A jump ball is a method used to begin or resume play in basketball. It is similar to a face-off in ice hockey and field lacrosse and a ball-up in Australian rules football. Two opposing players attempt to gain control of the ball after an official tosses it into the air between them. In the NBA, WNBA, competitions operated by Euroleague Basketball, a jump ball occurs at the start of the game, the start of any extra period, to settle special situations where penalties cancel out and neither team is entitled to the ball, to settle any held balls. Held balls occur when two opposing players both lay equal claim to the ball, after trying to wrestle it from each other, end up in a stalemate. A jump ball may be called if there are different calls by two or more referees. However, most competitions other than the NBA, WNBA, Euroleague Basketball use the alternating possession rule to settle all jump ball situations after the opening tip; this uses a possession arrow on the scorekeeper's table. Whenever such a jump ball situation occurs, possession of the ball is awarded to the team, moving in the direction of the possession arrow on offense.
The arrow swaps to point to the other team. At the start of the game, the arrow points to the team; the alternating possession arrow rule went into effect in college basketball in 1981. Since, it has been controversial. Supporters of the possession arrow believe that jump balls give the team with taller players and better leapers an unfair advantage over the other, plus the possession arrow gives another element of strategy, but those who oppose the possession arrow believe that it has undone a trailing team's defensive effort because it is the other team's turn to get the ball. FIBA, with recommendation by NCAA Men's Supervisor of Officials Hank Nichols, on the FIBA World Technical Commission at the time, adopted the alternating possession rule in 2003, with a major difference. In overtime periods, play begins with the arrow. In other organizations, another jump ball is conducted. FIBA mandated that ULEB, which operated the EuroLeague and Eurocup before handing responsibility to the Euroleague Company, adopt the FIBA rule in 2005, as part of FIBA's rules being used by the EuroLeague, effective the 2005-06 season.
The EuroLeague used the NBA jump ball rules. However, the Euroleague Company reinstated the jump ball rule in 2013. Uniquely, 3x3, a formalized version of halfcourt three-on-three basketball overseen by FIBA, does not use a jump ball at any time in a game. Under current rules, the first possession is based on the result of a pregame coin toss. During the game, held balls are automatically awarded to the defensive team. Rules of basketball Moran, Malcolm. "Possession arrow creates hoops impasse". USA Today
Glossary of basketball terms
Basketball, like any other major sport, has its own unique words and phrases used by sports journalists and fans 2-for-1 A strategy used within the last minute of a period, in which the team with possession times its shot to ensure that it will regain possession with enough time to shoot again before time runs out. 3-and-D Describes a player not a star, who specializes in three-point shooting and defense. Term most used in the NBA, where this specific skill set has been valued in the 21st century. 3x3 A formalized version of the half-court three-on-three game sanctioned by FIBA. This variant will make its Olympic debut in 2020. Three seconds rule requires that a player shall not remain in the opponents' restricted area for more than three consecutive seconds while their team is in control of a live ball in the frontcourt and the game clock is running. ACB The top professional league in Spain. Initialism for the Spanish Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto. Advance step A step in which the defender's lead foot steps toward their man and the back foot slides forward.
Air ball An unblocked shot that backboard. Alley oop An offensive play in which a player throws the ball up near the basket to a teammate who jumps, catches the ball in mid air and scores a basket with a slam dunk. Alternating possession In many rulesets, most notably FIBA, NCAA, NFHS, a rule used to settle most or all jump ball situations after the opening tipoff. In jump ball situations, or at the start of a new period of play, possession is awarded to the team whose offense is moving in the direction of the possession arrow. And-one The free throw awarded to a shooter, fouled while scoring. Assist A pass to a teammate who scores a basket or after one dribble. Backdoor cut An offensive play in which a player on the perimeter steps away from the basket, drawing the defender along suddenly cuts to the basket behind the defender for a pass; the opposite of a V cut. Ball hog A player who chooses not to pass the ball and attempts difficult shots. Backboard The rectangular platform behind the rim that supports it.
