Playing card suit
In playing cards, a suit is one of the categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most each card bears one of several pips showing to which suit it belongs; the rank for each card is determined by the number of pips except on face cards. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. In a single deck, there is one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit called jokers. Various languages have different terminology for suits such as signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are divided into two or three general suit-systems; the older Latin suits are subdivided into the Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the Swiss suit-systems; the French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are considered a separate system on its own. The card suits originated in China.
The earliest card games were trick-taking games and the invention of suits increased the level of strategy and depth in these games. A card of one suit cannot beat a card from another regardless of its rank; the concept of suits predate playing cards and can be found in Chinese dice and domino games such as Tien Gow. Chinese money-suited cards are believed to be the oldest ancestor to the Latin suit-system; the money-suit system is based on denominations of currency: Coins, Strings of Coins, Myriads of Strings, Tens of Myriads. Old Chinese coins had holes in the middle to allow them to be strung together. A string of coins could be misinterpreted as a stick to those unfamiliar with them. By the Islamic world had spread into Central Asia and had contacted China, had adopted playing cards; the Muslims renamed the suit of myriads as cups. The Chinese numeral character for Ten on the Tens of Myriads suit may have inspired the Muslim suit of swords. Another clue linking these Chinese and European cards are the ranking of certain suits.
In many early Chinese games like Madiao, the suit of coins was in reverse order so that the lower ones beat the higher ones. In the Indo-Persian game of Ganjifa, half the suits were inverted, including a suit of coins; this was true for the European games of Tarot and Ombre. The inverting of suits had no purpose in regards to gameplay but was an artifact from the earliest games; these Turko-Arabic cards, called Kanjifa, used the suits coins, clubs and swords, but the clubs represented polo sticks. The Latin suits are coins, clubs and swords, they are the earliest suit-system in Europe, were adopted from the cards imported from Mamluk Egypt and Moorish Granada in the 1370s. There are four types of Latin suits: Italian, Portuguese, an extinct archaic type; the systems can be distinguished by the pips of their long suits: clubs. Northern Italian swords are curved outward and the clubs appear to be batons, they intersect one another. Southern Italian and Spanish swords are straight, the clubs appear to be knobbly cudgels.
They do not cross each other. Portuguese pips are like the Spanish, they sometimes have dragons on the aces. This system lingers on only in the Unsun Karuta of Japan; the archaic system is like the Northern Italian one, but the swords are curved inward so they touch each other without intersecting. Minchiate used a mixed system of Portuguese swords. Despite a long history of trade with China, Japan was introduced to playing cards with the arrival of the Portuguese in the 1540s. Early locally made cards, were similar to Portuguese decks. Increasing restrictions by the Tokugawa shogunate on gambling, card playing, general foreign influence, resulted in the Hanafuda card deck that today is used most for fishing-type games; the role of rank and suit in organizing cards became switched, so the hanafuda deck has 12 suits, each representing a month of the year, each suit has 4 cards, most two normal, one Ribbon and one Special. During the 15th-century, manufacturers in German speaking lands experimented with various new suit systems to replace the Latin suits.
One early deck had the Latin ones with an extra suit of shields. The Swiss-Germans developed their own suits of shields, roses and bells around 1450. Instead of roses and shields, the Germans settled with hearts and leaves around 1460; the French derived their suits of trèfles, carreaux, cœurs, piques from the German suits around 1480. French suits correspond with German suits with the exception of the tiles with the bells but there is one early French deck that had crescents instead of tiles; the English names for the French suits of clubs and spades may have been carried over from the older Latin suits. Beginning around 1440 in northern Italy, some decks started to include of an extra suit of 21 numbered cards known as trionfi or trumps, to play tarot card games. Always included in tarot decks is one card, the Fool or Excuse, which may be part of the trump suit depending on the game or region; these cards do not have pips or f
A bidding box is a device used for bidding in bridge in duplicate bridge competitions. Made in various configurations and sizes, it is a plastic box with two holding slots, each containing a set of bidding cards: one with 35 cards with symbols of bids, the other with cards for other calls. Invented in Sweden in 1962, they were first used at a World Bridge Championships game in 1970, their usage spread in Europe, United States and across the world, today they present a indispensable piece of equipment for home-played games. Use of bidding boxes has several advantages over oral bidding: it reduces noise in the room, prevents bidding being overheard at neighboring tables, allows easier review of the auction, reduces the opportunity to pass unauthorized information to one's partner by the manner and intonation in which one makes one's bid. A bidding box is a plastic box with two slots, each containing a set of bidding cards. One slot contains 35 cards with symbols of bids; the 35 bid cards are cut with tabs and arranged in a staggered fashion so that any desired bid can be removed and placed on the table.
