks. The gradual impact of inflation caused by debasement of the currency meant that the purchasing power of the sestertius and smaller denominations like the dupondius.
In the 1st century AD, everyday small change was dominated by the dupondius and as, but in the 2nd century, as inflation bit, in the 3rd century silver coinage contained less and less silver, and more and more copper or bronze. By the 260s and 270s the main unit was the double-denarius, the Antoninianus, although these coins were theoretically worth eight sestertii, the average sestertius was worth far more in plain terms of the metal it contained. Some of the last sestertii were struck by Aurelian, the double sestertius was distinguished from the sestertius by the radiate crown worn by the emperor, a device used to distinguish the dupondius from the as and the Antoninianus from the denarius
The miliarense was a large silver coin, introduced to the late Roman monetary system in the early 4th century. It was struck with variable fineness, generally with a weight between 3.8 and 6.0 grams, and a diameter of c, the miliarense was struck first under Constantine the Great. There were two kinds of coins and heavy. It took 14 heavy miliarensia and 18 light miliarensia to equal one gold solidus, a variant of the original denomination was revived in the Byzantine silver coinage from the 8th to the 11th centuries
Aes rude was a nugget of bronze used as a sort of proto-currency in ancient Italy during the gradual transition from bartering to the use of round coinage made from precious metals. The Italian economy of the time was based on a bronze standard, the earliest surviving piece of aes rude dates from the early 8th century BC and as late as the late 4th century BC, and was cast in central Italy. It is, bronze, shaped vaguely like a lumpy ingot, only on did it become usual to mark these lumps and, make them into a standard shape. A History of Ancient Greece, Oxford,1999, Blackwell Publishers, Spink,1926 Head Barclay V. Historia Nummorum, a Manual of Greek Numismatic, London,1911 Gaius Plinius Secundus, Naturalis Historia, XXXIII, XIII,43. A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, Hard bound in quarto format,84 pages,92 plates. ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1 Hard bound in quarto format,72 pages,87 plates, ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1 A new edition of Italian Cast Coinage compiled by Italo Vecchi which summarises the research into Italy’s cast bronze coinage since 1885.
It lists 327 types from the aes rude and currency bars of early 1st millennium Italy to the issues during the Second Punic War. The book includes an account of the cast coinages of Rome, Umbria, North-East and Central Italy, at the end of the book there are 87 plates illustrating almost all the types in the catalogue. The book is indexed for ease of reference
The quadrans or teruncius was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth one quarter of an as. The quadrans was issued from the beginning of cast bronze coins during the Roman Republic with three pellets representing three unciae as a mark of value, the obverse type, after some early variations, featured the bust of Hercules, while the reverse featured the prow of a galley. Coins with the value were issued from other cities in Central Italy. After ca.90 BC, when coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard. It was produced sporadically until the time of Antoninus Pius, unlike other coins during the Roman Empire, the quadrans rarely bore the image of the emperor. The Greek word for the quadrans was κοδράντης, which was translated in the King James Version of the Bible as farthing, in the New Testament a coin equal to one half the Attic chalcus was worth about 3/8 of a cent. In Marks gospel, when a poor widow gave two mites or λεπτα to the Temple Treasury, the writer noted that this amounted to one quadrans.
Roman currency Semis Media related to quadrans at Wikimedia Commons
As (Roman coin)
The as, assarius was a bronze, and copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. The Romans replaced the usage of Greek coins, first by bronze ingots, the system thus named as was introduced in ca.280 BC as a large cast bronze coin during the Roman Republic. The following fractions of the as were produced, the bes, quincunx, quadrans, sextans and semuncia, as well as multiples of the as. After the as had issued as a cast coin for about seventy years, and its weight had been reduced in several stages. At about the time a silver coin, the denarius, was introduced. Earlier Roman silver coins had been struck on the Greek weight standards that facilitated their use in southern Italy and across the Adriatic, but all Roman coins were now on a Roman weight standard. The denarius, or tenner, was at first tariffed at ten asses and this is said to have been a result of financing the Punic Wars. During the Republic, the as featured the bust of Janus on the obverse, the as was originally produced on the libral and the reduced libral weight standard.
The bronze coinage of the Republic switched from being cast to being struck as the weight decreased, during certain periods, no asses were produced at all. The as continued to be produced until the 3rd century AD and it was the lowest valued coin regularly issued during the Roman Empire, with semis and quadrans being produced infrequently, and not at all by the time of Marcus Aurelius. The last as seems to have produced by Aurelian between 270 and 275 and at the beginning of the reign of Diocletian. The as, under its Greek name assarion, was re-established by the Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and it was a low-quality flat copper coin, weighing ca. 3–4 grams and forming the lowest denomination of contemporary Byzantine coinage and it appears that the designs on the assarion changed annually, hence they display great variations. The assarion was replaced in 1367 by two other denominations, the tournesion and the follaro