BackcourtThe half of the court a team is defending. The opposite of the frontcourt. A team's guards.backcourt violationTouching the ball in the backcourt after it has entered the frontcourt and was not last touched by the other team. Failure to bring the ball from the backcourt into the frontcourt within the allotted time of 8 seconds in the NBA or FIBA and 10 seconds in NCAA play for both men and women.back screen An offensive play in which a player comes from the low post to set a screen for a player on the perimeter. Ball fake A sudden movement by the player with the ball intended to cause the defender to move in one direction, allowing the passer to pass in another direction. Called a pass fake. Ball reversal Passing of the ball from one side of the court to the other. Ball screen An offensive play in which a player sets a screen on the defender guarding the player with the ball. Ball side The half of the court. Called the strong side; the opposite of the help side. Banana cut A wide, curving cut, as opposed to a cut, a straight line.
Known as a'C' cut. Bank shot A shot that hits the backboard before going through the net. Baseball pass Passing the basketball using an overhand throw with one hand similar to a baseball pitch. Baseline The line that marks the playing boundary at either end of the court. Called the end line. Baseline out-of-bounds play The play used to return the ball to the court from outside the baseline along the opponent's basket. Basket cut A cut toward the basket. BEEF Balance, Elbow, Follow Through — A mnemonic used to teach proper shooting form. BenchSubstitute players sitting on the sideline; the bench or chairs these players sit on.benchwarmer A player who sits on the bench for most if not all of the game. Bid thief Specific to U. S. college basketball NCAA Division I. Refers to a team, a member of a conference with at least one team, certain to receive a bid to the men's or women's tournament, as applicable, regardless of performance in the conference tournament. Big A low post player, physically large for a basketball player and either a center or power forward.
Blindside screen. BlockA violation in which a defender steps in front of a dribbler but is still moving when they collide. Called a blocking foul. To tip or deflect a shooter's shot, altering its flight so the shot misses; the small painted square on the floor next to the basket just outside the lane.block out To maintain better rebounding position than an opposing player by widening your stance and arms and using your body as a barrier. Called boxing out. Board A rebound. Bonus Under NCAA men's and NFHS rules, a team is "in the bonus" when its opponent has seven, eight or nine team fouls in a half and so gains a one and one opportunity on each non-shooting foul; the opposing team is "over the limit." Under NCAA women's rules, the bonus takes
The five basketball positions employed by organized basketball teams are the point guard, the shooting guard, the small forward, the power forward, the center. The point guard is the leader of the team on the court; this position requires substantial ball handling skills and the ability to facilitate the team during a play. The shooting guard, as the name implies, is the best shooter; as well as being capable of shooting from longer distances, this position tends to be the best defender on the team. The small forward has an aggressive approach to the basket when handling the ball; the small forward is known to make cuts to the basket in efforts to get open for shots. The power forward and the center are called the "frontcourt" acting as their team's primary rebounders or shot blockers, or receiving passes to take inside shots; the center is the larger of the two. Only three positions were recognized based on where they played on the court: Guards played outside and away from the hoop and forwards played outside and near the baseline, with the center positioned in the key.
During the 1980s, as team strategy evolved. More specialized roles developed. Team strategy and available personnel, still dictate the positions used by a particular team. For example, the dribble-drive motion offense and the Princeton offense use four interchangeable guards and one center; this set is known as a "four-in and one-out" play scheme. Other combinations are prevalent. Besides the five basic positions, some teams use non-standard or hybrid positions, such as the point forward, a hybrid small forward/point guard; the point guard known as the one, is the team's best ball handler and passer. Therefore, they lead their team in assists and are able to create shots for themselves and their teammates, they are quick and are able to hit shots either outside the three-point line or "in the paint" depending on the player's skill level. Point guards are looked upon as the "floor general" or the "coach on the floor", they should study the game and game film to be able to recognize the weaknesses of the defense, the strengths of their own offense.
They are responsible for directing plays, making the position equivalent to that of quarterback in American football, playmaker in association football, center in ice hockey, or setter in volleyball. Good point guards increase team efficiency and have a high number of assists, they are referred to as dribblers or play-makers. In the NBA, point guards are the shortest players on the team and are 6 feet 4 inches or shorter; the shooting guard is known as the two or the off guard. Along with the small forward, a shooting guard is referred to as a wing because of its use in common positioning tactics; as the name suggests, most shooting guards are prolific from the three-point range. Besides being able to shoot the ball, shooting guards tend to be the best defender on the team, as well as being able to move without the ball to create open looks for themselves; some shooting guards have good ball handling skills creating their own shots off the dribble. A versatile shooting guard will have good passing skills, allowing them to assume point guard responsibilities known as combo guards.