In the other slot are a supply of Pass cards, a few Double and Redouble cards, an Alert card, a Stop card, optionally, a Tournament Director card. There is one bidding box for each of the four players placed at the corner of the table to the player's right. There are two main types of bidding boxes: the more common ones are free-standing, placed in the corners on the tabletop; the hanging variant is smaller, with two holders closer together, attached to the side of the table using C-clamps. The latter has the advantage that it does not occupy space on the table, but it can hamper the players' passage to and from their seats, so it gets damaged more easily. In some tournaments an L-shaped metal bracket is slid under the tabletop corners, leaving its other end standing up; this is inserted into a slit in a free-standing bidding box, which functions like a clamped one. Another alternative is to use side tables, so that bidding boxes as well as refreshments and other belongings can be kept off the playing table.
For storage purposes, the boxes have either a covered compartment at the bottom to store the bidding cards or a cover, placed over the bidding cards attaching to the box base. A bridge auction consists of a sequence of calls made by each player in turn, until it is concluded by a sequence of three consecutive passes. With the transition from auction bridge to modern contract bridge, the bidding has become more complex, conventional auctions last through several rounds of bidding; such long auctions are hard to review. In addition, oral bidding causes noise in tournament halls, auctions can be overheard at the other tables. Bidding boxes were invented in 1962 in Sweden by Gösta Nordenson and first used at a World Bridge Championships game in Stockholm in 1970. Eric Jannersten, a Swedish social bridge player and founder of the largest European bridge equipment manufacturer, Jannersten Förlag AB bought the patent in 1970 being attributed by some as the inventor. However, the patent is disputed by the Swedish Bridge Federation.
They became popular in Europe, after some resistance were accepted in American bridge clubs. As of 2006, they are an indispensable part of the game, many rubber bridge players use them at home. Use of bidding boxes has several advantages over oral bidding: Each player selects a card from the bidding box at their turn to make a call, places it in front of him. To make a bid, the entire remaining stack below and including the desired bid card should be pulled out, e.g. when bidding 1♥, the 1♦, 1♣ cards are taken out at the same time in one bundle, but this bundle of cards is kept together so that the topmost one covers the others. Pass and Redouble cards are used one by one as needed; the cards should be placed on the table with the symbols facing away from the bidder, giving the other players a better view of them. Calls by the same player in successive rounds of the auction are placed on the table overlapping one another, so that the previous calls remain visible. For example, if the 1♥ bidder's next call is a bid of 3♥, they will take a packet of ten cards and lay them down overlapping the packet of three cards of the 1♥ bid.
With standard, "right-handed" boxes, the calls are placed left to right on the table as seen by the bidder. When the auction is over, each player first returns to his bidding box any Pass and Redouble cards used. After that, all the bid cards from the table are swept up into a single stack and placed into the bidding box at the back; the additional cards are used as follows: The Alert card signals to the opponents that the partner's call has an artificial or unusual meaning.
A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific. Countless card games exist, including families of related games. A small number of card games played with traditional decks have formally standardized rules, but most are folk games whose rules vary by region and person. Games using playing cards exploit the fact that cards are individually identifiable from one side only, so that each player knows only the cards he holds and not those held by anyone else. For this reason card games are characterized as games of chance or “imperfect information”—as distinct from games of strategy or “perfect information,” where the current position is visible to all players throughout the game. Many games that are not placed in the family of card games do in fact use cards for some aspect of their gameplay; some games that are placed in the card game genre involve a board. The distinction is that the gameplay of a card game chiefly depends on the use of the cards by players, while board games focus on the players' positions on the board, use the cards for some secondary purpose.