Bigger shooting guards tend to play as small forwards. In the NBA, shooting guards range from 6 feet 4 inches to 6 feet 8 inches; the small forward known as the three, is considered to be the most versatile of the main five basketball positions. Versatility is key for small forwards because of the nature of their role, which resembles that of a shooting guard more than that of a power forward; this is why the small forward and shooting guard positions are interchangeable and referred to as wings. Small forwards have a variety such as quickness and strength inside. One common thread among all kinds of small forwards is an ability to "get to the line" and draw fouls by aggressively attempting plays, lay-ups, or slam dunks; as such, accurate foul shooting is a common skill for small forwards, many of whom record a large portion of their points from the foul line. Besides being able to drive to the basket, they are good shooters from long range; some small forwards have good passing skills, allowing them to assume point guard responsibilities as point forwards.
Small forwards should be able to do a little bit of everything on the court playing roles such as swingmen and defensive specialists. In the NBA, small forwards range from 6 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 9 inches; the power forward known as the four plays a role similar to that of the center, down in the "post" or "low blocks". The power forward is the team's most versatile scorer, being able to score close to the basket while being able to shoot mid-range jump shots from 12 to 18 feet from the basket; some power forwards have become known as stretch fours, since extending their shooting range to three-pointers. On defense, they are required to have the strength to guard bigger players close to the basket and to have the athleticism to guard quick players away from the basket. Most power forwards tend to be more versatile than centers since they can be part of plays and are not always in the low block. In the
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
An alley-oop in basketball is an offensive play in which one player throws the ball near the basket to a teammate who jumps, catches the ball in mid air and puts it in the hoop before touching the ground. The alley-oop combines elements of teamwork, pinpoint passing and finishing; the term "alley-oop" is derived from the French term allez hop!, the cry of a circus acrobat about to leap. The term Alley Oop was first popularized in the US in 1932 as the name of a syndicated comic strip created by cartoonist V. T. Hamlin. In sports the term "alley-oop" first appeared in the 1950s by the San Francisco 49ers of the NFL to describe a high arcing pass from quarterback Y. A. Tittle to wide receiver R. C. Owens, who would outleap smaller cornerbacks for touchdown receptions and became more well known from its use in basketball. In the 1950s, some players began grabbing balls in mid-air and dunking. K. C. Jones and Bill Russell teamed up to perform the alley-oop several times while at the University of San Francisco in the mid-1950s.
In addition, Bill Russell, Wilt Chamberlain at the University of Kansas and'Jumping' Johnny Green at Michigan State University would grab errant shots by teammates and dunk them. This resulted in a tightening in the enforcement of offensive goaltending rules in NCAA and NBA basketball in the late 1950s; the Phillips 66ers of the National Industrial Basketball League had an alley-oop play in its playbook where Charlie Bowerman would pass the ball to Don Kojis. Kojis played two seasons for the 66ers between 1961 and 1963 making that the time period when the play was executed. Al Tucker and his brother Gerald at Oklahoma Baptist University are sometimes mistakenly credited with being the first to use the alley-oop in the mid-60s. In Bill Walton's record-setting 44-point, 21-for-22 shooting performance for UCLA in the 1973 NCAA championship game against Memphis State, six of his baskets came on alley-oop plays; some others credit David Thompson as the first player to execute the classic alley-oop play while at North Carolina State University, with his teammates Monte Towe and Tim Stoddard performing the necessary lob passes.