A card game is played with a pack of playing cards which are identical in size and shape. Each card has the face and the back; the backs of the cards are indistinguishable. The faces of the cards may all be unique; the composition of a deck is known to each player. In some cases several decks are shuffled together to form a single shoe; the first playing cards appeared in the 9th century during Tang-dynasty China. The first reference to the card game in world history dates no than the 9th century, when the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang Dynasty writer Su E, described Princess Tongchang playing the "leaf game" with members of the Wei clan in 868; the Song dynasty statesman and historian Ouyang Xiu has noted that paper playing cards arose in connection to an earlier development in the book format from scrolls to pages. During the Ming dynasty, characters from popular novels such as the Water Margin were featured on the faces of playing cards. A precise description of Chinese money playing cards survived from the 15th century.
Mahjong tiles are a 19th-century invention based on three-suited money playing card decks, similar to the way in which Rummikub tiles were derived from modern Western playing cards. The same kind of games can be played with tiles made of wood, bone, or similar materials; the most notable examples of such tile sets are mahjong tiles and Rummikub tiles. Chinese dominoes are available as playing cards, it is not clear whether Emperor Muzong of Liao played with domino cards as early as 969, though. Legend dates the invention of dominoes in the year 1112, the earliest known domino rules are from the following decade. 500 years domino cards were reported as a new invention. Playing cards first appeared in Europe in the last quarter of the 14th century; the earliest European references speak of a Saracen or Moorish game called naib, in fact an complete Mamluk Egyptian deck of 52 cards in a distinct oriental design has survived from around the same time, with the four suits swords, polo sticks and coins and the ranks king, second governor, ten to one.
The 1430s in Italy saw the invention of the tarot deck, a full Latin-suited deck augmented by suitless cards with painted motifs that played a special role as trumps. Tarot card games are still played with these decks in parts of Central Europe. A full tarot deck contains 14 cards in each suit. In the 18th century the card images of the traditional Italian tarot decks became popular in cartomancy and evolved into "esoteric" decks used for the purpose. In Europe, "playing tarot" decks remain popular for games, have evolved since the 18th century to use regional suits as well as other familiar aspects of the Anglo-American deck such as corner card indices and "stamped" card symbols for non-court cards. Decks differ regionally based on the number of cards needed to play the games; the French suits were introduced around 1480 and, in France replaced the earlier Latin suits of swords, clubs and coins. The suit symbols, being simple and single-color, could be stamped onto the playing cards to create a deck, thus only requiring special full-color card art for the court cards.
This drastically simplifies the production of a deck of cards versus the traditional Italian deck, which used unique full-color art for each card in the deck. The French suits became popular in English playing cards in the 16th century, from there were introduced to British colonies including North America; the rise of Western culture has led to the near-universal populari
Contract bridge, or bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck. In its basic format, it is played by four players in two competing partnerships, with partners sitting opposite each other around a table. Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments and with friends at home, making it one of the world's most popular card games among seniors; the World Bridge Federation is the governing body for international competitive bridge, with numerous other bodies governing bridge at the regional level. The game consists of several deals; the cards are dealt to the players, the players auction or bid to take the contract, specifying how many tricks the partnership receiving the contract needs to take to receive points for the deal. During the auction, partners communicate information about their hand, including its overall strength and the length of its suits, although conventions for use during play exist; the cards are played, the declaring side trying to fulfill the contract, the defenders trying to stop the declaring side from achieving its goal.
The deal is scored based on the number of tricks taken, the contract, various other factors which depend to some extent on the variation of the game being played. Rubber bridge is the most popular variation for casual play, but most club and tournament play involves some variant of duplicate bridge, in which the cards are not re-dealt on each occasion, but the same deal is played by two or more sets of players to enable comparative scoring. For competition level, so called IMP score is of high significance. One theory is. Bridge departed from whist with the creation of Biritch in the 19th century, evolved through the late 19th and early 20th centuries to form the present game; the word biritch itself is a spelling of the Russian word Бирюч, an occupation of a diplomatic clerk or an announcer. However some experts think. Another theory is; the game "got its name from the Galata Bridge, a bridge spanning the Golden Horn and linking the old and new parts of European Istanbul, where they crossed every day to go to a coffeehouse to play cards."
Bridge is a four-player partnership trick-taking game with thirteen tricks per deal. The dominant variations of the game are rubber bridge; each player is dealt thirteen cards from a standard 52-card deck. A trick starts when a player leads, i.e. plays the first card. The leader to the first trick is determined by the auction; each player, in a clockwise order, plays one card on the trick. Players must play a card of the same suit as the original card led, unless they have none, in which case they may play any card; the player who played the highest-ranked card wins the trick. Within a suit, the ace is ranked highest followed by the king and jack and the ten through to the two. In a deal where the auction has determined that there is no trump suit, the trick must be won by a card of the suit led. However, in a deal where there is a trump suit, cards of that suit are superior in rank to any of the cards of any other suit. If one or more players plays a trump to a trick when void in the suit led, the highest trump wins.
For example, if the trump suit is spades and a player is void in the suit led and plays a spade card, he wins the trick if no other player plays a higher spade. If a trump suit is led, the usual rule for trick-taking applies. Unlike its predecessor Whist, the goal of bridge is not to take the most tricks in a deal. Instead, the goal is to estimate how many tricks one's partnership can take. To illustrate this, the simpler partnership trick-taking game of Spades has a similar mechanism: the usual trick-taking rules apply with the trump suit being spades, but in the beginning of the game, players bid or estimate how many tricks they can win, the number of tricks bid by both players in a partnership are added. If a partnership takes at least that many number of tricks, they receive points for the round. Bridge extends the concept of bidding into an auction, where partnerships compete to take a contract, specifying how many tricks they will need to take in order to receive points, specifying the trump suit.
Players take turns to call in a clockwise order: each player in turn either passes, doubles—which increases the penalties for not making the contract specified by the opposing partnership's last bid, but increases the reward for making it—or redoubles, or states a contract that their partnership will adopt, which must be higher than the previous highest bid. The player who bid the highest contract—which is determined by the contract's level as well as the trump suit or no trump—wins the contract for their partnership. In the example auction on the right, the East-West pair secures the contract of 6♠. Note that six tricks are added to contract values, so the six-level contract would be a contract of twelve tricks. In practice, establishing a contract without enough information on the other partner's hand is difficult, so there exist many bidding systems assigning meanings to bids, with common ones including Standard American, 2/1 game forcing. Con
History of contract bridge
The history of contract bridge, one of the world's most popular partnership card games, may be dated from the early 16th-century invention of trick-taking games such as whist. Bridge departed from whist with the creation of Biritch in the 19th century, evolved through the late 19th and early 20th centuries to form the present game. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word bridge is the English pronunciation of the game called "biritch", it followed on from whist, the dominant trick-playing game and enjoyed a loyal following for centuries. The oldest known reference to the rules of the game dates from 1886 and calls it "Biritch, or Russian Whist"; the game featured several significant developments from whist: dealer chose the trump suit, or nominated his partner to do so. There were other similarities to bridge: points were scored above and below the line. Despite the popularity of whist, this game, variants of it, bridge and bridge-whist, became popular in the United States and the UK in the 1890s.
In 1904 auction bridge, known for a time as royal auction bridge, was developed where the players bid in a competitive auction to decide the contract and declarer. The object became to make at least as many tricks as were contracted for and penalties were introduced for failing to do so; the modern game of contract bridge was the result of innovations to the scoring of auction bridge made by Harold Stirling Vanderbilt and others. The most significant change was that only the tricks contracted for were counted below the line towards game and slam; that made bidding interesting. Another innovation was the concept of vulnerability, a difference in the sizes of penalties incurred by partnerships that have or have not won one game; that discouraged sacrifice bidding to protect the lead in a rubber. Some other scores were adjusted to produce a more balanced game. Vanderbilt set out his rules in 1925, within a few years contract bridge had so supplanted other forms of the game that "bridge" became synonymous with "contract bridge."