NCSU's Thompson popularized the play during the early 1970s, exploiting his 44-inch vertical leap to make the above-the-rim play a recurring staple in the Wolfpack's offensive attack. Because dunking was illegal in college basketball at that time, upon catching the pass, Thompson would drop the ball through the hoop – never dunking one until the final play of the final home game of his career. After a decade of dunking prohibition ended in the NCAA in 1976, the alley-oop became associated in the late 1970s with Michigan State's Earvin'Magic' Johnson and Greg Kelser; the duo connected for many highlight alley-oops and would showcase the play in their 1979 national championship run, including the most watched game in the history of the sport, the famed Magic vs. Bird championship game. Three years unheralded Idaho made the alley-oop an integral part of their undersized offense in 1982, ended the regular season eighth in both major polls at 26–2, advanced to the Sweet Sixteen; the following year, North Carolina State won the national championship on what could be considered the most famous alley-oop of all time against heavily-favored Houston in the 1983 championship game at The Pit in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
With time running out and the score tied, guard Dereck Whittenburg shot short of the rim, which functioned as a pass to Lorenzo Charles, who caught the ball and stuffed it through the net to win the title in a huge upset. During the 1990s, NBA stars turned the alley-oop into the game's ultimate quick-strike weapon. In recent years. Teams have run the alley-oop as a planned play; the 2008 National Champions Kansas Jayhawks had several designs for alley-oops, including some thrown from inbound sets, could execute them interchangeably with all of the players being able to both lob and finish the play. In the 2008 film Semi-Pro, protagonist Jackie Moon, played by Will Ferrell, invents the alley-oop after being knocked unconscious and speaking with his deceased mother in a depiction of Heaven; the crowd and announcers are left unable to comprehend what happened. The referee is dumbfounded and feels the play should be a foul, maybe two fouls. Monix, played by Woody Harrelson, breaks down the mechanics of the play and convinces the referee that it's worth two points.
This play allowed the fictional Flint Tropics to rally back and defeat the San Antonio Spurs. Alley-oop, the original usage of the term in sports
Whitney M. Young Magnet High School
Whitney M. Young Magnet High School is a public magnet high school located in the Near West Side neighborhood in Chicago, United States. Young is operated by the Chicago Public Schools district. Whitney Young opened on September 1975 as the city's first public magnet high school; the school scores among the top high schools in the U. S. state of Illinois. In 2009, Whitney was awarded the Blue Ribbon Award. Admission to Whitney Young is granted based on entrance exam performance, standardized test scores, elementary school grades, is open to all residents of Chicago; the school is named after Whitney Moore Young Jr. a prominent civil rights leader. Plans for a public magnet school on Chicago's Near West Side began in 1970. A proposal called for a high school to be built at 211 S. Laflin on an empty lot burned out during the riots following the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in April 1968. The school opened on September 3, 1975, as a selective enrollment school under the school's first principal, Bernarr E. Dawson.
The founding teachers developed and planned the initial curriculum and policies for the school: Joe Korner, Jory Chelin, Melanie Wojtulewicz, Larry Minkoff, Roger Stewart, Sandra McKinley, Dr. William Marshall; the Principal's Secretary was Lillian O'Neill. They met for many months unpaid in the unused John Phillips Sousa School Building while the Whitney Young facility was being constructed; the school’s Science Bowl Team won the Regional National Science Bowl Championship in 2016 and 2017. They advanced to the National Finals in Washington, D. C. representing the city of Chicago. Notable achievements include placing first in the Division Team Challenge at the National Finals in 2016; the Whitney Young High School Math Team competes in several local and national competitions, including the City of Chicago Math League, the North Suburban Math League, the Illinois Council of Teachers of Mathematics competition, the American Mathematics Competitions, the Mandelbrot Competition. They won the 2013 and 2014 4AA Illinois Council of Teachers of Mathematics State Championship and finished second and third in 2015 and 2016 respectively.
This four year streak is considered the golden era of Whitney Young's math team. The Academic Decathlon team has been the Illinois State Champions for 27 out the last 28 years and finished second place in the nation in 2012. At the 1995 Illinois State Championship, Whitney Young was outscored by the team from Steinmetz High School, though it was revealed that Steinmetz had obtained a copy of the test in advance; the Steinmetz team was stripped of the title and it was awarded to Whitney Young. This was dramatized in the HBO film Cheaters. A two-student debate team from Whitney Young won the National Forensics League National Speech and Debate Tournament in policy debate in 2010, becoming the first team from an urban debate league to achieve a national championship. Whitney Young won the NAUDL Chase Urban Debate National Championship in 2010. Whitney Young has 52 athletic teams of 12 different sports; the boys' basketball team won IHSA state championships in 1998, 2009, 2014 and 2017. The girls' basketball team won the state championship in 2008, 2012 and 2014.