Led by Ely Culbertson, contract bridge enjoyed a boom in popularity in the US and the UK in the 1930s. In the US and Australia today, bridge is duplicate bridge played at clubs, at tournaments, online. In the UK, bridge is still played in private homes as well as at clubs and tournaments. "Biritch, or Russian Whist" by John Collinson, internet edition by John MacLeod. — This provides useful detail not in wikisource:Biritch, or Russian Whist and it appears to be a more faithful reproduction. "History of Bridge". Singapore Contract Bridge Association reprint from The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge. Brief history of contract bridge
In duplicate bridge, a board is an item of equipment that holds one deal, or one deck of 52 cards distributed in four hands of 13 cards each. The design permits the entire deal of four hands to be passed, carried or stacked securely with the cards hidden from view in four pockets; this is required for duplicate bridge tournaments, where the same deal is played several times and so the composition of each hand must be preserved during and after each play of each deal. Each board is marked with the following information: board number – identifies the deal and helps to order the play of multiple deals. Most designs include a pocket to hold a paper travelling score sheet. Colloquially, the term board may refer to one deal plus its play; when bridge is played online, there are no physical boards, nor physical cards, but the software emulates all of the features of duplicate boards and the unit of the game is called a board. First used in duplicate whist in the 1890s, the devices were called duplicate whist trays.
Since the first in November 1891, numerous patents have been registered incorporating a variety of shapes and materials and having various means of inserting and retaining the cards in place in the trays or apparatus, as they were referred to in the patent description. Amongst the earliest versions were those manufactured by Ihling Brothers & Everard of Kalamazoo, Michigan, and referred to as the Kalamazoo Tray, a square tray, getting award-winning recognition at the 1893 Chicago World Fair; the company's interests in duplicate whist trays were purchased by The Duplicate Whist Co. in 1899, which introduced a tray known as the Paine's Duplicate Whist Tray after its President, Cassius M. Paine. S. Playing Card Co. of Cincinnati as his sole manufacturing and sales agent. Trays were sold in sets of 8, 12, 16 and 20. By the mid-1930s, thirty or forty different types were being sold; the first oblong boards were made of paper by William McKenney in 1928. The most common modern boards are rectangular in shape and made of plastic replacing earlier models made of paper covered pasteboard, sheet metal and more aluminum.
Boards designed as foldable wallets made of leather used in England, are now made of pliable plastic. While the concept of the contract bridge duplicate board evolved from the duplicate whist tray...it is called a "board" rather than a "tray" stems from the fact that the earliest accepted models were made of wood. A set of boards for duplicate bridge contains 32 boards and sometimes as many as 36; the actual number of boards used in a particular session depends on the type of tournament, the number of tables, the choice of movement used. Some of the higher numbered boards are not needed; the dealer and vulnerability markings for each board number are standardized in the laws of the game, utilizing all the possible permutations. The dealer is rotated clockwise in successively numbered boards. Four combinations of vulnerabilities change, but they are shifted circularly. Thus, a set of 16 boards has the following markings: The scheme is repeated in the subsequent set of 16. At the beginning of a session, the boards are prepared in one of several ways: Predealt – the sponsoring agency has prearranged the cards in the boards, the boards are given to the players "ready for play".
Player shuffle – before the start of play, each table receives a number of boards each containing 13 cards in each of its four pockets. The cards are removed from the pockets of a board by the players, shuffled together and dealt into four equal piles; each pile is placed into a pocket of the same board. Each board is stacked in numerical order ready for play; the players prepare the different boards simultaneously. Computer'shuffled' – as in the foregoing, each table receives a number of boards to prepare. In addition, each board is accompanied by a hand record which identifies which specific cards are to be distributed to each hand for that board; the hand records are prepared in advance by a computer program using a pseudorandom number generator. The cards are sorted by suit; the players cooperate in dealing the cards according to the hand record and in placing the correct cards in their assigned pocket of the board. Each board is stacked in numerical order; the boards will be passed to another table ready for play and will not be played by those who prepared them.