The girls' tennis team won the state championship in 2017. The Whitney Young Streaming Radio Station, known as WY Stream, was started on December 9, 2004 to showcase the achievements of students and staff. Stream TV was added in 2006, includes shows about the school, as well as news clips and internal features; the Whitney Young theater company has performed such works as Tommy, Jesus Christ Superstar, Beethoven's Last Night, Moulin Rouge!, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, West Side Story. In 1996, several students worked to organize the student body and find faculty and administration support for the Gay Pride Club. One of the organization's founders became a member of the Chicago School Board. Students were inducted into the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame; the Whitney Young Chess Team won the IHSA state championship in 2010-2011, 2012-2013, 2013–2014, 2015-2016. The Whitney Young Academic Center is an accelerated program for eighth graders. Seventh and eighth graders are immersed in an intense high school experience, taking courses for high school credit.
Classes include Honors Algebra I and Honors Environmental Science in seventh grade, Honors Geometry, Honors Survey of Literature, Honors World History and Honors Biology in eighth grade. In addition, students are allowed to select up to two elective classes each year. There are many extracurricular programs for the students who attend the Academic Center, including basketball, cross country and math team. In September 2009, Whitney Young principal Joyce Kenner and Chicago Board of Education President Michael Scott were called to testify before a federal grand jury investigating how students were chosen for admission to Chicago's elite public schools. According to a July 21, 2009, subpoena released by school officials, prosecutors sought the names of students who applied to be among a select group of students hand-picked by principals of schools; the subpoena sought e-mails and other correspondence with "public officials" about applicants. Two alderman acknowledged that they asked Kenner for help securing admission to the school for relatives and constituents.
In 2011, the Chicago Public Schools Inspector General recommended that selective enrollment schools reevaluate their use of "principal picks". Several political figures had used their influence to secure their children's admission into schools like Young. Kenner responded that she had u
In basketball, an official enforces the rules and maintains order in the game. The title of official applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the speed of play, complexity of rules, the case-specific interpretations of rules, the instantaneous decision required. There is one lead referee and one or two umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the lead official is called the other two officials are referees. In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, three-man crews contain a referee and two umpires. Regardless, both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS and NCAA have allowed the referee to designate which official shall perform the jump ball. In American high school and college basketball, officials wear black-and-white-striped shirts with black side panels, black pants, black shoes.
Some state high school association allow officials to wear grey shirts with black pin-stripes instead of black-and-white-striped shirts. NBA officials wear light grey shirts with black shoes; the NBA shirt is light grey with one black colored stripe on either shoulder, a black stripe on either side, the official's number in the center at the top on the back, the NBA logo above the breast. NBA officials sometimes wear alternate uniforms consisting of a white shirt with light gold shoulders and black stripes. NBA Summer League officials wear the same light grey shirt but with blue shoulders; the WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange, the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo. FIBA officials wear a grey and black shirt, black trousers, black socks, black shoes. Officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball – the Euroleague and Eurocup – wear an orange shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association wear the Euroleague's orange shirt but sometimes wear royal blue shirts for contests between two Israeli teams.
NBL officials wear orange stripes on the sides. The NBL logo is atop the breast and a sponsor's name is on the back. Shirts are V-neck, without a collar, pants lack belts. All officials wear a whistle, used to stop play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. Hand signals are used to administer the game. In higher levels of college and professional basketball, officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS; the device is used by on court officials to start and stop the game clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator to do so. The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management, they carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game it is the job of the officials to rectify the problem.
Quite the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game. There are two standard methods for officiating a basketball game, either "two-person" or "three-person" mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In "two-person" mechanics, each official works either the trail position; the lead position is along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket. Officials change position during the game to cover the area in the best possible way; as the game transitions from one end of the court to the other, the lead becomes the trail and vice versa. Between the two positions, each is responsible for a specific part of the court as well as two each of the side, base or back court lines. Officials change position after certain calls; this allows officials to alternate between positions to increase the speed of play.
This prevents one official from always working one particular team's basket throughout the course of the game. In "three-person" mechanics, the court is further divided among three officials, with the lead official determining the position of the other two officials; the lead official will move to the side of the court in which the ball is located if there is a "post-up" player in that position. The official, on the same sideline as the lead official takes up a position level with the top of the three-point line and becomes the "trail" official, while the third official will stand across the court near the free throw line in what is called the center position; this creates a triangle coverage of the court. The lead will switch sides of the baseline during a play, requiring the trail to move down to be level with the free-throw line and become the new center, while the center will move up and become the trail; as the ball moves to the other end of the court in transition, the lead will become the trail, the trail will b