Computer'shuffled and dealt' – the deal is generated randomly by computer algorithms and dealt by machine directly into boards specially designed for the purpose. This is the most common method used in modern tournament play. No matter how the boards are prepared, they are not shuffled again during the session, the cards in all pockets are kept face down. Sometimes, at the end of a session or th
Glossary of contract bridge terms
These terms are used in contract bridge, using duplicate or rubber scoring. Some of them are used in whist, bid whist, the obsolete game auction bridge, other trick-taking games; this glossary supplements the Glossary of card game terms. In the following entries, boldface links are external to the glossary and plain links reference other glossary entries. 3014 or 3014 RKCB A mnemonic for the original response structure to the Roman Key Card Blackwood convention. It represents "3 or 0" and "1 or 4", meaning that the lowest step response to the 4NT key card asking bid shows responder has three or zero keycards and the next step shows one or four. 1430 or 1430 RKCB A mnemonic for a variant response structure to the Roman Key Card Blackwood convention. It represents "1 or 4" and "3 or 0", meaning that the lowest step response to the 4NT key card asking bid shows responder has one or four keycards and the next step shows three or zero. 1RF One round force. 2-under preempts A 2 or 3-level conventional opening bid made two steps below the opener's suit: for example, 2♦ to show a weak two bid in spades or 3♣ to show a three-level preempt in hearts.
If 2♣ is a strong, artificial force, 2♥ is natural. 4SF Fourth suit forcing. Above the line In rubber bridge, the location on the scorepad above the main horizontal line where extra points are entered. Points awarded for contract odd tricks bid and made are entered below the line. See Bridge scoring. ACBL American Contract Bridge League, the sport governing body for bridge in North America – defined as Bermuda, Canada and the United States – and the sponsoring organization of North American Bridge Championships, its members are players, grouped in local units for some purposes. Contrast USBF. Acol An approach–forcing, natural bidding system, based on a weak NT and 4-card majors, popular in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. Active An approach to defending a hand that emphasizes setting up winners and taking tricks. Contrast Passive. An approach to competitive bidding that emphasizes frequent interference with opponents' bidding sequences. Adjusted score In duplicate bridge, a score awarded by the Director in order to redress damage to a non-offending side and to take away any advantage gained by an offending side through an infraction.
It may be "assigned" or "artificial". The scores awarded to the two sides need not balance. Advance cue bid The cue bid of a first round control that occurs before a partnership has agreed on a strain. Advance sacrifice A sacrifice bid made before the opponents have had an opportunity to determine their optimum contract. For example: 1♦ - - Dbl -. Advancer Overcaller's partner one who bids following the overcall. Adverse vulnerability Vulnerable against non-vulnerable opponents. Called "unfavorable vulnerability". Aggregate scoring Deciding the outcome of a contest by totaling the raw points gained or lost on each deal. Called "total point scoring". Agree For a partnership to come to a decision, conventionally or by implication, on the denomination in which to play a hand. Agreement An understanding between partners as to the meaning of a particular call or defensive play. There are two types of call agreements: when the call is natural, the agreement is said to be a treatment, when the call is artificial, the agreement is said to be a convention.
Air, as "on air" To win a trick with a high card while capturing only small cards said of a defensive play. In the example at right, when South leads the ♥8, West must take the ♥A on air, or risk making no heart tricks. Best defense on a given hand may call either for ducking the winner or for playing it on air. Alcatraz coup Declarer's unethical attempt to locate a finessable card by revoking. If the play is unintentional, it is subject to score adjustment. Alert A method of informing the opponents that partner's call carries a meaning they might not expect. Sponsoring organizations set rules how. Regardless whether a call is alerted, either opponent may ask its meaning, either at his/her turn or after the end of the auction; the player who made the call may contribute to its explanation only after the auction and only if he/she is declarer or dummy. Different rules apply when screens are in use. Announcement A method of promptly informing the opponents that partner's call has a particular meaning.
The purposes of announcements and alerts are similar, but an announcement gives the meaning where an alert may prompt the opponents to ask the meaning. Sponsoring organizations set rules; the ACBL specifies announcements including "Transfer" for some transfer replies to notrump bids, the point range such as "15 to 17" for an opening bid of one notrump, "Forcing" or "Semi-forcing" for a 1NT response to a major suit opening bid. Antipositional A call is antipositional. If West opens the bidding, it may be best for South to declare a North-South contract, so that West will have to play from his high cards on opening lead; this positioning may protect South's tenaces. In that case, a call that will make North declarer is antipositional. Se